The Great Contribution of Muslims to the Modern World
Muslims have made immense contributions to almost all branches of the sciences. Islam gave the world everything .After Islam, the world benefited in all ways which we are all thinking as the contribution from Europe. Whatever the historical books used by the Western world is all lies. All technology and scientific discoveries came from Muslims. All the modern technology which is found today is because of the works of Muslim scientists and scholars who lived few centuries back.
Apart from religious knowledge, scholars of that day excelled in many other areas like astronomy, mathematics, medicine and geography. Muslims were expert in many fields. For example Al-Kindi was a philosopher, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, physician, geographer and even an expert in music. It is surprising that he made original contributions to all of these fields. On account of his work he became known as the philosopher of the Arabs. Baghdad was once the centre and capital of the Islamic world. It was filled with mathematician, astronomers, scientists and many scholars. There were many Scientists. Just to name some of them:
1) Ibn an Nafis
2) Thabit ibn Qurra
3) Ibn Sina
5) Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi
6) Muhammad Zakariya ar-Razi
7) Ali Kushji
Islam and Mathematics
Mathematics was given to the world by Muslims. When Europe was sleeping, Muslims had calculated the distance between the Earth and Moon.
Musa al-Khwarizmi (780--850 A.D.) a native of Khwarizm, who lived in the reign of Mamun-ar-Rashid, was one of the greatest Mathematicians of all times.
He composed the oldest Islamic works on arithmetic and algebra which were the principal source of knowledge on the subject for a fairly long time. George Sarton pays glowing tribute to this outstanding Muslim mathematician and considers him "one of the greatest scientists of his race and the greatest of his time".'
There were many other Mathematicians like Al-Nasavi, Al-Karkhi, Abu Zakariya Muhammad Al-Hissar and Nasir-ud-din Toosi.
Islam and Medicine
Within a century after the death of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) the Muslims not only conquered new lands, but also became scientific innovators with originality and productivity.
Medicine, as it stands today, did not develop overnight. Major works in medical history were contributed to the world by famous Muslims Ibn Sina, ibn Maimon, Ibn Rushd, Al –Razi, ibn Nafis and many more. The names of theses great doctors were later Latinized and their works were translated into many European language. Today in Europe, they are still learning from the original works of Avicenna, ibn Sina.
Ibn Sina—Doctors of Doctors!
About 100 treatises were ascribed to Ibn Sina. Some of them are tracts of a few pages, others are works extending through several volumes. The best-known amongst them, and that to which Ibn Sina owed his European reputation, is his 14-volume The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text in Western Europe for seven centuries.
Ibn Sina is rarely remembered in the West today and his fundamental contributions to Medicine and the European reawakening goes largely unrecognized. However, in the museum at Bukhara, there are displays showing many of his writings, surgical instruments from the period and paintings of patients undergoing treatment. An impressive monument to the life and works of the man who became known as the 'doctor of doctors' still stands outside Bukhara museum and his portrait hangs in the Hall of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris.
Hospitals as we know them now probably were not present at Europe. Muslims first introduced the concepts of Hospital. The Caliphs of the Islamic empire built magnificent hospitals. In Islam there was generally a moral imperative to treat all the ill regardless of their financial status. The hospitals were largely secular institutions, many of them open to all, male and female, civilian and military, adult and child, rich and poor, Muslims and non-Muslims. They tended to be large, urban structures.
The biggest hospital-of the world of Islam which was equipped with all available medical facilities was built by Azud-al-Daulah in 368 A.H. in Baghdad. This hospital which, with its spacious buildings, up-to date medical instruments, excellent arrangements and efficient administration could rank with the best hospitals built until the middle of the 19th century was in reality a Medical University.
Founder of Surgery
It is clear from El Zahrawi's life history and from his writings that he devoted his entire life and genius to the advancement of medicine as a whole and surgery in particular. El Zahrawi wrote a medical encyclopedia spanning 30 volumes which included sections on surgery, medicine, orthopedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition etc. This book was known as At-Tasrif and contained data that El Zahrawi had accumulated during a career that spanned almost 50 years of training, teaching and practice.
Ibn Rushd wrote a treatise on the motion of the sphere, Kitab fi-Harakat al-Falak. He also summarized Almagest and divided it into two parts: description of the spheres, and movement of the spheres. This summary of the Almagest was translated from Arabic into Hebrew by Jacob Anatoli in 1231.
The great Arab chemist Jabir Ibn- Hayan discovered sulphuric and nitric acids. According to Webster Dictionary, the words sugar, alcohol, alkali, syrup, coffee, cotton, all are Arabic words
Jabir Ibn Haiyan, the alchemist Geber of the Middle Ages, is generally known as the father of chemistry. Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, sometimes called al-Harrani and al-Sufi, Jabir's major contribution was in the field of chemistry. He introduced experimental investigation into alchemy, which rapidly changed its character into modern chemistry
Today's Modern Aeroplane—Who was the founder?
Do you think Wright brother found aeroplane? No! In 888AD, a great Muslim named Ibn Fernaz first made the aircraft.
Ibn Firnas is credited with making glass from stones. He had constructed his home as a sort of planetarium where one could see stars, clouds and even lightning. According to Hitti 'Ibn Firnas was the first man in Arab history to make a scientific attempt at flight. His flying equipment consisted of a suit of feathers with wings, which, we are told carried him a long distance, in the air. When he alighted, however, he hurt himself because his suit was not provided with a tail.
Some centuries later, another Muslim called Jawhari and Hadhari Ahmad Shalabi developed it. Europe later stole this knowledge from Muslims. Europe can't bear to see Muslims were advanced in technology. They killed Hadhari Ahmad and later took the idea from Muslim to make aircrafts.
The idea of the college was a concept which was borrowed from Muslims. The first colleges appeared in the Muslim world in the late 600's and early 700's. In Europe, some of the earliest colleges are those under the University of Paris and Oxford they were founded around the thirteenth century. These early European colleges were also funded by trusts similar to the Islamic ones and legal historians have traced them back to the Islamic system. The internal organization of these European colleges was strikingly similar to the Islamic ones, for example the idea of Graduate (Sahib) and undergraduate (mutafaqqih) is derived directly from Islamic terms.