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Documentation of the Hadith by the Holy Imams (A.S.)

By: Sayyid Ali Al-Shahristani

Imam Muhammad Ibn `Alī Al-Jawād
Imam Muhammad al-Jawād continued to take an interest in the recordation of the religious knowledge and to preserve the books and records in this field through exerting all possible efforts in amending and keeping them in safety. For his having been too young, the rulers held many sessions of debate in order to confute or belittle Imam al-Jawād, but all their attempts failed. Moreover, the scholars and jurisprudents, as well as the publics, who attended these sessions were astonished by the unmatched scientific capacities of him. In addition to his interest in the Muslim jurisprudence and the recordation of the religious knowledge, Imam al-Jawād was known of his having paid much attention to the doctrinal questions owing to the circumstances by which he passed. Not only were the Imam’s efforts dedicated to the sessions of debate and arguments but also he continued the march of recordation and documentation of the Islamic heritage. He therefore had full acquaintance with the Book of Imam `Alī and the reports from Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir and Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq.
In this respect, it has been narrated that Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Abī-Khālid asked Imam al-Jawād, “May Allah accept me as ransom for you! Our master scholars have reported from Abū-Ja`far (Imam al-Bāqir) and Abū-`Abdullāh (Imam al-Sādiq) when it was very recommended to practice Taqiyyah; therefore, they concealed their books and no longer were they narrated. When these scholars passed away, their books have become in our hands. Are the contents of these books authentic that we permitted to spread them?”
The Imam answered, “You all should spread the knowledge of these books, for they are the truth.”[1191]
This narration demonstrates the intellectual persecution, especially in the field of the recordation of the religious knowledge, that was practiced by the Umayyad and `Abbāsid rulers to the degree that one of the intimate disciples of Imam al-Jawād doubted, or wanted to be sure, whether the contents of these narrations had been authentic or not. Of course, such doubt was the natural result of the intellectual and doctrinal persecution that were practiced against the Muslims. In such situations did the actual role of the Imam manifest itself. The Imam is in fact the most accurate criterion of discriminating the authentic from the dubious as regards the recorded and reported heritage of Islam. Most probably, the Imam had already seen such narrations in the Book of `Alī as well as the books of his forefathers; he therefore said to the asker, “You all should spread the knowledge of these books, for they are the truth.” Although the asker was single, the Imam answered using the form of plural. This indicates that this misfortune was encountered by all the disciples of the Imam and that the majority of the recorded and reported narrations were not yet documented as a result of political suppression, persecution, and terrorism.
As he had known for sure the recordations of his father in form and content, the Imam wept when he put the handwriting on his eyes and swore its having been his father’s in order to refute any probability that the book might have been distorted or falsely ascribed to Imam al-Ridā. It has been narrated that Ibrāhīm ibn Abū-Mahmūd said that he once visited Abū-Ja`far (Imam al-Jawād) carrying some of his father’s books. The Imam took them, read them, and then moved the book closer to his eyes, saying, “This is my father’s handwriting. I swear it by Allah.” He then wept heavily that his tears flew on his cheeks.[1192]
Al-Arbaliy, in Kashf al-Ghummah, has also narrated on the authority of Imam Muhammad al-Jawād that it is written in the Book of `Alī that son of Adam is similar to a scales; he is either preponderant due to knowledge (or reason) or low-grade due to ignorance.[1193]
The Imam also confirmed the significance of recording the religious knowledge since it is more influential than reporting and even more authentic in the view of the receiver of the narration, especially when some of the readers of these records had known the handwriting of the Imam. In this connection, it has been narrated that `Abd al-`Azīz ibn al-Muhtadiy asked Imam al-Jawād about the manner of Yūnus ibn `Abd al-Rahmān. In a written form, Imam al-Jawād answered, “I love him and ask Almighty Allah to have mercy upon him although he disagreed with the people of your town.”[1194]
The Imam wrote a number of epistles and missives to his disciples. It has been narrated that Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Īsā said that Abū-Ja`far (Imam al-Jawād) sent him a missive with his slave in which he asked him to pay him a visit... Give him this missive of mine and order him to send me the money... etc.[1195]
It has been also narrated that al-Hasan ibn Sham`ūn said that he read the following missive written by Imam al-Jawād personally to `Alī ibn Mahziyār: “In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful; O `Alī! May Allah reward you excellently... etc.”[1196]
The Imam sent another missive to `Alī ibn Mahziyār who was in Baghdad[1197] and a third one while the latter was in al-Madīnah.[1198]He is also reported to have said that he sent a missive to Imam al-Jawād asking him what to do with a thing that belonged to him, and the Imam answered... etc.[1199] It has been also narrated that Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hammād al-Marūziy said that Imam Muhammad al-Jawād wrote a missive to his father... etc.[1200] In a long narration, it has been narrated that `Abd al-Jabbār al-Nahāwandiy saw a missive sent from Muhammad ibn `Alī al-Hāshimiy (i.e. Imam al-Jawād) to `Abdullāh ibn al-Mubārak... etc.[1201]
Shaykh `Azīzullāh al-`Ātāridiy has compiled the narrations of Imam Muhammad al-Jawād in a book entitled Musnad al-Imām al-Jawād.

Imam `Alī Ibn Muhammad Al-Hādī
Like his holy forefathers, Imam `Alī al-Hādī kept the Book of Imam `Alī from which he reported the traditions and blessed Sunnah of the Holy Prophet. Out of his incomparable interest in the Book of `Alī, Imam `Alī al-Hādī reported from that book while he was bed-ridden due to the poison that was put to him.
It has been narrated that Abū-Du`āmah said: I visited `Alī ibn Muhammad ibn `Alī ibn Mūsā in his final ailment because of which he departed life. When I was about to leave, he said to me, “Abū-Du`āmah! It is now incumbent upon us to honor you. May I inform you of a narration that will please you?”
“I am terribly needful for such a narration, son of Allah’s Messenger!” I said. He said,
“My father Muhammad ibn `Alī (Imam al-Jawād) reported to me from his father `Alī ibn Mūsā (Imam al-Ridā) that his father Mūsā ibn Ja`far (Imam al-Kādhim) reported to him from his father Ja`far ibn Muhammad (Imam al-Sādiq) that he reported from his father Muhammad ibn `Alī (Imam al-Bāqir) that his father `Alī ibn al-Husayn (Imam Zayn al-`Ābidīn) reported to him from his father (Imam) al-Husayn ibn `Alī that his father (Imam) `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib reported to him that the Messenger of Allah asked him to write down. ‘What should I write down,’ asked `Alī. The Holy Prophet answered, ‘Write down: In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful; Real faith is that which is confirmed by hearts and substantiated by deeds. Islam is that which is said by tongues and by which marriage is deemed lawful.”
(Abū-Du`āmah added) I then said, “Son of Allah’s Messenger! I cannot tell whether the contents of the Hadīth or its series of narrators are the best!”
Imam al-Hādī answered,
“This is taken from a Sahīfah that is handwritten by `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib and dictated by the Messenger of Allah. We are inheriting this Sahīfah from one another.”[1202]
This narration reveals that all or the majority of the narrations said by the Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt are quoted from the Book of Imam `Alī even if they would not declare so in each and every saying; rather they declared it in general. Unfortunately, some ignorant people had not realized this fact; they therefore accused Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq of having been ‘bookish’ since they could not understand that he depended upon the books that comprised the dictations of the Holy Prophet and were handwritten by Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib.
In order that the Hadīths would reach the next generations as purely and authentically as possible, Imam `Alī al-Hādī continued the process of the documentation of the narrations and records that are reported from his father and forefathers.
It has been narrated that Muhammad ibn `Īsā said: Dāwūd ibn Farqad al-Fārisiy read to me his missive to Abu’l-Hasan III (i.e. Imam `Alī al-Hādī) who answered that missive with his own handwriting. In this missive, Dāwūd had asked him, “We would like to ask you about the knowledge that is reported to us from your father and forefathers; controversy occurred to such narrations and we do not know what to do about it. Should we refer such contradictory items to you?”
Answering him, Imam `Alī al-Hādī wrote down,
“As regards the items that you are sure of their being authentically ascribed to us, you must adhere to them. But as for the items about which you are not sure, you must refer them to us.”[1203]
In the abovementioned narration, the Imam made incumbent on his disciples to refer the dubious and ambiguous narrations, as well as those whose ascription to the Holy Imams is suspected, to the Holy Imams in order to document the authentic and reject the forged and the erroneous.
Some of his disciples have narrated that Imam `Alī al-Hādī wrote down a book on the exegesis (Tafsīr) of the Holy Qur'ān entitled al-Amāliy fī Tafsīr al-Qur'ān. This book has been frequently reprinted although some scholars have doubted its having been written by Imam `Alī al-Hādī.
Sayyid al-Amīn has also mentioned that Imam `Alī al-Hādī wrote another book about the laws of the religion (Ahkām al-Dīn) refuting the spurious arguments of the Fatalists (Ahl al-Jabr) and the Indeterminists (Ahl al-Tafwīd).[1204]
Copies of this book were kept by Abū-Tāhir,[1205] `Īsā ibn Ahmad ibn `Īsā,[1206] `Alī ibn al-Rayyān,[1207] and `Alī ibn Ja`far al-Hamāniy.[1208]
Shaykh `Azīzullāh al-`Ātāridiy has compiled the Hadīths reported from Imam `Alī al-Hādī in a book entitled Musnad al-Imām al-Hādī.

Imam Al-Hasan Ibn `Alī Al-`Askariy
Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy dedicated his efforts to two chief tasks; he first exerted all efforts in informing his intimate disciples everything related to his son, Muhammad al-Mahdi, as being the next Imam. Secondly, he concerned himself with the matter of the recordation and the documentation of the records comprising the religious knowledge through comparing them to the contents of the Book of Imam `Alī as well as the heritage that he had received from his father and forefathers. In this discussion, we will deal exclusively with the second task for it is related to the main topic of this book.
It has been narrated on the authority of Sa`d ibn `Abdullāh al-Ash`ariy that Ahmad ibn `Abdullāh ibn Khānibah showed a book to our master Abū-Muhammad al-Hasan ibn `Alī ibn Muhammad (al-`Askariy) who, having read that book, declared its authenticity and ordered to act upon it.[1209] After it had been confirmed by Imam al-`Askariy, the book became a reference for the seekers of the genuine knowledge and the authenticated narration. They therefore investigated the narrations that they had taken from other sources to this book.
It has been narrated that al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Wajnā’ Abū-Muhammad al-Nusaybiy said that when they wrote a missive to Imam al-`Askariy asking him to write down or supply them with a book upon which they would act, the Imam gave them such a book. Al-Safwāniy said that he copied it and compared it to the book of Ahmad ibn `Abdullāh ibn Khānibah and found out that they were almost the same with a little difference in a few number of letters.[1210]
Apparently, Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy gave them a book that comprised the major and most important religious questions. This fact demonstrates the Imam’s great attention to the recordation of the religious knowledge. Although he was among them, the Imam realized the significance, comprehensiveness, and common benefit of the recorded knowledge; he therefore wrote a book for his disciples.
Like their master, the disciples of Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy took a great interest in the recordation and the documentation of the recorded knowledge; therefore, al-Safwāniy, according to the aforesaid narration, copied the book of Imam al-`Askariy and then compared it to the book of Ahmad ibn `Abdullāh ibn Khānibah, which had been already documented by the Imam. As a conclusion, the process of documenting the reported and recorded narrations was very important in the view of the Ahl al-Bayt who also conveyed it to their disciples and taught them to preserve such records.
When they asked him what they should do about the books of the sons of Faddāl that were filling their houses, Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy answered, “You should accept their narrations and neglect their opinions.”[1211]
Sons of Faddāl had been Shi`ītes and had recorded the Hadīths of the Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt before they deviated doctrinally and adopted erroneous concepts about Imamate. Accordingly, the people doubted the narrations that they had recorded although their houses were full of such records. This is an indication to the fact that the followers of the Ahl al-Bayt took a great interest in and benefited from the records that comprised the religious knowledge in the same way as they used to investigate the authenticity of the contents of such records. The Imam thus answered that the reports of the sons of Faddāl had been authentic and they therefore should be adopted, but their opinions and concepts that violated the genuine beliefs of the true course of the Ahl al-Bayt should be neglected.
It has been narrated that Dāwūd ibn al-Qāsim al-Ja`fary showed the book of Yawm(un) wa-Laylah to Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy who asked, “Who compiled this book?”
“Yūnus, the slave of the Yaqtīn did,” I answered.
The Imam commented, “May Allah confer upon him, on the Resurrection Day, with illumination for each letter that he had written.”[1212]
Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy is reported to have written down a book on the exegesis of the Holy Qur'ān. This book has been many times reprinted under the title of Tafsīr al-Imām al-`Askariy.
It has been reported that some books reported to have been written by Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy were kept by Ibn Mu`ādh al-Huwaymiy,[1213] Abū-Tāhir al-Rāziy—grandfather of Abū-Ghālib—, Muhammad ibn al-Rayyān ibn al-Salt, and Muhammad ibn `Īsā al-Qummiy. These books comprised many questions which were reported by these disciples.[1214]
It has been also reported that when his disciples sent messages asking about questions in the religious laws and doctrines, Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy used to answer all these questions. Historians have mentioned the names of some of those who exchanged letters with the Imam, such as Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Saffār,[1215] `Abdullāh ibn Ja`far,[1216] Ibrāhīm ibn Mahziyār,[1217] `Alī ibn Muhammad al-Husayniy,[1218] Muhammad ibn al-Rayyān,[1219] al-Rayyān ibn al-Salt,[1220] `Alī ibn Bilāl,[1221] Hamzah ibn Muhammad,[1222] and Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Jabbār.[1223]

Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Mahdi
Imam al-Mahdi inherited the knowledge of his forefathers including the Book of Imam `Alī and the others that they had kept. Before that, the Holy Imams had stated that the Book of Imam `Alī, the Mushaf of Fātimah, and the others books that were written during the age of the Holy Prophet would be found with Muhammad al-Mahdi, the last Imam, and that he would not issue any judgment unless it would be corresponding to the contents of these books.
In this connection, it has been narrated on the authority of Hamrān ibn A`yun that Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir (Abū-Ja`far) pointed at a big house and said,
“O Hamrān! In this house there is a Sahīfah of seventy cubit length. It was handwritten by (Imam) `Alī with the dictations of the Messenger of Allah. If we rule over the people, we would judge between them according to what Almighty Allah has revealed and thus we would never exceed the contents of this Sahīfah.”[1224]
The Holy Imams had also stated that the Book and the Sahīfah of Imam `Alī would be kept by them forever and they would never be exposed to obliteration; rather they (i.e. the Holy Imams) would inherit them from one another.
As has been previously cited, Abū-Basīr is reported to have said that Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir showed him a Sahīfah comprising all that which is deemed lawful and unlawful as well as the laws of inheritance.
“What is this?” asked Abū-Basīr.
The Imam answered, “This Sahīfah comprises the dictations of the Messenger of Allah with the handwriting of (Imam) `Alī.”
“Will this Sahīfah be exposed to extinction?” asked Abū-Basīr.
Imam al-Bāqir answered, “What is the thing that will cause it to be extinct?”
“Will it be exposed to obliteration?” asked Abū-Basīr.
Imam al-Bāqir answered, “What is the thing that will cause it to be obliterated?”[1225]
In the famous narration about his meeting with Imam al-Mahdi in Sāmarrā' (a city northern Baghdad, Iraq), al-Hasan ibn Wajnā’ an-Nusaybiy said that the Imam gave him a book comprising the Du`ā' al-Faraj (Supplication of asking Almighty Allah for hastening His relief to Imam al-Mahdi by permitting him to reappear in this world) and a statement about the way of sending blessings to him (i.e. Imam al-Mahdi). The Imam then taught him to say these supplications whenever he wanted to pray to Almighty Allah to send His blessings to the Imam. He also asked him not to give this book except to the intimate disciples... etc.[1226]
It has been also narrated that Imam al-Mahdi once asked one the disciples of his father and him to show him a ring that had been given to him by Imam al-Hasan al-`Askariy (Imam al-Mahdi’s father). When the man showed him the ring, the Imam wept and kissed it. He then began to read the inscription on that ring, which reads, ‘Yā-Allāh, Yā-Muhammad, Yā-`Alī.’ He then said to the ring, “Sacrificed be the hand in which you were placed for long time.”[1227]
Because he disappeared from visions for about seventy years, Imam al-Mahdi could not spread the religious laws and encourage the recordation of the religious knowledge openly; rather he was exchanging letters with his intimate disciples who used to ask him about the major religious questions and he thus answered by sending them messages containing his signature so that they would not be distorted or counterfeited. Accordingly, these messages have been called al-Tawqī`āt (The Signatures). In the past as well as in the current time, many scholars have compiled these al-Tawqī`āt in books. Abu’l-`Abbās al-Himyariy, one of Imam al-Mahdi’s disciples who died in AH 299, was the first to compile these al-Tawqī`āt in a book. Recently, a book comprising the majority of Imam al-Mahdi’s messages and written instructions has been compiled by Shaykh Muhammad al-Gharawiy under the title of al-Mukhtār min Kalimāt al-Imām al-Mahdi (Selected Words of Imam al-Mahdi). This book has been recently published.
From the aforecited discussion, we can conclude that the Holy Imams’ continuity in the field of the recordation of the religious heritage began with Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib’s writings and then continued throughout the generations up to the age of Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi. After that, the disciples of the Holy Imams and the scholars have compiled these records.
Distinctive concentration and confirmation was given to the question of the documentation of the records of the religious knowledge after the Imamate of Imam Mūsā al-Kādhim. However, the process of the documentation was originally very old since the Holy Imams confirmed and practiced it and documented all the texts that their disciples used to show to them. At any rate, during the age of Imam `Alī ibn Mūsā al-Ridā and afterward, the process of documenting the religious records noticeably increased.
As we are coming to the conclusion of this part of our thesis, it is important to attract attentions to a significant factor that stood behind the slow down of the recordations and records for the followers of the School of Ijtihād and Opinionism. Some of those who surrounded the Holy Prophet used to treat with him as if he had been an ordinary person, without making any difference between any other person and him. They therefore called out to him from behind the private chambers;[1228] and annoyed him by sitting with him for very long times;[1229] and believed his having been an ordinary person that was exposed to errancy in the very same way as he might be correct; and believed that when he was enraged, he might say things that he would not say if he was pleased.[1230]
It has been narrated that `Abdullāh ibn `Amr ibn al-`Ās said: I used to write down each and every item that would be said by the Messenger of Allah so that I would memorize it, but the people of Quraysh warned me against such, saying, “Do you really write down each and every item that is said by the Messenger of Allah while his sayings are influenced by his manners; that is when he is enraged, he may say things that he does not say when he is pleased?” I therefore stopped writing down his sayings. When I mentioned this matter before him, the Messenger of Allah said to me,
“Write down (everything I say); for, I swear by Him Who grasps my soul, nothing comes out of my mouth except the truth.”[1231]
According to the abovementioned narration, it was the people of Quraysh who ordered `Abdullāh ibn `Amr ibn al-`Ās to stop writing down the Holy Prophet’s words, claiming that he might say untrue things when he would be angry!
The Holy Prophet is too great to pronounce any untrue word.
It has been also narrated on the authority of `Amr ibn Shu`ayb on the authority of his father that his grandfather, once, asked the Holy Prophet whether he might write down everything that he would hear from him.
“Yes, you may,” the Holy Prophet answered.
“In both manners of anger and pleasure?” asked the man.
“Yes, in both manners. Verily, I say nothing but the truth whatever my manner be,” answered the Holy Prophet.[1232]
This very idea was also common and prevalent, and even effective, during the ages of the Holy Imams. Accordingly, some people imagined that the Imam, being enraged, might report a matter or say something that he would not say it when he would be pleased. Unfortunately, such people believed that the Holy Imams were just like the other fuqahā, scholars, and Ijtihādists whose opinions are exposed to change according to the circumstances by which they pass or according to the proofs on which their eyes might fall in a certain period of their lifetimes.
The Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt always answered and said the same words of the Holy Prophet; as a result, none of the Muslim master scholars dared to say so save them, since they enjoyed the highest degree of self-confidence and they believed indisputably in the authenticity of their reports as regards the religious affairs and laws. They therefore ordered their disciples to write down these reports because they were conclusively true.
It has been narrated on the authority of Hamzah ibn `Abd al-Muttalib that `Abdullāh al-Ju`afiy said: I, once, visited Imam `Alī ibn Mūsā al-Ridā carrying with me a sheet of paper on which it was written, “It is reported that (Imam) Ja`far (al-Sādiq) said that this world has been represented for the Owner of this Matter (i.e. Imam al-Mahdī) like a half of a walnut that is split.” Imam al-Ridā commented, “O Hamzah! This is unquestionably true. Copy it to a sheet made of leather.”[1233]
Many uninterrupted narrations have been reported concerning the fact that the Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt say nothing but the truth and that they have never issued verdicts out of personal Ijtihād or given their own notions or opinions as regards a religious question. In this respect, it has been narrated on the authority of al-Fudayl ibn Yasār that Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir said,
“If we speak out of our own opinions, we will certainly miss the right way in the same way as those, who were before us, had missed the right way when they spoke out of their own opinions. Rather we speak depending upon a proof of our Lord that He has explained to His Prophet and His Prophet has explained it to us.”[1234]
Similarly, it has been narrated on the authority of Dāwūd ibn Abū-Yazīd al-Ahwal that Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq said,
“If we give religious verdicts out of our desires and personal opinions, we will certainly be of those who shall perish; rather we give people verdicts derived from the traditions of the Messenger of Allah and from principles that we have inherited from our great fathers. We have hoarded up these principles in the same way as those people have hoarded up their fortunes of gold and silver.”[1235]
It has been also narrated on the authority of Qutaybah that after Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq answered the questions of a man, the latter said, “What if the answer is such-and-such, what will you say about it?”
Imam al-Sādiq, reproachfully, answered, “Shut up! Any answer that I give to you must be taken from the Messenger of Allah. We are not of those who say ‘what if’ at all.”[1236]
Without doubt, such continuity in the recordation of the religious affairs and such ultimate confidence that all these records are the same as what have been said by the Messenger of Allah—such continuity and confidence cannot be found with any other Muslim School except the School of the Ahl al-Bayt that is the basis of the recordation of the religious knowledge and the foundation of the structure of the School of Thorough Compliance with the Sacred Texts. The matter is now too clear to be misunderstood; therefore, one may choose any narration that he/she likes.
Finally, it seems appropriate to quote the wording of Dr. Mustafā al-A`dhamiy about the Shī`ite Muslims:
“As for the Shī`ite Muslims the majority of whom belong to the Ithnā`ashariyyah (Twelvers) School in the recent times, they believe in the Holy Sunnah as a source of the religion. Rather, the difference between them and us lies in the method of proving the authenticity of the Sunnah itself.”[1237]
[1191] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 1:53 H. 15.
[1192] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 475.
[1193] Al-Arbaliy: Kashf al-Ghummah 2:346.
[1194] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 413.
[1195] Shaykh al-Mufīd: al-Ikhtisās 87; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 497.
[1196] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: al-Ghaybah 211.
[1197] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 460-461.
[1198] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 460-461.
[1199] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 427.
[1200] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 468.
[1201] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Rijāl al-Kishiy 476.
[1202] Al-Mas`ūdiy: Murūj al-Dhahab 4:85-86.
[1203] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 545.
[1204] Sayyid Muhsin al-Amīn: A`yān al-Shī`ah 1:380.
[1205] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 460 No. 1256.
[1206] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 297 No. 806.
[1207] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 278 No. 371.
[1208] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 280 No. 740.
[1209] Sayyid Ibn Tāwūs al-Hasaniy: Falāh al-Sā'il 183.
[1210] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 244.
[1211] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Kitāb al-Ghaybah 239-240.
[1212] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 447 No. 1208; Shaykh al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 2:150 H. 25.
[1213] Āghā Buzurg al-Tahrāniy: al-Dharī`ah 24:152 No. 777.
[1214] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 347 No. 937, pp. 370 No. 1009, and pp. 371 No. 1010.
[1215] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 3:499 and 508; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 7:150.
[1216] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 6:35, Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 3:488, 3:476; Al-Kharā'itiy: Makārim al-Akhlāq 263; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 5:447.
[1217] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 4:310; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 2:444.
[1218] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 4:310; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 2:445.
[1219] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 1:409.
[1220] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 4:139.
[1221] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 4:179.
[1222] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 4:181.
[1223] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 3:399; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: al-Istibsār 1:385, Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 2:207.
[1224] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 163. In addition, there are many narrations carrying the same meaning.
[1225] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 164.
[1226] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Kamāl al-Dīn wa-Tamām al-Ni`mah 444.
[1227] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Kamāl al-Dīn wa-Tamām al-Ni`mah 445.
[1228] This is an indication to the following verses of the Holy Qur'ān: “(As for) those who call out to you from behind the private chambers, surely most of them do not understand. And if they wait patiently until you come out to them, it would certainly be better for them, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 49/4-5”
[1229] This is an indication to the following verses of the Holy Qur'ān: “O you who believe! Do not enter the houses of the Prophet unless permission is given to you for a meal, not waiting for its cooking being finished-- but when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken the food, then disperse-- not seeking to listen to talk; surely this gives the Prophet trouble, but he forbears from you, and Allah does not forbear from the truth. 33/53”
[1230] Al-Haythamiy, in Majma` al-Zawā'id 1:178, writes down that the Holy Prophet said in an incident, “...I am no more than a human being just like you. When I convey to you things from Allah, you should believe me; but when I say to you things out of my own self, then I am a human being that may err or hit the target.” For the Shiite Muslims, the Holy Prophet, as well as the Holy Imams, are divinely guided all the time and are not exposed to errancy at all. (Translator)
[1231] Al-Hakīm al-Nīsāpūriy: al-Mustadrak `Alā’l-Sahīhayn 1:105-106; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 2:162. A similar narration is recorded by Ibn Abī-Jumhūr al-Ihsā'iy, in `Awāli al-La’āli 1:68 H. 120.
[1232] Ibn Abī-Jumhūr al-Ihsā'iy: `Awāli al-La’āli 1:68 H. 120.
[1233] Al-Borujerdiy: Jāmi` Ahādīth al-Shī`ah; 1:290 as quoted from Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār, in Basā'ir al-Darajāt. A similar narration is reported from Hamzah ibn `Abdullāh al-Ja`fairy who narrated it from Imam `Alī ibn Mūsā al-Ridā.
[1234] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār, in Basā'ir al-Darajāt 299 H. 2.
[1235] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār, in Basā'ir al-Darajāt 299 H. 3.
[1236] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 1:58 H. 21.
[1237] Dr. Mustafā al-A`dhamiy: Dirāsātun fi’l-Hadīth al-Nubawiy 25.

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