Historical Account of Fadak
1) On 7th Hijri, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had given this place as a gift to his beloved daughter Janabe Fatema (s.a.). She used to administer this place through her appointees.
2) Just ten days after the demise of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Fadak was snatched away from her. Inspite of providing proofs and witnesses, it was not returned to her. It was not considered as a parented heritage and property.
3) According to Sahih Bukhari the 2nd Caliph had returned it to the successors.
4) The 3rd Caliph took possession of it by force and gifted it to Marwan.
5) Mu'aviya in his time divided it into three parts.
6) Marwan, during the tenure of his Khilafat took all of it in his possession and gifted away to his sons Abdul Malik and Abdul Aziz. It remained in their possession till the time of Umar Bin Abdul Aziz.
7) Umar Bin Abdul Aziz, got his father's share as inheritance, he bought the share of Abdul Malik and returned it to the children of Fatema (s.a.).
8) Yazid Bin Malik, in his time, took it back from the children of Fatema (s.a.), and kept it in his possession.
9) The 1st Caliph of Bani Abbas, Sa'fah, considering Imam Hasan (a.s.) as a successor of Fatema (s.a.), gave Fadak to him.
10) Mansoor Dawaniqi, again usurped it.
11) Mahdi, the son of Mansoor returned it to the children of Hazrat Ali (a.s.).
12) Moosa, the son of Mahdi, again usurped it. Fadak that was given by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to Janabe Fatema Zahra (s.a.), was changing hands between the Caliphs of Bani Abbas, till the time of Ma'moun.
13) Ma'moun, had a religious discussion with a follower of Hazrat-Ali (a.s.) (Alawi), and reached to the decision that Fadak is the property of Janabe Fatema (s.a.). Hence he returned it to her children.
14) Mutwakkel Abbasi, usurped it and took it in his possession. He gifted it away to Abdulla Bin Umar Baaq. Abdulla Bin Umar Baaq, ordered Bushraan Bin Abi Umaryyi Taqzi to go and cut down all the trees. He went to Medina and cut all the trees. He even cut those eleven trees that were personally planted by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). When Bushraan returned from Medina to Basrah he was struck by paralysis and died subsequently.
If Fadak was not the property of Fatema Zahra (s.a.w.a.), then why the 2nd Caliph, Umar Bin Abdul Aziz, Sa'fah, Mahdi and Mamoon and other Umayyid Caliphs had returned it to Janabe Fatema (s.a.)?
If Fadak was the property of Fatema Zahra (s.a.w.a.) why the 3rd Caliph, Mu'aviya, Yazid Bin Abdul Malik, Mansoor Dawaniqi, Moosa Bin Mahdi and Mutewakkel added it in their property? And why they gifted it away to others? If Fadak, was the property of Government Treasury, every Muslim was having a right over it; why only a few favorites were considered for keeping it?
Why the 1st Caliph did not do justice by it? And he did not try to earn the pleasure of Janabe Fatema Zahra (s.a.), by giving it to her. This would have resulted in earning the pleasure of Allah as well as of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.).