THE HIJRAH OF THE HOLY PROPHET (SA) TO MADINAH
The Holy Prophet (SA) reached a cave in Mount Thawr near Makkah and hid there for three days. After three days, he left the cave and continued his journey until he reached Madinah where he was welcomed by the people of Madinah.
On the other side, the infidels of Makkah who had surrounded the house of the Holy Prophet (SA) at night, dashed inside at dawn, and went to his bed with their swords pulled out. They unexpectedly found 'Ali (AS) sleeping in the bed of the Holy Prophet (SA). As soon as they found out that the Holy Prophet (SA) had left Makkah, they began searching for him around Makkah, but after a thorough search they returned with a great disappointment.
The Holy Prophet (SA) stayed in Madinah where the people most willingly converted to Islam and wholeheartedly supported him. The city of Madinah turned into an Islamic city. Until then, this city was called "Yathrib", but after this occurrence, it assumed the name of "Madinat al-Rasul" (the City of Prophet) and became the first Islamic city. Of course, although munafiqin (hypocrites), the Arab minorities of Madinah who formed about one-third of the city's population, being scared of the majority, pretended to be Muslims.
The sun of Islam began shining in the clear sky of Madinah and began shedding its light. In the first place, the state of conflict which had existed for many years between the two main tribes of Aws and Khazraj turned into peace and compromise. The believers of Madinah encircled like butterflies around the candle of prophetic mission. Gradually, the tribes in the territory of Madinah embraced Islam and the divine precepts descended one after the other and were implemented. Everyday one of the roots of corruption and indecent behaviour was eradicated and replaced by piety and justice. Gradually, the followers of Islam, who had remained in Makkah after the Holy Prophet's (SA) Hijrah and were under the harassment and severe torture by the unbelievers, left their homes and fled to Madinah where they were received with warm hospitality by their religious brethren.
Muslims who had remained in Makkah gradually migrated and gathered in Madinah. These people were called muhajirin (immigrants) and the believers in the city of Madinah were called "Ansar"(helpers).
There were many tribes of Jews in Madinah, its suburbs, Khaybar, and Fadak whose information and scholars constantly notified the Arabs of Madinah of the good tidings of the Holy Prophet's (SA) mission. But when these tribes were invited to Islam after the Hijrah, they did not accept this invitation and turned away from Islam. Finally, a non-aggression treaty was signed between the Jews and Muslims with specific terms.
The rapid advancement of Islam seriously annoyed the unbelievers of Makkah and increased their wrath and animosity towards the Holy Prophet (SA) and the followers of Islam. They were after a pretext to disrupt the unity of the followers of Islam. On the other hand, the followers of Islam, too, especially the Muhajirin of Makkah who were quite unhappy with the unbelievers, expected a divine permission to punish the cruel unbelievers for their evil deeds and to liberate their women, innocent children, and helpless old people living under persecution and torture in Makkah.