Fadak throughout History
How Fadak was returned to the Prophets descendents
The historical journey of Fadak is one of the mysteries of Islamic history. Each of the caliphs had a positionregarding it. One would take it and the other gave it back, arid this situation continued to the point where this land was laid waste and was ruined. In order to discover the ebbs and summits that occurred in this flourishing village we have only to study the sections listed below:
1. Just as we know, Fadak, in tile beginning after the fall of Khaibar was transferred to the prophet (S) by way of compromise by tile Jews. By command of the verse: Its complete ownership becoming that of the prophet (S) and by order of this verse it became his right.
2. According to reliable historical records. During his lifetime, by command of the Quranic verse; «æÂÊÐÇÇáÞÑÈìÍÞå» the Holy Prophet (S) gave it to Fatimah Zahra (s.a.) In this way it came under the authority of the respectable daughter of the Prophet (s.a.w).
3. During the rule of the first caliph, this village was usurped and came under the control at the ruling government, arid they showed strange stubbornness in the preservation of this situation.
4. This situation continued as such until the time of “Omar Bin Abdul Aziz” the Umayya caliph, who had a more moderate stance in relation to the family of the Prophet (S). He wrote to his governor in Medina «æ ÂÊ ÐÇ ÇáÞÑÈì ÍÞå» telling him to return Fadak to the children of Fatimah (s.a.).
The governor of Medina wrote to him in reply: “The children of Fatimah are numerous and have married into many different tribes. Which group should Ireturn it to”.
Omar bin Abdul Aziz became enraged and wrote a harsh letter with these contents to the governor of Medina in reply: “Every time I order you in a letter to sacrifice a sheep, will you immediately write in reply, should it be horned or without horns? And if I should write sacrifice a cow, will you ask what color should it be? As soon as this letter reaches you, immediately divide Fadak among the children (offspring) of Fatimah (s.a.)!”
In this way, with one great rotation, after many long years, Fadak was returned to the hands of Fatimah’s offspring.
5. It wasn’t long before the Umayya caliph “Yazid bin Abdul Malik” once again usurped it.
6. Eventually, Bani Umayya was over thrown and bin Abbas came into power. The famous Abbasid caliph Abu Al Abbas AsSaffah «ÃÈæÇáÚÈÇÓÇáÓÝÇÍ» returned it to “Abdullah bin Hasan bin Ali (a.s.)” as a representative of Bani Fatimah (s.a.).
7. Barely no time had passed when “Abu Jaffar Abbasi” took it from the family of Hasan (a.s.). (because they had revolted against Bani Abbas)
8. “Mahdi Abbasi” the son of “Abu Jaffar” returned it to the offspring of Fatimah (s.a.).
9. “Musa Al-Hady” another Abbasid caliph once again usurped it, and “Harun Al-Rashid” continued in this.
10. Ma’mun, in order to make a show of great affection for the Prophets descendents and the children of Ali (a.s.) and Fatimah (s.a.), returned it to the offspring of Fatimah with much pomp and circumstance.
It has been recorded in History that Ma’mun wrote as such to his governor in Medina Qatham Bin Jaffar «ÞËãÈäÌÚÝÑ».
“The messenger of God (S.) granted “Fadak” to his daughter “Fatimah” (s.a.) and this was a well know openmatter among the Prophets family. After that Fatimah was its consistent claimant and her word is more worthy than any ones of confirmation and acceptance, and I see it fit that it be given to the representative of that at Hazrat (s.a.). Return it to Muhammad ben Yahya and Muhammad bin Abdullah (the grand-children or Imam Zain Al-Abedeen) so that they may distribute it among her descendents.”
“Ibn Abi Al-hadid” says: Ma’mun was sitting in attendance to the people’s complaints. The first complaint, which came to him and was regarded by him, dealt with Fadak. As soon as he read the complaint he began to cry and said to one of his officers, “call and see where Fatimah’s (a.s.) lawyer is”. An old man came forward and spoke for a long while with Ma’mun. Ma’mun gave an order. A decree was written and Fadak was handed over to him as a representative of the Prophets Family (a.s.).
When Ma’mun signed this decree De’bel rose and recited a poem of which the first verse is as follows:
English Interpretation: The face of time took on a smile Because Ma’mun returned Fadak to Bani Hashim.
The author of the book “Fadak” writes that on authorityof the single tradition of Abu Said Khidri which says: “The Prophet (S) granted Fadak to Fatimah.” Ma’mungave orders that Fadak be returned to Fatimah’s ( s.a.) offspring.
11. But Motawakkil Abbasi because of his intense hatred of the Prophet’s family once again usurped Fadak from them.
12. The son of Motawakkil Mansour, ordered that it be once again returned to the children of Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Husayn (a.s.).
Evidently, a village that rotates as such from hand to hand, everyday being the plaything in the hands of spiteful politicians will quickly be laid waste. Eventually this very fate encompassed Fadak and all of its inhabited places became ruined arid its trees withered and dried up.
However, at any rate, these quotations explain this reality that the caliphs were especially sensitive in relation to Fadak, and according to his political policies, each showed a special position and reaction regarding it.
This is all proof of what was said previously that the usurping of Fadak from Fatimah (s.a.) and her descendents had more of a political nature than an economic one. Its aim was to exclude them from the Islamic society and weaken their position. It was also a declaration of enmity towards the family of the Prophet (S). This was just as the return of Fadak to them, an act repeated several times in the length of Islamic history, was a “Political Maneuver” meant to be a show of sympathy and affection for the Prophet’s family (a.s.).
Fadak’s importance in Muslim public opinion was such that in some historical reports it is related; that in the time of “Motawakkel Abassi” before Fadak was taken from Bani Fatimah (s.a.) the dates of its produce were brought among the pilgrims at the time of Hajj and were bought by them at exorbitant prices as good luck gifts!
Translation by translator from the Farsi, ÇáÈáÇÐÑí¡ ÝÊæÍ ÇáÈáÏÇä Õ38 Albalrethy in Fotoohul Buldan pg.38
Ibn Abi Al-hadid, vol. 16 pg. 217
 “Fadak”, pg. 6
Ibn Abi Al-hadid, vol. 16 pg. 217