Arabia before the Advent of Islam
A desert of dry triangular land which is situated between the Red sea, River Euphrates, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean is well known by the name Arabia. This Island had its own history, centre of attraction of the total historians and filled the history pages of humanity. The most famous and praiseworthy cities of this holy land is Mecca and Medina. Its history began from the period of prophet Adam alaihis salam, hazrat Ibrahim and Ismail alaihum salam and the event of sacrifice also occurred on this land.
Taurat (Torah), Injeel (Bible), Quran and the books of the history are filled with the historical occurrences on this land. The geographical situation and the centralization of trade gave large extent of importance to Mecca.
In the period of the advent of last prophet hazrat Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi the condition of the Middle East was disturbed and unpleasant like other countries. The darkness of the ignorance and servility prevailed in humanity. The world of human beings was profoundly in need of a savior so that with his support their thoughts and ideology could get brightened and enliven again.
The crimes like plunder, theft, insecurity, nuisance corruption, pride, greed of honors, ignorance, devotion to one party, prejudice for others and intolerable crime in the tribes such as female genocide prevailed throughout that societies. There was no sign of security for the human lives, valuable possessions and the families. The retardation in material progress, lustful way of living was dominant everywhere and the entire environment was in great need of an effective and illuminating manifestation to enlighten the dark atmosphere. There was a great need to demolish the differences in the social classes, break up in the families and to transform them into loving hearts, brotherhood, full of affection and kindness.
The ignorance, darkness, extreme difference in the classes of the people, bad habits, indecent traditions, improper costumes were encircled in the societies of Iran, Rome, India, Egypt and western countries. The people were constantly engaged in wars, skirmishes and quarrels. They were high disputes and suspicions between the Christians, Jews, Popes, Abbots, Bishops and the monks. The city of Mecca became the centre of the individual and social hostilities.
In that confusion in order to abolish the centralization of Mecca in trade and religion Abraha attacked Mecca with his force of elephant riders. The same time by the command of God Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi was born. He was born an orphan and later sustained the pain of his motherís death. The light of his existence radiated in the east from the mountain passed on to Abu Talib and gradually enlightened the island of Arabia. With his divine teachings and trainings it developed the level of thinking of the people and extended the horizon of peopleís intelligence, wiping off their ungenerous and infamous habits, saving the mankind from the uncertainty and obscurity and becoming the greatest and true savior of humanity.
~* Abdul Muttalib *~
The family of Qureish was the most famous tribe in Mecca. The most popular personality in that family was Abdul Muttalib who was the curtain chamberlain of the Kaaba. The most well known and distinguished personage was Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf on whom the historical pages of Islamic Arabia were written particularly. He was the outstanding, intelligent and the most respectable with excellence in virtues among the people of Hijaz with meritorious status and extreme powers.
This dignified personality was of the noble status chamberlain and head of the attendants of the Kaaba. In that obscure and troublesome era he was teaching people the truth, virtues, right acts, peace and security. The age of Abdul Muttalib was between 80 to 95 years and he died in 578 of Christian era. His grave is mentioned in the graveyard of Hajun in the west of his forefather.
In the last eight years of his life the auspicious birth of the great savior of Humanity Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi occurred which was previously informed by the old Jew scholars to the mankind. Abdul Muttalib recognized from the traces of his grandchild Muhammad bin Abdullah that he was the same person who was promised to undertake the mission of the prophet hood. The king of Yaman Saif bin Zeeyazan also informed him about the prediction of the Christian and Jew scholars and reported him some of their points of the last messenger.
~* Abu Talib and Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi *~
The adoration of hazrat Abutalib and Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi for each other and the profound and warm attachment of Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi and Ali alaihis salam are filled in the radiant pages of the human societyís past events whose exampleís are very unusual in the history. Abu Talib whose name was Imran was one among the ten sons of Abdul Muttalib. He, and his brother Abdullah and Zubair were from one mother whose name was Fatima binte Omar bin Makhzumi. He was born 54 years before the prophetic mission of Islam and died at the age of 64 ,8 months and 14 days in the tenth year of the prophetic mission 3 days before the death of hazrat khadija alaihis salam. After the loss of Muhammad's sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi mother Abu Talib used to treat him with intense love, care, rendered sacrifices in the holy mission, and protected him immensely. His support towards his nephew indicated his intense believe and sincerity and at the time of his death in a sentence of Ethiopian language, he expressed his religion.
In the narration prophet of Islam hazrat Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi said: Abu Talib was like the people of the cave (Asíhab kahaf) who concealed their religion. Certainly the Exalted God had bestowed him double reward.
In the book of Usul Kafi it is written that all the prophetís assignments of prophecy «„«š« Ų š»ś which were in the case ’šŌśř Abu Talib was the bearer and protector of the case who emitted it to hazrat Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi.
Amirul momineen Ali alaihis salam said: I swear by the name of Almighty God that my father and my ancestors Abdul Muttalib, Hashim and Abd Manaf never committed idol worshipping but only worshipped the unique and One God.
Many of the narrators wrote about Abu Talib and examples of his belief and deeds. He used to adore hazrat Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi extremely, believed that he is the prophet of God so he served Islam, protected life of the last messenger wholeheartedly, never left him alone and always was attentive to him. In his last wish he told hazrat Ali alaihis salam: My son! Always be close to Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi, protect his cause, serve him dearly and never leave him alone.
Once AbuTalib was passing by Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi when he observed him praying namaz and the 4 years old Ali alaihis salam was also following behind him. He told his other son Jafar "You too like other feather of a bird go and stand beside Ali alaihis salam and perform the namaz". When Ali alaihis salam and Jafar made a row behind the messenger for the prayers Abu Talib got delighted. When they completed the namaz the last messenger hazrat Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi turned his face towards Jafar and said " O Jafar you had attached yourself to the wings of the cousin and the Mighty God will bestow you two wings by which you will fly high in the air of heaven". In Ethiopia Jafar was stimulant in the movement of Islam to a vast extent. Abu Talib used to praise the Christian king Najjashi in his poetry to high extent.
Abu Talib supported the last messenger from the age of 8 to the tenth year of his prophecy. He passed away in the tenth year of his prophecy. He was intensely devoted to the last prophet, never left him alone, and was never careless about him. The same way Muhammad sallallaho alaihe va ala alehi loved Ali alaihis salam dearly and kindly in many occasions favoring him to last extent and Ali alais salam too was like a shadow who never left him alone.
Those were the days when the tribe of Qureish used to impose hardships on prophet Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehi and his followers. One fine day Abu Talib found that his nephew was missing. No matter how much he searched for him through all his slaves and sons he could not find him so he assumed that the tribe of Qureish might have deceived him. He asked his sons and slaves to search for him in the direction they did not look for him. He told each one of his 20 slaves to sharpen their daggers, go to the Masjid e Haram and each slave sit beside a member of Qureish. He ordered them that if he comes out of the masjid without the prophet then they must kill the man of Qureish who they sat with.
Abu Talib went out to search for his nephew Muhammadsallalho alaihe va ala alehi and saw him near a rock engaged in worshipping. He hugged, kissed him and escorted him to Masjid e Haram.Seeing Abu Talib all the slaves at once displayed their daggers to Abu Talib Then he expressed his words in high raged voice: Since past 2 days no matter how much I searched for my nephew I could not find him so I had decided to kill those men of Qureish who had evil intentions towards Muhammadsallalho alaihe va ala alehi so that others learn a lesson of warning from it.
The chieftains of Qureish asked him: Really! Did you decide to take such an action? Abu Talib replied: I swear by the God of Kaaba! I was firm on my decision and he left the Masjid along with Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehi praising him.
Ibn Juzi wrote: When Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehiwas 8 years old Abdul Muttalib (the grandfather of prophet Muahmmad sallalho alaihe va ala alehi) appointed Abu Talib as the guardian of his grandson as he was breathing his last breathe. According to another narration, Muhammad bin saíad writes: Abdul Muttalib died at the age of 120 when Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehiwas 8 years old.
Ummil Aiman describes: At the time of his death Abdul Muttalib called his son Abu Talib and said: Whatever I will be telling you, practice upon it very efficiently. My grandson Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehiis an heavenly angel. I raised him with great affection and kindness. Always be extremely careful about him as you will be his patron. The same time Abu Talib raised up to support his nephew and his entire life he was extremely careful in his protection but nobody mentioned about his boundless love.
Ibn Saíad said: when Abu Talib went to the area of Zi Majaz, 6.24 km(1 farsakh) from Arfa with Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehi, he got highly thirsty and in his excessive yearn for water he said: O nephew, I am going to die with this thirst. Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehiwent forward towards the low lands and dug out some of the earth when the water began to gush up and he satiated his uncleís thirst.
Many of the infidels from Qureish gathered around AbuTalib and said: Your nephew reproaches our Gods and told us that our forefathers were been astray from the right path. If he doesnít stop insulting our Gods then we will fight a war against your nephew.
Abu Talib replied: I swear by the God of Mecca and Mina I will never submit him before you and always support him until my last breath. Abu Talib was father of four sons by the names Talib, Aqeeel, Jafar and Ali alaihis salam. All these brothers had the age gap of 10 years between them. He had two daughters one by the name Fakhta who was the wife of Abu Wahab Hibra Makhzumi and another daughter by the name Himana who was the wife of Sufyan bin Harat. Talib remained childless but Aqeel, jafar and Ali had childrenís.
Abu Talib passed away 3 years before Hijrat (migration to Madina) in the middle of Shaban when he was 87 years old. Prophet Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehigave last ablutions to him, performed his last ceremonies of burial and said: Abdul Muttalib and Abu Talib died with the word that "there is no God except Allah, and Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehiis his messenger" and they were from the nation of Ibrahim alahis salam.
After 35 days of death of Abu Talib, Hazrat Khadija wife of messenger of God passed away. Both of them were buried in Hejun but later their tomb and halls of audience (Bargah) was demolished by the Wahabis.
Jabir bin Abdullah narrated: People asked the messenger of God about Abu Talibís belief. He replied: O Jabir, God is aware of all the unknown things. When I reached the heights of Heaven in the beginning of the Arsh (the empyrean throne) of Meraj I visualized four rays of light. I enquired: O God, The Provider! To who does this rays of light belongs.
He was addressed: O Muhammad sallalho alaihe va ala alehi these rays of light belongs to Abdul Muttalib alaihis salam, Abdullah alaihis salam, Abu Talib alaihis salam and Talib alaihis salam. I asked: why they have been given such a status. He was replied: During those times pretending to be infidels but concealing their belief in One God and observing patience during hardships.
This incident happened when ABDUL Mutallib came out to provide water for the people of Mecca when he sighted in his dream that he was digging a well and water started gushing out from it. By the lapse of time the well of Zam Zam was filled with mud and sand and after the revelation from Almighty God Abdul Muttalib again dug out the Zam Zam . Early in the morning he began to dig it and in between the digging he discovered the deer of Gold, arms and ammunitions and the other treasures. He beget only one son so he vowed to God that if he bestowed him 10 sons he will sacrifice one of his son in the way of God as in that period burying the baby girls alive was very much prevalent in the society and the baby boys were extremely in demand.
The Omnipotent God accepted his plea and blessed him with 10 sons. Among them the most charming, handsome and fair was his last son whose name was Abdullah who he chose to sacrifice before God. All the people of the tribe prevented him and said: O Chamberlain of the house of God! Do you want to establish a trend of killing the baby son? Finally they decided to raffle down between Abdullah and the camel but the name of Abdullah drew in the raffle so they began to increase the number of the camels and continued to draw the raffle and the raffle was drawn on figure of 10 camels. That number of camels was so much excessive capital in that period that it could have made livelihood of a tribe. Abdullah was left alive and in that place 10 camels were sacrificed.
Abdullah was very attractive and most respectful so he sacrificed his 10 camels upon him delightfully. After that event he was married to Amina and later he had to leave for his business tour. While returning from Syria to Medina he got ill and passed away without seeing his son. When he died his wife was 4 months old pregnant which was a sultry grief and heavy burden on the shoulders of daughter in law. The women of Arab recited many elegies and for the period of time the atmosphere of Hijaz got mournful for Abdullah.
The prophet of God said: «š«»š «Š–»یÕیš
~* Amina the daughter of Wahab *~
Wahab bin abd Manaf belonged to the tribe of Qureish. His only daughter was most chaste, popular, good looking and kind among the women of Qureish. After returning from the place where the event of slaughtering of Abdullah alaihis salam took place his marriage was settled with Amina. She too like other women of Arab was very much enamored by the charm and fairness of Abdullah alaihis salam. They accepted wholeheartedly the matrimonial union with Abdullah alaihis salam and the Mighty God conveyed to the young virtues lady the duty of nurturing the great personality of the history. The sun and the moon were united in the blessed nuptial knot.
Amina alaihis salam the bright star was the most elegant, attractive, virtuous, excellent and pious lady of the tribe of Abd Manaf and Abdul Muttalib but unfortunately she passed away soon. After a short period of time of giving birth to a son Amina alaihis salam died bidding farewell to this mortal life.
The hardship of the separation from her husband broke her heart, killed her and she was buried with hearts full of sorrow and tears but her entire wishes got fulfilled and her name lived alive until the day of judgment.
The narrators write about the words stated by Amina that: when my son Muhammad sallallaho aleihi va ala alehi was born I sighted that both his hands were on the ground, he had prostrated himself before the God and raised his hands for prayers.
When Amina alihis salam went with Muhammad from Mecca to Madina with her maid slave Umme Aiman in the way Amina alaihis salam got ill and passed away. The pain and burden of the separation from his parents emotionally wounded Muhammad salallaho alaihi va ala alehi and he always used to miss his parents. After his mother passed away Umme Aiman was his nurse, maid and like a mother
By the birth of hazrat Muhammad salallaho alaihi va ala alehi a star arose on the horizon and dazzled the eyes of the wise men. His presence brought them abundance, luster of light which the people of that period where unable to presume bending their heads before him. His intimidate personality was such that they used to bow before him with great respects. Since his child hood he made his mother, maid and foster mother amazed who were helpless and not able to dominate over the heavenly beam of luster.
The infant and childhood period of Muhammadís salallaho alaihi va ala alehi expressed bright examples of his excellent virtues. His words, movements and statements were different from common declarations. People used to love, adore him and by this charisma he used to proceed in his mission. With a single glance of his sight and smile he used to impress the opposite person, and they used to get obedient and submit before him.