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Prostration
Q30: Sometimes I intend to pray and there are some white pieces of paper in my pocket. Is it permissible for me to perform prostration on them?
A: Yes, it is permissible for you to prostrate on them if they are ritually pure and made out of wood-pulp or similar material on which prostration is permissible. The same rule applies if they are made of cotton or linen. (FM, pp. 399-400)

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Q31: . . . prostration on cement?
A: Likewise, it is permissible for you to prostrate on it. (FM, p. 400)

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Q32: I listen to a tape recorder, radio or television emitting the voice of a reciter of the Qur'an, reciting a verse which demands prostration. Should I prostrate?
A: Certainly not. You are not obliged to prostrate yourself except when you hear it (the verse) from the reciter himself, not on his recorded tape. (FM, p. 400)

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Crescent (hilal)
Q33: If I attain personal confidence that the astronomical calculations on the birth of the crescent (hilal) announced by the experts are correct, can I, relying on my confidence, confirm the first of the month and fast, or for the Eid and break my fast?
A: Confidence in the birth of the crescent and its visibility is of no consequence; rather, the actual sighting has to be confirmed by yourself or someone else. Yes, it is enough to confirm the actual sighting in another city if it shares the horizon of your city, such that a sighting in that city would necessitate a sighting in your city, if there were no barriers such as clouds, dust, mountains, etc. (FM, p. 403)

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Traveller (musafir)
Q34: A student, worker or employee studies or works in an area situated at more than 22 km from his city. He goes daily to his workplace and returns to his city, and there is a possibility that this will continue for a year or more. What is the ruling in this case with respect to his prayers and fasts (siyam)?
A: He should offer complete (tamm) prayers and observe the fasts. (FM, pp. 400-401)

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Q35: What if he were to travel three or four times a week during the year, not because his job demands travelling, but for other purposes like sight-seeing and tourism or for treating a patient, visiting the shrines of the Imams (a.s.), etc. What is the ruling on his prayers?
A: He should perform complete prayers and observe the fasts, since, given his situation he is considered a frequent traveller according to convention ('urf). If he were to travel twice a week and stay five days in his hometown [then it is obligatory for him to offer both the short (qasr) and the complete (prayers); and, in the month of Ramadan, to combine observance of the fasts in it (Ramadan) and their qada after it]. (FM, p. 401)

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Q36: A mukallaf offers morning prayer in his city and then travels in a westerly direction. He arrives in a city in which the dawn has not yet appeared and then emerges. Or, he offers noon prayer in his city and then travels by air, arriving in a city where the sun has not begun to go down (noon), and only later begins its descent. Or, he offers the evening prayer in it (city), then travels to a city where the sun has not yet set, and then sets. Is he obliged to repeat the prayer in all these hypothetical situations?
A: There are two perspectives. It is a better precaution (to repeat the prayer), although apparently it is not (obligatory to repeat it). (MS, p. 464, Q81)

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Q37: What is the ruling for a person who travels after noon (zuhr) during the month of Ramadan while fasting?
A: [He should complete his fast] and there is no qada on him. (FM, p. 401)

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Q38: And if he travels before noon, having intended to do so and decided on the trip the night before?
A: [There is no fasting for him on this day]. He will break his fast after reaching the hadd al-tarakhkhus and he is obligated to offer its qada after that. (FM, p. 401)

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Q39: What if he travels before noon but did not intend to travel and had not decided on it the night before?
A: The same ruling applies as in the previous case (Q38). (FM, pp. 401-2)

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Q40: A traveler in the month of Ramadan returns to his hometown or place of residence after noon. Is it obligatory for him to abstain (from things that render a fast void) in the remaining part of the day?
A: It is not obligatory for him although it is more appropriate to abstain for the rest of the day. (FM, p. 402)

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Q41: What if he returns before noon and has broken (the fast) on his trip?
A: The ruling is as previously mentioned (Q40). (FM, p. 402)

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Q42: What if he returns to his hometown or place of residence and arrives before noon without breaking the fast on his trip?
A: It is obligatory for him to make the intention to fast and abstain from things that render a fast void for the remaining part of that day. In that case, there is no qada on him. (FM, p. 402)

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Q43: What about one whose duty it is to fast while travelling. After dawn has appeared in his city, he travels by air with the intention to fast. He arrives in another city where the dawn has not yet emerged. Is he permitted to eat, drink, etc.?
A: Apparently, it is permissible. (MS, p. 466, Q85)

* * *

Q44: What about one who travels from his city in the month of Ramadan after noon and arrives in a city where the sun has not begun its descent. Is it obligatory for him to abstain (from things that break the fast) and complete his fast?
A: That is a better precaution. (MS, p. 466, Q86)

* * *

Q45: If a fasting person in the month of Ramadan travels by air in a westerly direction after maghrib -- without breaking (iftar) his fast in his city -- and arrives at a place where the sun has not yet set, is it obligatory for him to abstain from things (that break the fast) until maghrib?
A: Apparently, it is not obligatory although it is a better precaution. (MS, p. 464, Q80)

* * *

Q46: What about one whose duty is to fast while travelling. If he travels from his city, in which the crescent of Ramadan has been seen, to a city where the crescent has not yet been seen because of a variation in their horizon?
A: He is not obligated to fast on that day. (MS, p. 466, Q87)

* * *

Q47: What if he observes the Eid in a city in which the crescent of Shawwal has been seen, and then travels to a city where the crescent has not been seen due to a variation in their horizon?
A: It is a better precaution for him to abstain (from things that break the fast) for the rest of the day and, also, to observe its qada. (MS, pp. 466-67, Q87)

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Boundaries of a City
Q48: There are extended cities with adjoining borders and sides which, in the past, were reckoned to be separate cities, but after prosperous growth, became one city. Do you regard them as one or several cities? A person travels from the farthest point in the East (of the city) with the intention of travelling to another place, and the time for prayer comes when he is at the farthest westerly point (of the city). He wishes to pray. Should he pray qasr or does he pray complete? And similarly, if he returns from a journey to the outskirts (of the city), and the time for prayer comes, does he pray qasr, or complete? What about the person who is fasting, and leaves (the city) or returns to it?
A: The hypothetical cities all count as one. The rulings of separate cities does not actually apply to this case. True, the rule with respect to computing the distance is from the point at which the term "traveller" (musafir) becomes applied to someone. Were this city truly one of the larger cities and the term ("traveller") is applied upon the exit of a person from his zone or area of residence, even if it is deemed to be inside the city, then the ruling of "traveller" applies on him. And the distance would be computed from this point, which is considered hadd al-tarakhkhus with respect to that person. If the term ("traveller") does not apply to him unless he leaves the (larger) city, then the last region of the city is to be counted as the beginning for distance measurement with respect to him. God knows best. (MMS, p. 32, Q64)

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Exhumation of Grave
Q49: Is it permissible to excavate the grave of the deceased if it does not entail disrespect for the deceased?
A: It is not permissible except for special purposes that have been explained in the books of fiqh, such as cases of dire necessity. (FM, p. 420)

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Q50: In a previous question (Q26), we informed your eminence about the differences among the Muslims regarding the direction of the qiblah. What is the ruling on one who was buried facing a direction adopted at the time of burial and then (the direction) was changed after the burial, given that exhumation and identification of those buried in the previous direction or the new direction would entail great hardship?
A: In response to the question, it is not obligatory to execute the change. (MMS, p. 11, Q2)

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Khums
Q51: A person buys a garment for an occasion. After wearing it, he puts it away and a year passes without it being worn a second time. Is khums obligatory on it? Likewise, (is khums obligatory) with respect to jewelry temporarily used and then set aside for more than a year without being used?
A: If the garment is of the type customarily prepared for similar occasions in the years that follow, then khums is not obligatory. Otherwise, based on obligatory precaution, khums applies to it. The same situation applies to jewelry. God knows best. (MMS, p. 18, Q22)

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Q52: Is khums obligatory for furnishings that the mother prepares for her daughter [like marital gifts] when a number of years elapse before they come into use?
A: Khums is not obligatory on them if not preparing [the marital gifts] gradually damages her prestige, because it would not be easy for her to prepare them at the time of her marriage. God knows best. (MMS, p. 18, Q23)

* * *

Q53: If one year elapses on bank shares, is it obligatory to pay khums on them? If it is obligatory, then is it based on the actual value or purchase price?
A: It is obligatory to pay khums on the actual value. (MMS, p. 34, Q67)

* * *

Q54: A person builds a house on land for which he has paid khums. During the construction of this house a year or more elapses. He has spent money for one or two years while building it (the house), knowing that he does not own any home besides this one. Is it obligatory for him to pay khums for this house? If it is obligatory, then is the khums calculation based on all the expenditures in building the house, is it based on the market value of the house or is it enough to negotiate with al-hakim al-shar'i?
A: He should evaluate the house (excluding the land) and take out khums on its value except with regard to the money expended in the year in which he takes up residence in it (home), for there is no khums on it. (MMS, p. 34, Q68)

* * *

Q55: A person builds a house by borrowing money, repaying the state bank in installments. He decides to settle (with al-hakim al-shar'i) on the khums of the house, knowing that this house is not part of his necessary (annual) provision (ma'unah). Is there any khums on these installments that he has paid to the bank?
A: On the supposition of the question, khums will be applied on the house at the end of the year on the total present value (of the house) if he has paid all his loans; however, if he has paid only part of it, then it is applied to that proportion. (MMS, pp. 34-35, Q70)

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Charity
Q56: Is it permissible to set aside charity money in a specific place, with the intention of charity, and then to give it to the poor? Can one change it with another currency?
A: The money does not become a recommended charity by mere separation. (MMS, p. 35, Q72)

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Hajj
Q57: A man who is financially able in a particular year is prevented from travelling because he could not obtain a visa to perform the hajj in that year. Then, he is forced to spend the money which was set aside for hajj, after the season, to fulfill his living needs. Thereafter, he is not able to obtain the money needed to perform the hajj.
A: If he acquires the ability in later years, then hajj is obligatory for him, and if he does not acquire the ability, then it is not obligatory for him. (FM, pp. 403-4)

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Q58: What if I am able to perform hajj this year while I am a student at the University or high school and it happens that the time of travelling for hajj conflicts with my final exams such that the trip for hajj would lead to my failure and loss of a school year, which causes me extreme material and emotional difficulty.
A: As long as your travel for hajj causes you extreme difficulty as you said, it is permissible for you to abandon the hajj for that year. (FM, p. 404)

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Q59: From which direction should one throw pebbles at jamratu-l-'aqabah (in Mina)?
A: Stone it from the front [because it is not permissible to stone it from the back]. (FM, p. 404)

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Q60: What is the ruling on one who enters the state of ihram from Jeddah, instead of Johfah, because of ignorance?
A: If he made a nadhr for the ihram in Jeddah, then his ihram is valid. (FM, p. 404)

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Q61: Is one permitted after tawaf and sa'y, to cut the hair (taqsir) of someone else who has requested him to do so, before cutting his own?
A: It is not permissible for one to attend to the taqsir of others before his own. (FM, p. 404)

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