ISSUE 339: There are many Mustahab Salat, but it is not possible to include all of them in this writing, and those that have more importance are as follows:
ISSUE 340: In two 'Eids, the 'Eid of Fitr and the 'Eid of Qurban, reading the special Salat of 'Eid is mustahab.
The time of Salatul ـ 'Eid
ISSUE 341: The time for Salatul ـ 'Eid, is from the rising of the sun until zuhr.
ISSUE 342: It is mustahab that on 'Eid al ـ Fitr after the sun has risen up, one should eat some food, pay the Zakatul ـ Fitr20, and then pray the Salatul ـ 'Eid.
How to pray Salatul ـ 'Eid
ISSUE 343: Salatul ـ 'Eid consists of two rak'at with nine qunut, and is recited in the following manner:
In the first rak'at of Salat, after al ـ Fatiha and the second Surah, it is better that five takbir are recited, and after each takbir, a qunut is also performed, and after the fifth qunut, another takbir is said, and then one goes into ruku', and then performs the two sajdahs.
20 Zakatul ـ Fitr is one of the wajibat of property that must be given on the day of'Eid al ـ Fitr. ( See Issue 378 ) .
In the second rak'at, after al ـ Hamd and the second Surah, four takbir are recited, and after each takbir, a qunut is performed, and after the fourth qunut, another takbir is said, and then one goes into ruku', and then into sajdah, and then finishes off with tashahhud and salam.
In the qunut of the Salatul ـ 'Eid, any dua' or dhikr that is recited is sufficient, but it is better that the following dua' is read:
« اللهم اهل الكبرياء والعظمة واهل الجود والجبوت واهل العفو وا لرحمة
واهل التقوى والمغفرة اسألك بحق هذا اليوم الذي جعلته للمسلمين عيدا
ولمحمد صلي الله عليه وآله ذخرا وشرفا وكرامة ومزيدا ان تصلي على
محمد وآل محمد وان تدخلني في كل خير ادخلت فيه محمدا وآل محمد
وان تخرجني من كل سوء اخرجت منه محمدا وآل محمد صلواتك عليه
وعليهم اللهم اني اسألك خير ما سألك به عبادك الصالحون
واعوذ بك مما استعاذ منه عبادك مخلصون »
The Nafilah of the daily Salat
The nafilah of the daily Salat ـ other than the day of Jumu'ah ـ total 34 rak'at. Among them are the 11 rak'at nafilah of the night, two rak'at nafilah of Salatul Fajr, and two rak'at nafilah of 'Isha', and the reward of these with Allah is great21.
21 For more information on the Nafilah of the daily Salat, please refer to the Taudhiul Masail, rule nmder 758.
Salatul Lail (Night Prayers)
ISSUE 344: Salatul Lail consists of 11 rak'at which are to be recited in the following sequence:
Two rak'at Niyyat of Nafilah Salatul Lail
Two rak'at Niyyat of Nafilah Salatul Lail
Two rak'at Niyyat of Nafilah Salatul Lail
Two rak'at Niyyat of Nafilah Salatul Lail
Two rak'at Niyyat of Nafilah Salatul Shafa'
One rak'at Niyyat of Nafilah Salatul Witr
The time for Salatul Lail
ISSUE 345: The best known time for Salatul Lail is from midnight until the Adhan of fajr, and the closer it is read to the Adhan of fajr, the better it is.
ISSUE 346: For those who are travellers, and for those whom it is hard to read the Nafilah of Salatul Lail after the middle of the night, they are able to perform these Nafilah in the beginning of the night.
ISSUE 347: Another Salat from among the mustahab ones is Salatul Ghufailah, which is performed between Salatul Maghrib and 'Isha.
The Method of praying Salatul Ghufailah
ISSUE 348: Salatul Ghufailah consists of two rak'at, and in the first rak'at, after al ـ Hamd, the following ayah is to be read:
( و ذا النون اذ ذهب مغاضبا فظن ان لن نقدر عليه فنادي في الظلمات ان لا اله
سحبانك اني كنت من الظالمين فاستجبنا له و نجيناه من الغم و كذلك ننجي المؤمنين )
"And Dhun ـ Noon, when he went forth enraged and thought that We would have no power over him; then he called out in the darkness: "There is no god but You, Glory be to You, I was one of the unjust. " So We answered him, and delivered him out of grief. Thus do We deliver the believers."
And in the second rakat, after al ـ Hamd, the following ayah is read:
( وَعندهُ مفاتيحُ الغيب لا يعلمها الاّ هو ويعلم ما في البر والبحر وما تسقط من ورقة الا
يعلمها ولا حبة في ظلمات الأرض ولا رطب ولا يابس الا في كتاب مبين)
"With Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them but He . He knows what is on the land and on sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. Not a grain in the earth's darkness, not anything wet or dry, but it is in a book manifest."
And in the qunut, this dua' is read:
( اللهمَّ اني اسالُك بمفاتح الغيب التي لا يعلمها الا انت ان تصلي علي محمد و آل محمد
« تغفر لي ذنوبي » 22
الّلهمَّ انت ولي نعمتي والقادر علي طلبتي تعلم حاجتي فأسألُك بحق محمّد وآل محمّد عليه وعليهم السلام لمّا قضيتها لي )
"O'Allah! I ask You, by the keys of the unseen that none knows but You, to bless Muhammad and his household, and do for me [ask for your wishes].
O'Allah, You are my benefactor and capable of fulfilling my requests; You know my wishes. So I ask you to bless Muhammad and his household when You fulfill my wishes."
22 In place of the sentence: « وان تغفر لي ذنوبي » one can ask for any wish or ither request that ine has frim Allah.
One of the other wajib acts and yearly programs of Islam, for the self building of man is fasting. In this act of worship, a person leaves various actions, (which will be explained shortly), from the adhan of fajr until mahgrib, only in obedience for the command of Allah.
Niyyat for Fasting
ISSUE 349: Fasting is one of the acts of worship, and must be performed for the pleasure of Allah (thus also to comply with the order of Allah), and this is the niyyat of fasting.
ISSUE 350: A person is able to specify the niyyat every night for the month of Ramadhan for the following fast, but it is better than the niyyat be made on the first night of the month, for all the fasts of the complete month.
ISSUE 351: It is not necessary that the niyyat be recited with the tongue, rather, even that amount is enough that one is performing the action for the wish of Allah, and that from the adhan of fajr until maghrib, those actions that make the fast void will be avoided.
The things that make the Fast void
ISSUE 352: The person fasting must avoid certain acts from adhan of fajr until maghrib, and if one of these acts is performed, the fast will become void. The collection of these actions is referred to as the "Things which make the Fast void", and they are the following:
Eating and drinking
Having a thick dust (or smoke) reach the throat
Placing the complete head under water
Other than the things listed above, there are also other actions that make the Fast void, and one who would like to learn these additional things can refer to the Taudhihul Masa'il, rule number 1608 for more information.
The Rules of those things that make the Fast void
Eating and Drinking
ISSUE 353: If the person who is fasting, intentionally eats or drinks something, his fast will become void.
ISSUE 354: If someone intentionally swallows some food that is stock between the teeth, the fast will become void.
ISSUE 355: Swallowing the saliva that is in the mouth does not make the fast void, no matter how much is swallowed.
ISSUE 356: If the person who is fasting accidentally eats or drinks something (he does not remember that he is fasting), the fast will not become void.
ISSUE 357: A person is able not to break his fast if he feels weak, but if his weakness is to such an extent that normally one can not tolerate it, then there is no problem in breaking the fast.
Having an Injection
ISSUE 358: Having an injection or getting serum, does not make the fast become void.
Allowing thick dust (or smoke) to reach the throat
ISSUE 359: If thick dust reaches the throat of a person who is fasting, according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the fast will become void, whether the dust is a dry dust like flour or something that is not dry like mud.
Placing the complete head under water
ISSUE 360: If a person who is fasting submerges his entire head under water, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, the fast will become void; but it is not far from possibility that this action does not make the fast void.
ISSUE 361: If a person who is fasting is forced into the water (not by his own will), and his complete head goes under the water; or if he forgets that he is fasting and submerges his head under water, his fast will not become void. However, as soon as he remembers (that he is fasting), he must immediately take his head out of the water.
ISSUE 362: Any time a person who is fasting intentionally vomits, even if it is done due to some sickness, the fast will become void.
ISSUE 363: If a fasting person does not remember that he is fasting, or if he is forced to vomit, then the fast will not become void.
The Qada' and the Kafarah of the Fast
The Qada' Fast
ISSUE 364: If someone does not fast during the month of Ramadan, or his fast becomes void, he must make up the qada' of these fasts after the month of Ramadan.
Kafarah of the Fast
ISSUE 365: Someone who makes his fast become void without a valid excuse, by committing one of the things that breaks the fast, must perform the qada' of the fast, and also fulfill one of the following acts which are referred to as the kafarah (of the fast):
One must free a slave.
One must fast for two months of which 31 days must be continous.
One must feed sixty poor people, or give one mudd23 of food to each of them.
If a kafarah becomes wajib on somebody, one of the above three mentioned acts must be performed; and because in today's day and age, the freeing of a slave is not applicable in terms of Fiqh, the second or third penalty must be performed. However if one does not have the ability to perform any of these, then one must give sadaqah in the amount that one is able to and if one is not even able to do this, then one must ask forgiveness from Allah (SWT).
The Rules of the Qada' and the Kafarah of the Fast
ISSUE 366: It is not necessary that the qada' of the fast be performed immediately, but according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, it should not be delayed until the next Ramadan.
ISSUE 367: One must not be negligent about giving the kafarah, but it is not necessary that the performing of the kafarah be done immediately, and if a few years pass before it is performed, nothing has to be added to the kafarah.
23One mudd if fiid os appriximately ten sir ( 750 grams ) it wheat or barley or things like this.
ISSUE 368: If someone does not fast due to an excuse such as travelling, and after the month of Ramadan the excuse goes away, and until the next Ramadan, intentionally one does not make up the qada' fast, then in addition to making up the qada' fast, one must also give one mudd of food to a poor person for each fast that was missed.
ISSUE 369: If someone is not able to fast due to sickness and this sickness continues until the next Ramadan, then the qada' of the fast is removed from the responsibility of the person, however one must give one mudd of food to a poor person for every fast that was missed.
The Fast of a Traveller
ISSUE 370: The traveller who must reduce his Salat from four rak'at to two rak'at during his journey, is not allowed to fast while he is travelling, but he must perform the qada' of the fast. As for the traveller whose Salat is prayed in full, he must fast while he is travelling ـ for example the person whose profession is travelling.
ISSUE 371: If a person who is fasting travels after zuhr, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, he must continue with his fast, and it will be valid.
ISSUE 372: If a person who is fasting travels before zuhr, once he reaches the hadd tarakkhas ـ meaning he reaches to the point where he can not hear the adhan of his city and he can not see the people of his city ـ then his fast will become invalid. However if before he reaches this spot, he does something to make his fast become void, then along with performing the qada' of the fast, a kafarah also becomes wajib upon him.
ISSUE 373: There is no problem with travelling during the holy month of Ramadan, but if it is done to avoid fasting, then it is makruh.
ISSUE 374: If a traveller reaches his home place (watn) or a place where he intends to stay for ten days, before zuhr, then in the event that he has not committed an act that makes the fast become void, he must fast; and if he has committed an act that makes the fast void, then it is not wajib for him to fast (that day), but afterwards, the qada' of that fast must be made up.
ISSUE 375: If a traveller reaches his watn or a place where he intends to stay for ten days after zuhr, it is not permitted for him to fast on that day.
ISSUE 376: Once the month of Ramadan has come to an end ـ meaning on the day of' Eidul Fitr ـ one must give an amount of one's own wealth to the poor, with the niyyat of zakatul fitrah.
The amount of Zakatul Fitrah
ISSUE 377: For oneself and for those who are one's dependants; for example one's spouse and children, one must give one sa' per person, which is approximately three kilograms (as zakat).
The items that can be given for Zakatul Fitrah
ISSUE 378: The items that can be given as zakatul fitrah are things such as wheat, barely, dates, raisins, rice, corn and other things like this; and if one gives the value of these things in cash, it will be sufficient too.
One of the economic responsibilities of the Muslims is paying khums; which means that on certain items 1/5 or 20% must be paid to the Mujtahid, to be used for specific things.
ISSUE 379: Khums is wajib on seven things:
Profit or gains from earnings.
Spoils of war.
Gems that have been obtained from the sea by diving.
The halal wealth that is mixed with haram wealth.
The land which a Kafir dhimmi24 (A non ـ Muslim living under the protection of the Islamic Government) purchases from a Muslim.
ISSUE 380: Just like Salat and Fasting, the paying of khums is one of the wajibat, and anyone who possesses one of the seven things listed above, must act according to that which will follow (in relation to the paying of khums).
24 The Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians that have made a contract with the Islamic ruler that they will pay a certain amount of money in tax, and that they will accept the specific conditions ( that are listed in the detailed are protected ( in exchange for paying the tax and accepting the conditions ).
One of the instances of khums that include most people in the society is giving khums on that which exceeds a person and his families yearly expenses (benefit/profit from working).
Islam respects a person working and earning, and therefore allows the necessity of one's needs over that of paying the khums.
Therefore, one who can secure his (financial) needs from his earnings, and if after securing his (financial) needs, nothing remains at the end of the year, khums will not be obligatory on him.
But, if after working out all the normal expenses for his life (and the maintainence of his family) according to his (social) status and needs, and without being extravagent or miserly, if something remains at the end of the year, 1/5 (or 20 of that which remains must go towards the specified expense (of khums), and 4/5 (80 of the amount that is left can be put into one's savings.
The Rules of Khums
ISSUE 381: Until khums has been paid on one's property, one is not able to spend from that property, meaning, one is not allowed to eat that food on which khums has not been taken out on, and similarly one is not allowed to spend that money on which khums has not been taken out on, to buy things.
ISSUE 382: If at the end of the year, the provisions or foods such as rice, oil, or tea, that had been purchased from one's wealth for use during the year, remain in excess (any extra remains), then khums must be paid on them (the excess).
ISSUE 383: If a non ـ baligh child has some money, and from that money receives a profit, the paying of the khums becomes wajib on the child's guardian, and if he does not pay the khums for this property, then once the child becomes baligh, he must pay the khums.
The Spending of Khums
ISSUE 384: The khums is to be divided into two portions ـ half of which is called sahm Imam az ـ Zaman ('a) and must be given to the Mujtahid who is Jam' al ـ Sharait or his representative ـ and the other half which must be given to poor sayyids or sayyids who are orphaned or a sayyid who has been stranded on a trip.