Department of Supplies and Reinforcements of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
By: Muhammad Dhahir Watr
This department was responsible for matters pertaining to reinforcements, supplies, means of transport, food for the soldiers, the type of clothes and shelter of the forces, dividing the spoils of war, medical issues and all related concerns.
A) Department Of Supplies And Reinforcements
The responsibility of this department was to secure the material resources and assistance to the armed forces in general. This included personal accessories and other necessities like water, tents, clothes and moving the residents away from areas where military operations were taking place.
This comprised of groups whose work was to prepare and supply material provisions, military equipment and other needed supplies to the troops. The most important groups that were present in the rear were the guards, those responsible for munitions and supplies, the camp of the commander, and the non-combatants (i.e. womenfolk). They carried some amount of supplies and munitions with them and each one of these groups would be supervised by a commander who would oversee their work. The Prophet (s) would emphasize on keeping the supplies and military equipment well hidden. He (s) would only specify where the rear of the army began and would not give importance to where it ended.
The limits of the rear of the army during encampment was defined as the last lines of the army, and while marching also, it was the last group. The main missions of this department was to secure the facilities and material resources needed by the army, carry out medical treatment, assist the injured and handicapped and carry them away from the battlefield, burying the martyrs and gathering the spoils of war.
1) Types of supplies and support:
Madina was known as the main center for supplies and munitions, and reinforcement and support during battle would rarely take place from there; because the backing and rear of the army would usually take the necessary supplies with them, and from the very beginning whatever wa needed by the army would be put at their disposal. They would go to the battle and whenever their mission was complete, they would return to their own lands.
Despite this, in some of the battles, the army had to face severe hunger, like what happened in the battles of Khaybar and Tabuk, but they would bear this pressure and difficulty. This is precisely what they did in the Sariya of al-Khabt. Sometimes they would also benefit from the abundant local resources.
The sources of food and supplies for the army in the areas where the battles were fought included: In the Battle of Badr from the hunting of deer; in the Battle of Dhāt al-Ruqā’ from cucumbers and ostrich eggs; in the Battle of Hudaybiyya from cucumbers, the meat of deer, wild donkeys and other animals whose meat is permissible to eat, and yoghurt; and in the Battle of Khaybar from a variety of different sources.
Full reinforcements from Madina only came when Sa’d ibn ‘Ubādah had the responsibility of bringing the reinforcements in the Battle of Hamrā al-Asad. At this time he would slaughter two to three animals (whose meat was permissible to eat) every day. In the battles of Dhi Qurā and Waddān, he brought reinforcements with dates and meat from slaughtered animals. At times, like in the Sariya of ‘Amr ibn ‘Aās, the supplies were sent by soldiers on foot.
As for the food for horses and camels, it was provided for from the abundant grazing grounds especially in the areas where the army was camped. In the Battle of Uhud, the Quraysh used the grazing grounds and fields that belonged to the Ansār. In the battles of Badr and Bani al-Mustalaq, the Muslim army took benefit from the wells of Badr and Murisiyya’. Muslim soldiers would sometimes use crushed date seeds to feed their horses and camels while in the Battle of Khandaq, the Quraysh carried corn as fodder for their horses.
Relief in its true and complete sense during battle was not done except through giving drinking water. This was done by means of water bags which were carried by soldiers, or through injured and handicapped soldiers. The women would also at times participate in this exercise and would carry the water bags for long distances and exchange them for empty water bags. These relief operations continued even in the time when the heat of battle had subsided and some of the helpers would take water to the supreme commander and the troops during this time.
2) The main points of relief support
These points were the very same routes that were used by the troops, and the rear wound usually not move in one position behind the main ranks of the army; like in the battles of Badr and Tabuk. The movement from these points by the rear of the army would not take place more than once, because this would cause a split and a cessation of the relief support operations. For the soldiers, there was more than one central point for supplies but despite this, they would always use the closest point like Madina in the Battle of Hudaybiyya and from there (the route) to Fadak would be used.
Of course the original and primary points of relief supply were Makkah and Madina which had links with the outside and were considered the main centers of relief support. Between Makkah and outside it there were two roads to the west (coastal) and east (desert), and between Madina and outside it there was an important road that led towards the land of Shām (Syria) and there was continuous relief support conducted using different means between these two routes. Whenever these central points were cut off for any reason, the army forces would face hardships in terms of lack of sufficient relief supplies and provisions.
Similarly, in the beginning the Muslim army tried to cut off the supply routes of the Quraysh and they would be so harsh on them that at times they would be pushed to the brink of destruction. When the point of supply from Madina was partially cut off, the supreme commander would reopen them by gaining victory of the tribes that were responsible for closing the route.
3) Places of rest for the army
After marching a specified distance, the Muslim army would stop for a brief period in a suitable location. At this time, the troops would carry out repairs and maintenance on their battle equipment, and would eat and drink. Then they would refill their vessels with water and continue their march. The army would usually stop at a place where there was a well and plentiful grass for grazing. The places of rest for the army would be selected according to the length of their journey, the army’s size and the suitability of the area for remaining hidden and concealed.
The time of these rest-stops would be in accordance to the mission given to the forces, the weather or time of day (and night). In the Battle of Dumat al-Jundal, the rest was taken at night and during the Conquest of Makkah, because of the speed required, it was only for a brief period of time. Aside from this, the period of rest would be determined by the state of the troops and the distance they had covered and would be short or long accordingly.
And if there was a serious need to reach the enemy (as quick as possible), the rest-stops would be shortened. If this was not done, like in the Sariya of Muhammad ibn Maslamah against the Bani Bakr, the duration would be prolonged. In some of the Sariya missions, the army would rest the whole day and would march at night in order to carry out a surprise attack.
4) Modes of transport
The modes of transport were mainly camels and then followed by donkeys. Camels would be used to traverse long distances of up to eight hundred kilometers, like in the Battle of Dumat al-Jundal which was located at a distance of ‘ten stations of Madina’ and ‘seven stations of the Damascus’, or the Battle of Muta near the province of Dir’ā from the land of Balqā’ in Shām, or the Battle of Tabuk which was at a distance of twelve stations from Madina and was close to Shām. The same was the case of the Battle of Abnā in the land of al-Sarrāh near Balqā’ which was a village in Muta between Palestine and Shām.
The camel is known for its ability to bear thirst and hunger and carry heavy loads in the dry and hard desert. However, donkeys were mostly used for non-military purposes to cover short distances in and around Madina. A number of troops would bring camels to the battlefield. They would carry their battle gear and rations and also the special fodder for camels on the camels’ backs.
Women would also sit in howdahs on these animals at the rear of the army and would be taken along. The army would be divided into sections depending on the number of soldiers and camels that were used for transport. Each section had two to four soldiers who would put the equipment that could be carried on the backs of camels like one big caravan. The length of these sections when marching depended on the number of camels and soldiers in it.
5) Foods and rations
The most important foodstuffs that were used by the Muslim forces in battle included: dates, locusts, meat (mostly from animals that were halāl), wheat, raisins, bread, barley flour and some of the foods that were prepared from wheat, flour, cucumbers and milk. Among these, dates were the staple food that the soldiers would be provided with when attacking or defending, travelling or remaining back, and they would always have with them a little under three kilos (one Sā’) of dates and if something (from the dates produced) would remain, they would store it in their house and would use it throughout the year.
6) Sources for procuring the food
From the troops, locals and residents of the area, and some of the wealthy soldiers – who were sometimes responsible for providing the food – and also through other means of securing it. Rations in the Muslim army were such that each person would eat one portion per day before marching or prior to the start of battle or when he felt hungry.
Most of the times, these rations i.e. a few dates or a slaughtered animal whose meat was shared among a hundred men, would not be sufficient and it was common for the forces to remain hungry due to lack of sufficient food; that is why in some of the battles it was necessary for them to economize and forbear. So much so that in some situations the troops were left with no option but to eat some of the grass, leaves, the remainder of the food eaten by others and at times they would slaughter the animals that were used for transport and use the meat; meaning they would eat the meat of horses, wild and tame donkeys, deer etc.
At times a day or two would pass before they ate anything and the Holy Prophet (s) was forced to take a loan from the rich and divide it among the soldiers in order for them to buy food, until things improved and the financial situation became better, then he would repay the loan.
The most important of all things that were considered in the battles were: drinking water, washing the injured and treating some of the sick. War between the two opposing sides would take place in a place that had plenty of water. Each of the two sides would try to take advantage of the well and gain the upper hand over the other, preventing him from coming near it. For this reason, gaining access to water was considered an important factor in victory or surrender and defeat.
In all the battles, the Holy Prophet (s) would choose a land that had abundance of life-giving water and would take control over it while keeping the enemy at bay; just as he had eventually blocked it from the fortresses of Khaybar etc. in order to speed up the surrender of the inhabitants of those fortresses. He (s) would forbid the drinking of unhygienic water. In the end, there were many hardships faced in securing water while marching through the dry, harsh, scorching deserts especially in the long routes.
8) Sources of nourishment
The most important sources of nourishment were foods the animals, edible plants and the drinking water that were found in the fields in the area where the military operations were conducted. The most important animals included: fawns, wild donkeys, rabbits, deer, cows and camels, sheep, birds (that were permissible to eat), cucumbers, fruits of the Miswāk tree and other types of edibles.
The above-mentioned foods made up a large portion of the supplies that were required during battle and through this the Muslim army was saved from starvation and severe thirst and gave them the ability to carry out their mission effectively. In the Battle of Khaybar, the Muslim soldiers suffered a lot of hunger and in the Battle of Tabuk, the soldiers were about to collapse out of severe hunger.
9) Shelter, tents and clothes
In Madina there were many tents but in the battles, tents would rarely be used. Mattresses and beddings as we see today never existed. In those days, tents were made of skin or fur, or both together. As for the clothing, it remained the same as it was before the advent of Islām.
10) Storing foodstuffs
The portion of food that was extra would be stored inside storehouses and homes to such as extent that it would suffice for the soldiers for some time. The storing of food by the Muslim army was done differently to the way the Jewish army or other armies did it, as it was done based on the material resources, military mission, type of enemy and other factors. The Muslim army did not have many resources. When the army would prepare for war, they would come under pressure out of the insufficiency and lack of resources; that is why this army was an offensive army and did not have much need for storing foodstuffs. Aside from this, donation and generosity and not hoarding and storing are matters that were emphasized by the new religion (Islām), and this was also considered one of the factors.
The supreme commander and his soldiers took to storing the excess foodstuffs in times when the supplies were abundantly available. This took place especially after the Battle of Bani Nadhir and after gaining access to a lot of necessary resources. However, in the earlier period and during the start of the first wars there was no thought given to this type of action.
The Holy Prophet (s) would keep some barley and dates - to the extent that would suffice for a number of days - in his house. We have no other report that suggests that storing foodstuffs was considered a priority for the Muslim army. Even in the Battle of Khandaq, when they dug the trench by which Madina was saved, they did not make any efforts with regards to storing supplies.
The enemy, however, went to great lengths to store foodstuffs, especially the Jews who store provisions and water inside their fortresses – to the extent that would suffice them for the duration of a long war. The Muslim army had no choice but to completely cut off the enemy’s relief supplies, besiege them from all sides, attack their front-line, conduct psychological warfare, and all those actions that would force the Jews to surrender quickly, before their stores were empty.
11) Clearing the field of operations
Another one of the responsibilities of the ‘department of supplies (and relief support)’ was clearing the following from the battlefield:
• All the people who would cause the military operations to be delayed, like the womenfolk, the children, the old and those who were unable to fight
• Those considered enemies and those who were not from their side
• The equipment and weapons that were broken or needed repair for use in the next battle
The first group was transferred to a suitable place where the ‘living conditions’ were better. The second group was also taken to far off places that were outside the domain and control of the Muslim army. As for the equipment, it was carried to the appropriate place where it could undergo repair and maintenance after which it would be distributed to the soldiers, and sometime a group would carry out repairs on the weapons right there on the battlefield.
12) Trade and agriculture
After the military missions were completed, the Holy Prophet (s) would give permission to the soldiers to embark on trade. He (s) had tolerated their exchange of goods in Badr al-Aākhar, and the forces returned back to Madina after having made a handsome profit. In this way, aside from battle operations, the army would engage in trade also. The Ansār would also pursue their own agricultural work.
13) Welcoming the soldiers
After achieving victory in battle, the army would send the glad tidings and news of their return to Madina. All the people of Madina, men, women and children, would come out to welcome the victorious soldiers. The supreme commander had also come out with a group of tribesmen to welcome the army that was returning from Muta. In his caliphate, Abu Bakr also came out to welcome the army of Usāma.
14) The minimum age for being accepted into the army
Joining the army was something done voluntarily and was not done as it is today i.e. joining the armed forces (for training) becomes mandatory at a certain age. The Holy Prophet (s) had laid down some conditions for those wishing to join the army. The volunteers had to be at least fifteen or sixteen years old, strong and of sound body, and capable of fighting in battle.
For this reason, the young boys who had stepped forward for the Battle of Uhud, like ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Barrā’ ibn ‘Aāzib and others, were not accepted while ‘Umayr ibn Abi Waqqās got permission to join the army in the Battle of Badr when he was sixteen years old. Ibn ‘Umar himself said: The Holy Prophet (s) turned me back on the day of Uhud when I was fourteen years old and later accepted me in the Battle of Khandaq when I was fifteen.
Today, the minimum age for recruitment differs from country to country and most countries have kept the minimum age at eighteen years and have stipulated that the person should be healthy.
15) Teaching and education
The Holy Prophet (s) gave importance to teaching and education and emphasized on its promotion. Due to this emphasis, he instructed Mundhir ibn ‘Amr al-Sā’idi to go with seventy teachers and educate the Bani ‘Aāmir. He (s) also sent Ibn Abi Murthid with ten ‘reciters’ in order to teach the tribes of Adhal and al-Qārrah. The Prophet (s) would also employ those prisoners who were not able to pay the ransom to secure their freedom to teach others.
16) Securing relief support in pre-emptive battle
For securing relief support in this type of battle which was conducted against the enemy, the Holy Prophet (s) was not in need of a strong ‘rear’ in the army as this would act as a burden and would hold back the army preventing them from swift movement and battle maneuvers; rather he would only take the rear when a large army was required. Single units and small contingents did not usually have a rear and would carry the necessary provisions like dates, some foodstuffs and water, along with them or would depend on the locally available resources. This type of securing of supplies needed quick transport, but because this was not fully and abundantly available (in the Muslim army), a clever soldier could make up for this deficiency by carrying whatever supplies he needed himself.
17) Securing reinforcements when capturing fortresses
The enemy forces would usually take refuge in forts and would store provisions that would last for a long time. In the same way, supply centers were divided along the line of defense. In these situations, more than three supply centers were set up with the needed supplies. The Muslim army would not fight between the fortresses, rather they would attack the forts from the front and from different sides and besiege it for long periods of time. During this time, they would take advantage of the resources available in the area or that which was possessed by the enemy.
18) Difficulties in securing supplies
The Muslim army faced numerous difficulties when trying to secure supplies. These included: Lack of adequate means of transport, even camels that were used by a number of soldiers to carry provisions and water. Food rations were also not enough. Many of the soldiers faced severe hunger especially during the final days of the battles and had to eat hunted prey and some of the plants and herbs.
Similarly, the lack of wells and sufficient water especially in the hot months, would cause the soldiers to be overcome by thirst. Lack of weapons and battle equipment, which was difficult to buy or procure due to poor resources and also the suitable clothes for fighting against the enemy in the desert were not easy to come by. Many of the soldiers came to face the enemy without any armor while some did not even have anything to cover themselves.
These harsh weather conditions in the heart of the dry, scorching desert with frequent strong sandstorms effected the strength and ability of the forces to fight in battle. The rays of the midday sun would be like arrows attacking the soldiers and the sand would cover their possessions in dust. This army, especially in the battles against the Jews when the duration of the siege was prolonged, faced difficulties with supplies.
During this time the food supplies that were consumed by the soldiers depleted very quickly and put the army under threat of starvation. In the Battle of Khaybar, the field of operations had become polluted with disease and cholera, to such an extent that it was not possible to remain in that place for a long period of time and it would cause the forces to be afflicted by other sicknesses.
In the same way, the Muslim army was always faced with great economic pressures that had been put against the Muslims by the Jews; because they had numerous economic centers and interests in the Arabian peninsula. Another of the hardships related to supplies that the army faced was the distance between the battlefields and the city of Madina (which was a center for procurement of supplies) especially in the battles of Dumat al-Jundal, Abnā and Tabuk which were towards the north of the Arabian peninsula and also those that took place in Yemen.
19) The division for training and exercise
Military training would be conducted in the actual battles and wars. The army would travel long distances in the desert until they would reach the enemy, and along the way, the army would undergo training in the following: bearing hunger and thirst on the way, the harsh conditions of the desert, including its heat, winds and dryness, staying in prolonged military expeditions, sleeping in open spaces, economizing on food rations and being satisfied with small portions of it, being generous with provisions despite the hard times, helping other soldiers, how to take advantage of locally available resources, digging trenches and pits, hunting animals, how to deal with prisoners, arrangements that needed to be made when the army stopped at any place, gathering the war booty and accepting the system of its distribution, finding clean water, and in the end, how to bury those who had been killed.
These matters gave the Muslim army a special zeal for battle and made them capable, strong and ready for fighting the enemy.
B) Department Of War Booty
This was the department that was answerable for collecting the booty, arranging it and distributing it. All the wealth of the enemy forces that was taken by overpowering them or winning the battle was considered as war booty. The first war booty that was obtained by the Muslims was in the second year after Hijra which was the year when the fighting was first ordained. During this time, the Holy Prophet (s) sent ‘Abdullah ibn Jahash, accompanied by seventy men, for a mission. He gave a letter to the commander of the Sariya and ordered him to open it after he had travelled for two days and then follow the path directed therein. This was done in order to protect military secrets. The commander of the Sariya did as he was instructed and when he opened the letter he found the order to raid the caravan of the Quraysh at Nakhlah. He did just that and took the wealth of the caravan as booty.
1) Ways of using the booty on the battlefield
Once the appropriation of the war booty was completed, there would be no delay in taking advantage of it especially with regards to the foodstuffs, drinks, fodder for animals, firewood and all the other requirements; whether those who used it were rich or poor, because even the rich would have to bear the difficulty of carrying foodstuffs and fodder from Madina to the battlefield.
2) The rules of distribution of war booty
The Noble Prophet (s) organized the booty and ordered that it be gathered up in a suitable place. He appointed certain people to count and distribute it and would specify the people who would use it, forbidding anyone to take anything (from it) before its distribution while being very strict with those people who infringed on these instructions.
The booty would be divided into five parts and was distributed as follows:
The first part would be given to the following: orphans, needy, those who were travelers but had no more money (Ibn al-Sabil), and for basic requirements like buying battle equipment and things that were needed by the army including foodstuffs, weapons, battle gear, clothes etc.
The four remaining parts would be distributed to the soldiers and every Muslim who participated in the battle, meaning one who was part of the army and entered the battlefield with the intention of fighting, whether he fought or not, would get a share; because frightening the enemy is akin to participating in the battle.
As for the gauge of merit by which it each person got what they deserved, it was relative. For example, for the soldiers who were on horseback three portions were allotted (two portions for the horse and one for the soldier) while the one who was on foot got one portion. The reason for this was that a horse had to be specially treated and readied for battle and this incurred an extra expense. It is obvious that the expense incurred by a soldier on horseback was more than one who was on foot. As for the women and young children who were present in the battle, they would not get a full share, because they were not considered part of the forces. Rather, they got a small share i.e. smaller than one full portion, depending on what the supreme commander decided based on their contribution and participation during the battle.
3) The place where the booty was divided
Division of the booty took place in a secure location or after it had been carried back to the Muslim lands. The supreme commander could transfer the army along with the booty to another area if the current location was not deemed to be safe. The division would either be done personally by the commander or by someone who was appointed by him to carry out this task.
4) Sources of booty
One of the important sources for acquiring booty were the Jews and the Muslim army had taken possession of a lot of weapons, wealth and farming lands from them as war booty. As for the (enemy) Arab tribes, they took sheep, camels and some horses from them. This booty was used to cater for the material needs of the army.
Prisoners were enemy combatants and those who were considered part of the enemy’s army that were captured alive. Generally, prisoners would either be killed, or secure their release through the payment of ransom or by being exchanged for Muslim prisoners, or they would be forgiven and freed; and this was decided according to what was in the best interests (of the Muslims). The Holy Prophet (s) had ordered the killing of ‘Aqabah ibn Abi Mu’eet and Nadhr bin Hārith in the Battle of Badr, ‘Amr ibn al-Jamhā, the poet of the Age of Ignorance, in the Battle of Uhud and also the Bani Quraydha after the siege. A number of prisoners of Badr were freed by ransom. Some of them who did not have wealth had to teach ten youths of Madian (in order to secure their freedom) and two prisoners from the Sariya of Abdullah ibn Jahash were also freed by ransom.
The exchange of prisoners with the Quraysh began after the Treaty of Hudaybiyya. A woman from the Bani Kilāb was given as a ransom to secure the freedom of a prisoner from the Muslims who had been captured by the Quraysh. This woman had been taken prisoner in the Sariya of Abu Bakr against the Bani Kilāb. Abi ‘Uzza al-Jamhā was freed as an act of kindness because of his poverty. The same was done with Abi al-‘Aās ibn Rabee’ and other prisoners of Badr, prisoners of Bani al-Mustalaq, Tamāmah ibn Athāl al-Hanafi after his imprisonment in the Sariya of Muhammad ibn Maslamah against the Bani Bakr, and also a man from Bani Tha’labah who had become a Muslim after his imprisonment in the Sariya of Abi ‘Ubaydah ibn Jarrāh for the revenge against the Bani Tha’labah.
Similarly, a woman who had divulged sensitive information to the enemy in the Sariya of Zayd ibn Hāritha against the Bani Saleem and was taken prisoner, was forgiven and set free.
The Holy Prophet (s) would deal mercifully and humanely with the prisoners and would urge that they be treated well and forgiven when victory had been gained over them. Whenever he (s) would hear the cries of any of them he would open their tied hands. The result of this kind treatment to the prisoners was that they would become believers in Islām and out of their own free will, accept this new religion. Usually the prisoners would be tied up and not left free, and they would be kept in a place where hygiene was good. They would be imprisoned in the Masjid or in the house of the soldiers to whom they had been given or were imprisoned all together in the house of one of the soldiers. This would be done to prevent any of them from fleeing. These houses were not built as prisons and if they were not tied, the prisoners could escape at any time.
The Glorious Qur’ān has encouraged the feeding of prisoners and the Holy Prophet (s) would also recommend it. The troops would also give precedence to the prisoners when it came to food and would sacrifice their own food for them. Like ‘Aziz ibn ‘Umayr who used to eat bread and good foods. The food of the prisoners was dates. When the supreme commander was requested for some food by a prisoner, he replied with kindness and generosity and asked the companions to prepare some food for him. They immediately gave him milk and delicious food.
At the same time, the prisoners were covered with proper clothes. For instance, the supreme commander gave a shirt to ‘Abbās ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and while giving some clothes as a gift to Safānah bint Hātim Tā’i, the Prophet (s) favored her by setting her free.
He (s) would never force any prisoner to divulge secret military information, however, if he tried to deceive the Muslim army by giving them false information, he would be pressurized and would even be beaten. If a prisoner did not give up secret information about the enemy, he would never be beaten or abused. However, if he did give up any vital information, he would be set free.
C) Department Of Medical Services
1) Designation and goals of the department of medical services
The goal of this department was the preservation of the health of soldiers. To this end, offering medical assistance to the injured and taking them from the battlefield to the medical camps for treatment were the functions that this department was responsible for. Other functions included taking preventative measures to stop the spread of different diseases and epidemics and taking care of the hygiene in the places where the troops and commanders camped and ensuring the cleanliness and soundness of these places.
The supreme commander would also participate in giving medical assistance, for instance when Qatāda ibn Nu’mān was injured in the Battle of Uhud and the news reached him, he (s) wrapped Qatāda in his cloak and gave him treatment, such that he regained his health and returned to his previous state. In the same way, he (s) treated the injury of Sa’d ibn Ma’ādh, who was injured in the Sariya of Muhammad ibn Maslamah (that was undertaken) to assassinate Ka’b ibn Ashraf. The Prophet (s) put his own saliva on the eyes of ‘Ali (‘a), who was suffering from an ailment in his eyes, and he was cured and could continue fighting the battle.
The support forces would always provide the required medicines to those who were sick or injured. General medical services in the Muslim army were based on the individual, collective and the women. When the supreme commander was attacked and became injured, Abi ‘Ubaydah ibn Jarrāh would pull out the chains of his helmet from his cheeks and Fātima (‘a) also would put a heated mat with palm leaves on his wounds. The injured would come as outpatients and would get their wounds dressed and this would happen after they had returned to Madina. Some of the wounds would be given basic treatment and dressing during the battle.
Another responsibility of this department was evacuating the injured to a specific location for treatment in Madina. When Sa’d ibn Mu’ādh was injured in the Battle of Khandaq, he was transferred to a tent in Masjid al-Nabi (s). In the same way, when Muhammad ibn Maslamah was injured in battle against the Bani Tha’labah and ‘Awāl, he was taken to Madina (for treatment). The medications and medical equipment that were used to treat and cure the injured were very basic and the most important among these included: water, (heated) mats, fabrics that were used by men in their trousers or the turbans that they wore on their heads – and this would be used to dress the wounds and cuts. Honey, oil, a special type of dates, milk, camel urine, salt with water and other remedies (were used).
The Holy Prophet (s) would take it upon himself to find out about the situation of hygiene in the army. He (s) would send some troops to check this and give him news about the situation and to select (hygienic and) sound locations. He would choose such (clean and hygienic) locations for the army to set up camp. He would select clean and suitable water for drinking and would only permit the using of water that had not changed in smell or color for washing hands and cleaning wounds.
Losses in the battlefield would be suffered because of a number of reasons, the most important among which were:
à Their resources and conditions of warfare and those of the enemy
à The type of battle (offensive, defensive, siege etc.)
à The types of weapons used
à Preparation for war and the type of terrain
à The time of day (whether day or night)
à The zeal and morale of the soldiers
à Ability and precaution
In the battle of Badr, the resources were equally accessible to both the sides. The type of war was defensive in Khandaq and offensive in the Conquest of Makkah. Entering the fortresses, the conditions of terrain and time of the battle (during the last hours of the night) in Khaybar, the type of weapons used in the Battle of Tā’if, the preparation in the Battle of Bani Quraydha and the great care and precaution taken in the Battle of Dhāt al-Ruqā’ were all important factors. The losses faced by the Muslim army in the first defensive battles were greater. In the Battle of Badr fourteen people, in Uhud eighty and in Khandaq six people were martyred. But in the offensive battles, the numbers were relatively less. In the Battle of Muta nine people, in the Conquest of Makkah two people, in Hunayn fourteen people, in conquering the fortresses of Khaybar fifteen people and in Tā’if twelve people were martyred. When conquering the fortresses of Bani Qaynuqā’, Bani Nadhir and Bani Quraydha, the Muslim army suffered no losses at all.
As for the losses faced in the Sariya missions, they included: ten people were martyred in the Sariya of Muhammad ibn Maslamah against the Bani Tha’labah, three people in the Sariya of Bashir ibn Sa’d al-Ansāri against the Bani Murrah, five people in the Sariya of Abi al-‘Awjā al-Sulami against the Bani Saleem and fifteen people in the Sariya of Kalā’i’b ibn ‘Umayr al-Ghaffāri against the Bani Qudhā’ah. In missions where the enemy ambushed the Muslims, many losses were suffered. Like the event of Bi’r Ma’unah where seventy people and Rajee’ where ten people were martyred.
By studying these numbers one can see that the losses in defensive war were greater than those in offensive war, and this was because after the Battle of Khandaq, the Muslim army had gained experience and were better trained. The losses in some of the Sariya missions were higher due to the commanders not having taken all the necessary precautions, a stronger enemy army, the element of surprise was not there in their attack, the secretive nature of the military operation and the inability to assist the injured because of which they would die.
3) The number of martyrs in the battles
The percentage of those who were martyred were as follows: Badr – 5% of the forces, Uhud – 10%, Khandaq – 0.002%, Khaybar – 1%, Muta – 2.5%; Conquest of Makkah – 0.002%, Hunayn – 0.003%, Tā’if – 0.02% and in the Sariya and other missions put together - 10%. The highest number of martyrs was in the Battle of Uhud (70) and the lowest was in the Conquest of Makkah (2).
4) Burying the Martyrs
The Holy Prophet (s) gave the order that the martyrs should be buried in the battlefield, just as is done in some of the battles of our time. He (s) would not give permission to take their bodies back to Madina and it has been said that some of the heirs had taken the corpses of their dead back to Madina, but the Prophet (s) ordered that they be taken back. The announcer of the supreme commander would call out: ‘Return those who have been killed to their place of rest (i.e. the place where they fell in battle).
The reason for this was that transferring the dead to another place would put their families under financial strain and other difficulties and it was possible that the change in weather conditions could affect the corpses and cause them to be cut into pieces. Aside from this, the means of transport were not abundant and could not even cater for all the soldiers. Most important of all, burying the fallen soldiers in the battlefield was a secret for keeping their memory alive, heightening emotions about them and expressing the meaning of courage by their example.
The Holy Prophet (s) would honor the martyrs, put them on the pedestal of respect and glory in this world and the hereafter and would give the glad tidings about this to the family and relatives of the martyred; so their hearts would be filled with happiness. The Prophet (s) would bury one, two or three martyrs in a single grave depending on their closeness with each other or their relationship (to each other) or the amount of Qur’ān they had memorized in their lifetimes.
The Prophet (s) forbade the disfigurement and cutting off of parts of the enemy corpses and gave the order that once they were identified, they were to be buried without taking any revenge on their dead bodies by burning, drowning or decapitating them. The supreme commander would also instruct the commanders and leaders of Sariya missions not to disfigure the corpses of the enemy and preserve the respect of their dead. This was despite the fact that the Quraysh had disfigured the body of Hamza and others in the Battle of Uhud, and Hind bint ‘Aqabah, the wife of the commander of the enemy’s army i.e. Abu Sufyān, had chewed the liver of this martyr (Hamza). Despite all this, if the enemies were keen to take their corpses, the Prophet (s) would allow them to do so.
5) The role of women in securing supplies and relief support
Women had an important role in (securing) supplies and relief support of the Muslim army. They would prepare food for the soldiers, give water to the thirsty, carry water-bags on their shoulders and take them to the troops in the battlefield, treat the injured by burning medicinal herbs and teas and putting them on heated mats which would be placed on the injuries, and assist in evacuating the injured to specific areas such as Masjids. There role in lifting the morale and encouraging the soldiers before battle was important.
They would force those fleeing from battle to return, repair clothes and coverings and stitch water-bags and assist in medical evacuations. The women would share their advice with the supreme commander and would, in times of desperation, fight and would guard and protect the weapons and military equipment.
By allowing the women to participate in battle, the Prophet (s) raised their status. In the Battle of Hudaybiyya, he took their advice when leaving for ‘Umrah and they had told him to go ahead and do whatever he saw fit as the Muslims would all follow him. In the Conquest of Makkah, the women pledged allegiance to him just as the men did and when making the Treaty of Hudaybiyya with the Quraysh, even though the men did not agree to the conditions and protested them, the women did not do so. It was at this point that the verses of the Qur’ān were revealed that elevated their status.
The place of the women in the battles while marching or camping, was in the rear of the army and in Madina and the fortresses during defense, it was behind the men and they would give the necessary assistance and support to the soldiers. Whenever they participated in the battle, they would be behind the male soldiers.
An Analysis of the Military Management
A study of all the battles that were fought by the Muslim army in all the front-lines establishes the fact that possessing greater forces and resources was not sufficient for achieving victory. Rather, the organization of resources and proper utilization of the same at the right place and right time, even if these resources were few or even lacking, was considered the most evident cause of victory. It is because of this that the Muslim army was able to attain victory over the Jews who were stronger in terms of resources, the Romans who had a variety of different types of resources and even the enemy tribes who possessed thousands of sheep, mules and horses.
After gaining victory over the enemy, the Muslims added the acquired resources to what little they had and began organizing it. The Prophet (s) would never face the enemy altogether, rather he would face them separately attacking one after the other. This was the strategy that made the forces develop gradually in different fields, to such a degree that in time, they were able to overcome larger enemy forces. In the beginning the army fought against the Bani Qaynuqā’ and took over the few material resources that they had. The Prophet (s) fought against the Bani Qaynuqā’ at a time when the resources of the Muslim army were incomparable to those that were used in the Battle of Khaybar that took place a few years later, in which they overcame the enemy, and in this way each battle would increase the resources and capability of the Muslim army.
In his battles, the Holy Prophet (s) would use methods that required fewer material resources, like the pre-emptive battles, surprise attacks, full scale and revolutionary attacks, because these methods created a high morale, swiftness in attack, strong faith and steadfastness, complete general readiness and fear in the enemy.
 Zuhri: 93; Ibn Hishām 2:372, 3:264; Faryābi, Dalā’il al-Nubuwwah:12
 Wāqidi 3:996; Ibn Hishām 2:264
 Wāqidi 1:217, 23, 3:996; Ibn Hishām 4:24, 49; Ibn Sa’d 2:48; Tabari 2:568
 Ibn Hishām 2:264; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr 3:1924; Kalā’i 1:130
 Wāqidi 3:996; Ibn Hishām 2:264
 Dārimi (al-Muqaddimah 2); Muslim (3:895); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 107)
 Wāqidi 3:996
 Wāqidi 1:25, 230, 2:645; Ibn Hishām 4:170; Tabari 2:568; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:131
 Ibn Sa’d 2:1, 136; Tabari 2:408, 657, 3:9, 159; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:222, 2:220
 Wāqidi 1:193, 391; Ibn Khayyāt 1:7; Ibn Hazm: 100
 Wāqidi 2:444, 658, 664, 3:1038; Ibn Hishām 3:260; Tabari 3:10; Kalā’i 1:114
 Wāqidi 2:774 onwards; Ibn Hishām 4:281; Tabari 3:32; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:158
 Wāqidi 1:26, 398 onwards, 2:575, 658, 668; Ibn Hishām 2:346
 Wāqidi 1:338
 Wāqidi 2:546
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 65); Muslim (al-Sayd 17, 19); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 46); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 35)
 Wāqidi 1:53; Ibn Hishām 2:271, 3:302; Ibn Sa’d 2:45; Bakri 4:1220
 Muslim (al-Salām 34)
 Wāqidi 2:444
 Wāqidi 1:53, 2:643; Ibn Hishām 2:276, 3:233
 Ibn Hishām 3:90; Tabari 2:519; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:15
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 67, al-Maghāzi 37); Muslim (al-Jihād 135); Tirmidhi (al-Qiyāmah 18)
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 65, 67); Muslim (al-Jihād 137, 141); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 32); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 22)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 37); Muslim (al-Jihād 135)
 Wāqidi 3:966; Ibn Hishām 2:263, 4:170; Tabari 2:433
 Wāqidi 1:13, 2:562, 571, 636; Ibn Sa’d 2:65; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:54
 al-Fākihi, Akhbāru Makkah 2:3; Tabari 2:427; Hamawi 57, 87, 188
 Ibn Sa’d 2:2-6, 24; Ibn Atheer 2:113, 116
 Wāqidi 1:402; Ibn Hishām 3:224; Ibn Hazm: 184; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:54
 Wāqidi 1:403 2:756; Ibn Hishām 2:257; Ibn Sa’d 2:92; Bakri 4:1172; Hamawi 5:219; Mawri, Ghāyat al-Aāmāl fi Fann al-Harb wal-Qitāl 2:14
 Ibn Hishām 2:68 onwards; 3:69, 90; Ibn Sa’d 2:96; Bakri 3:473
 Bukhāri (al-Anbiyā’ 9); Muslim (al-Imārah 178); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 55)
 Wāqidi 1:253, 643; Ibn Hishām 4:234; Bajri 2:1190
 Zuhri: 86; Ibn Hanbal 3:305; Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 57)
 Wāqidi 2:534; Ibn Hishām 3:244; Muslim 3:1391
 Ibn Sa’d 2:44; Bakri 2:564; Hamawi 2:487
 Ibn Sa’d 2:92; Bakri 4:1172; Hamawi 5:219
 Dir’ā is presently located in the south of Syria while Muta is in the north of Jordan. (Tr.)
 Bakri 1:303; Hamawi 2:14
 Ibn Sa’d 2:92, 136; Bakri 1:101
 Ibn Hanbal 2:267; Muslim (al-Imārah 178); Abu Dāwud (al-Tibb 24); al-Nuwayri, Nihāyat al-Adab 10:103
 Wāqidi 2:511; Abu Dāwud (al-Manāsik 65); Tirmidhi (al-Janā’iz 32); Ibn Sayyidah 6:25
 Wāqidi 1:17, 338; Ibn Hishām 2:264; Ibn Sa’d 2:12
 Ibn Hishām 3:311; Tabari 2:611; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:96
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 31); Muslim (al-Jihād 149); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 34)
 Wāqidi 1:274; Ibn Hishām 2:264; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:206
 Ibn Sa’d 2:7, 13; Mawri, Ghāyat al-Aāmāl fi Fann al-Harb wal-Qitāl 2:25
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 17); Muslim (al-Imārah 143)
 Bukhāri (al-Dhabā’ih 13); Muslim (al-Sayd 52); Tirmidhi (al-Asa’mah 22); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 37)
 Bukhāri (al-Riqāq 17, al-At’imah 23); Muslim (al-Zuhd 21); Abu Dāwud (al-Imārah 20)
 Ibn Hanbal 1:224; Muslim (al-Ashribah 83; Fadhā’il al-Sahābah 132)
 Bukhāri (al-Hibah 7, al-At’imah 8, 16, al-Maghāzi 38); Muslim (al-Sayd 46); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 28); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 26)
 Ibn Hanbal 6:456; Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 29)
 Ibn Hanbal 3:488; Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 35, 38, al-Jihād 123)
 Wāqidi 2:796
 Wāqidi 2:452, 476; Ibn Hishām 3:260
 Wāqidi 1:398, 2:500,577
 Wāqidi 2:577
 Wāqidi 2:24, 338; Kalā’i 2:112
 Wāqidi 1:24; Muslim (al-Jihād 49)
 Wāqidi 1:391
 Wāqidi 1:26, 2:576, 3:1035
 Wāqidi 1:338; Kalā’i 1:112
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 38); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 145)
 Wāqidi 2:775; Ibn Hishām 4:281
 Wāqidi 1:238; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:159
 Wāqidi 1:26; Ibn Hishām 3:346; Tabari 3:10
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 65); Muslim (al-Sayd 17); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 46); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 35)
 Wāqidi 2:575 onwards, 3:1037; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:123
 Wāqidi 2:661; Suhayli 4:58; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:123
 Ibn Hanbal 6:346; Bukhāri (al-Dhabā’ih 28, al-Maghāzi 35); Tirmidhi (al-At’imah 6)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 29, al-Riqāq 17); Muslim (al-Zuhd 12); Tirmidhi (al-Zuhd 39)
 Wāqidi 2:863, 882
 Zuhri: 52; Ibn Sa’d 2:45; Bukhāri (al-Ashribah 16)
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 85); Muslim (al-Jihād 101)
 Bukhāri (al-Tibb 28); Muslim (al-Islām 78); Tirmidhi (al-Tibb 25, 33)
 Wāqidi 1:53; Ibn Sa’d 2:9; Mālik, al-Muwatta’ (al-At’imah 83)
 Ibn Hishām 2:272; Ibn Atheer 2:122; Ibn Qayyim 3:230
 Ibn Sa’d 2:9; Ibn Qutayba 2:113; Harthami, Mukhtasar Siyāsat al-Hurub: 65
 Q8:42; Wāqidi 1:53; Ibn Hishām 3:234; Ibn Sa’d 2:35, 45; of course this was not always done. For example, even though the Prophet (s) had gained control over the wells of Badr, he allowed the enemy to take some water from it. (Tr.)
 Wāqidi 1:177, 368, 2:499, 680, 787; Ibn Qayyim, Zād al-Ma’ād 2:330
 Wāqidi 2:685; Ibn Sa’d 2:114; Tabari 2:582
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 85); Muslim (al-Jihād 101)
 Zuhri: 52; Wāqidi 2:587, 661, 3:1039; Ibn Hazm: 251; Kalā’i 1:152
 Wāqidi 3:1018, 1035
 Bukhāri (al-Sayd 3); Muslim (al-Sayd 37); Ibn Mājah (al-Dhabā’ih 10); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 32)
 Bukhāri (al-Hibah 5, al-Dhabā’ih 10); Muslim (al-Sayd 53); Tirmidhi (al-At’imah 2)
 Bukhāri (al-At’imah 14); Muslim (al-Sayd 42, 47); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 26)
 Ibn Hanbal 1:100, 104
 Ibn Hanbal 1:366; Muslim (al-Zakāh 170); Abu Dāwud (al-Buyu’ 3)
 Wāqidi 1:338, 2:775; Ibn Hanbal 1:260
 Bukhāri (al-At’imah 39, 45); Ibn Mājah (al-At’imah 37); Tirmidhi (al-At’imah 37)
 Bukhāri (al-At’imah 50, al-Anbiyā’ 29); Muslim (al-Ashriba 165)
 Wāqidi 2:577, 658, 664-670, 3:1035; Ibn Sa’d 2:95; Tabari 3:10
 Wāqidi 2:658, 661, 670; Ibn Hishām 3:346; Kalā’i 1:132; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:134
 Wāqidi 3:1039; Ibn Hishām 4:164, 171; Kalā’i 1:152
 Q27:80; Wāqidi 1:371, 2:822, 827; Tabari 2:568
 Majmu’āt Muhādharāt Alqaytu fi al-Akādimiyya al-Askariyya al-‘Ulyā al-Suriyya
 Wāqidi 1:371; Ibn Hanbal 6:27; Ibn Mandhur 1:659
 Bukhāri (al-Salāh 17, al-Libās 42, al-Maghāzi 56); Muslim (al-Salāh 250); Abu Dāwud (al-Salāh 36)
 Ibn al-Sikkeet, Mukhtsar Tahdheeb al-Alfādh: 407, 408; Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 2:225
 Bukhāri (al-Nafaqāt 3, al-Jihād 80); Muslim (al-Jihād 49); Nasā’i (al-Fay’ 1)
 Q9:41; Wāqidi 3:991, 1019; Ibn Hishām 4:161, 3:226; Tabari 3:100
 Zuhri: 73; Wāqidi 1:377; Ibn Hishām 3:201; Ibn Sa’d 2:41; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:50
 Ibn Sa’d 2:1, 39; Tabari 2:408, 493; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:224, 2:2, 48
 Bukhāri (al-Nafaqāt 3, al-Jihād 80, al-Maghāzi 14); Muslim (al-Jihād 49); Abu Dāwud (al-Imārah 19); Nasā’i (al-Fay’ 1)
 Wāqidi 2:444; Ibn Hishām 3:260; Kalā’i 1:114
 Wāqidi 1L368, 496, 2:637; Suhayli 4:65; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:134
 Wāqidi 1:177, 363, 2:499, 644; Ibn Hishām 2:200, 344; Ibn Sa’d 2:114
 Ibn Sa’d 2:40; Tabari 2:583
 Wāqidi 2:671, 673; Ibn Hishām 3:344; Tabari 3:9
 Wāqidi 1:378, 2:496, 662; Tabari 2:554; Ibn Hazm: 182
 Ibn Hishām 3:245; Ibn Sa’d 2:19, 40, 77; Ibn Khayyāt 1:27; Ibn Hazm: 154, 182
 Wāqidi 1:179, 374, 2:453, 462; Ibn Sa’d 2:20, 41, 83; Tabari 2:481
 Wāqidi 1:179, 2:671; Ibn Sa’d 2:20, 41, 83; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:50
 Wāqidi 2:453, 462; Ibn Hishām 3:264; Tabari 2:570
 Wāqidi 1:179, 374, 2:671; Ibn Atheer 2:138, 173, 221; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:295, 2:50
 Q3:174; ibn Sa’d 2:42; Ibn Mājah (al-Jihād 23)
 Wāqidi 1:387
 Bukhāri (al-Harth 18, 20); Abu Dāwud (al-Buyu’ 30, 54); Nasā’i (al-Eimān 45)
 Ibn Hanbal 5:45; Bukhāri (al-Jihād 192)
 Wāqidi 1:116 onwards; Ibn Hishām 2:197; Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubrā 9:175
 Wāqidi 2:765; Ibn Hishām 4:24; Tabari 3:42
 Wāqidi 3:1124; Ibn Sa’d 2:137; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:282
 Wāqidi 1:20, 181, 194, 2:445; Ibn Mandhur 1:754
 Ibn Hanbal 2:17; Abu Dāwud (al-Hudud 18); Bayhaqi 9:21
 Wāqidi 1:21, 2:453; Bayhaqi 9:21
 Wāqidi 1:216; Ibn Hishām 3:70; Tabari 2:505
 Wāqidi 1:21
 Ibn Hanbal 2:17; Abu Dāwud (al-Hudud 18); Bayhaqi 9:21
 Bukhāri (al-‘Ilm 1, 23, 26, 34); Ibn Mājah (al-Iqāmah 23); Tirmidhi (al-‘Ilm 19)
 Bukhāri (al-Jizyah 8); Kalā’i 1:111; Details about this can be found in Wāqidi 1:347
 Murthid ibn Abi Murthid was one of the companions of the Prophet (s) who went with ten reciters in order to teach the tribes of Adhal and al-Qārrah but when they arrived at the well of Rajee’, the tribes broke their pact with them and killed them (Tr.)
 Wāqidi 1:354; Ibn Sa’d 2:39; Ibn Hishām 3:178; Ibn Khayyāt 1:42
 Ibn Sa’d 2:14; Bayhaqi 6:322; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:287
 Wāqidi 1:82; Ibn Hishām 3:49; Ibn Sa’d 2:21; Mishelah, al-Harb al-Khātifah: 77
 Wāqidi 3:996; Ibn Hishām 2:264
 Wāqidi 2:534, 550; Ibn Sa’d 2:56, 61; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:79, 103
 Ibn Hanbal 4:456; Bukhāri (al-Dhabā’ih 13)
 Bukhāri (al-Sayd 3); Muslim (al-Sayd 53); Ibn Mājah (al-At’imah 27); Tirmidhi (al-At’imah 2)
 Muslim 3:1433; Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 61)
 Wāqidi 1:177, 2:644, 685; Ibn Hishām 3:200; Ibn Sa’d 2:141
 Wāqidi 2:647, 644, 670; Ibn Hishām 3:344
 Wāqidi 2:647, 644, 670
 Wāqidi 2:671, 680; Ibn Hishām 3:344; Tabari 3:9
 Wāqidi 1:177, 363, 2:496; Ibn Hishām 3:245; Ibn Sa’d 2:40
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 130); Muslim (al-Sayd 26)
 Wāqidi 2:639, 662
 Wāqidi 1:17; Ibn Hishām 2:264; Ibn Sa’d 2:5; Tabari 2:431
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 31); Muslim (al-Jihād 149); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 34)
 Wāqidi 2:755; Ibn Hishām 4:281; Kalā’i 1:112
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 65); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 46)
 Bukhāri (al-Sayd 3, al-Dhabā’ih 10, al-At’imah 14); Muslim (al-Sayd 37, 53); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 27)
 Bukhāri (al-At’imah 39, 45, 50, al-Anbiyā’ 29, al-Maghāzi 65); Muslim (al-Ashribah 165); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 26)
 Zuhri: 52; Bukhāri (al-Jihād 85)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 35, 137); Muslim (al-Jihād 131)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 79); Muslim (al-Tawba 53)
 Dārimi (al-Buyu’ 54); Abu Dāwud (al-Buyu’ 88)
 Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih, al-‘Iqd al-Fareed 2:225; Mas’udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 2:233; Lord Monister, Risālah fi Harb ‘ind al-‘Arab: 52; Farrukh, Tārikh al-Jāhiliyya: 30
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 97); Muslim (al-Jihād 78)
 Q9:92; Ibn Hishām 4:161; Tabari 3:102; Qāsimi, Mahāsin al-Ta’wil 8:3233
 Mas’udi 2:233; Watt: 16,17
 Ibn Hanbal 4:372; Muslim (al-Sayd 100); Nasā’i (al-Mawāqeet 55)
 Wāqidi 1:177; Ibn Hishām 3:245; Tabari 2:583; Dianna, Muhammad Rasulullah: 278
 Wāqidi 2:644, 667; Ibn Hazm: 212; Ibn Katheer 4:!99
 Bukhāri (al-Tibb 28); Muslim (al-Islām 78, 81); Tirmidhi (al-Tibb 25, 33)
 Wāqidi 2:634; Kalā’i 1:130
 Ibn Sa’d 2:44, 92, 136; Bakri 1:101, 303, 2:564; Hamawi 1:79, 2:14, 487
 Wāqidi 3:1079; Ibn Hishām 4:239; Ibn Sa’d 2:122; Tabari 3:126
 Ibn Sa’d 2:44, 56; Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 28)
 Dārimi (al-Jihād 22); Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 20, al-Riqāq 117)
 Zuhri: 52; Ibn Hazm: 251; Hamawi 2:350; Kalā’i 1:152
 Wāqidi 3:1079; Ibn Hishām 3:203; Ibn Sa’d 2:45; Tabari 3:126;, 131; Bakri 1:101, 2:564, 4:1220
 Kalā’i 1:151; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:218; Watt: 16, 17
 Wāqidi 3:1015; Ibn Khayyāt 1:17; Ibn Hazm: 253
 Wāqidi 2:800-806; Ibn Hishām 3:264; Ibn Sa’d 2:45
 Wāqidi 1:26; Ibn Hishām 3:346; Ibn Sa’d 2:95; Tabari 3:10
 Wāqidi 3:991, 994; Ibn Hishām 4:161; Ibn Sa’d 2:120
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 16)
 Bukhāri (al-Sayd 3, al-At’imah 39, 45, 50); Muslim (al-Sayd 37, 53)
 Wāqidi 2:445, 448; Ibn Hishām 3:260; Tabari 2:568; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:57
 Bukhāri (al-Dhabā’ih 10); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 27); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 32)
 Shaybāni 2:409; Ibn Hanbal 6:276; Muslim (al-Jihād 58); Bayhaqi 9:89
 Wāqidi 1:53; Ibn Hishām 2:257; Ibn Sa’d 2:96
 Q8:41; Bukhāri (al-Eimān 40); Muslim (al-Eimān 23); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 134); Tirmidhi (Aseer 14)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 8); Muslim (al-Jihād 2); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 25)
 Dārimi (al-Muqaddimah 7); Abu Dāwud (al-Janā’iz 32); Tirmidhi (al-Janā’iz 31)
 Zuhayli, al-Fiqh al-Islāmiyya wa Adillatih 6:455
 Suhayli 3:22 onwards
 Zuhayli 6:458
 Wāqidi 3:295; Dārimi (al-Siyar 35); Bukhāri (al-‘Umrah 3)
 Wāqidi 2:544; Ibn Sa’d 2:61
 Bukhāri (al-Madhālim 20); Muslim (al-Adh’hā 20); Ibn Mājah (al-Fitan 3); Abu Dāwud (al-Hudud 14)
 Bukhāri (al-Eimān 3); Muslim (al-Jihād 32)
 Shāfi’i, al-Umm 4:64 onwards
 Ibn Sa’d 2:46; Suhayli 4:65
 Wāqidi 1:178, 377, 2:510, 524; Ibn Sa’d 2:41
 Wāqidi 1:96, 2:535, 944, 3:943; Ibn Sa’d 2:61, 95
 Ibn Qudāmah, al-Mughni 8:372 onwards; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:287; Zuhayli, Athār al-Harb fi Fiqh al-Islāmi: 429
 Shaybāni 2:409; Ibn Mājah (al-Diyāt 3); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 18)
 Dārimi (al-Siyar 27); Ibn Mājah (al-Jihād 32); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 124); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 18)
 Bukhāri (al-Khums 16); Abu Dāwud (al- Jihād 120); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 18); Ibn Qudāmah 8:372
 Wāqidi 1:138, 148; Ibn Hishām 2:298; Ibn Sa’d 2:11; Tabari 2:459
 Wāqidi 1:142, 309; Ibn Hishām 3:110; Bayhaqi 6:320
 Wāqidi 2:513; Ibn Hishām 3:249; Ibn Sa’d 2:56; Tabari3:593
 Wāqidi 1:138 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 2:14; Ibn Hanbal 1:353
 Ibn Hanbal 1:247; Bayhaqi 6:322
 Wāqidi 1:16; Ibn Hishām 2:255; Ibn Sa’d 2:5; Tabari 2:413
 Wāqidi 2:602
 Dārimi (al-Siyar 27); Muslim 3:376; Ibn Mājah (al-Jihād 32)
 Wāqidi 1:142; Ibn Hishām 3:110; Ibn Atheer 2:165
 Ibn Hanbal 6:276; Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 121); This was the husband of the Prophet’s daughter Zainab (Tr.)
 Wāqidi 1:138 onwards; Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 12)
 Wāqidi 1:407, 410; Ibn Hishām 3:307 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 2:46
 Ibn Sa’d 2:56; Muslim 3:1386; Bayhaqi 6:319
 Wāqidi 2:552; Ibn Sa’d 2:62; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:105
 Ibn Sa’d 2:62; Ibn Atheer 2:207; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:105; Ibn Qayyim 2:297
 Bukhāri (al-Ahkām 35); Muslim (al-Jihād 58); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 18); Nasā’i (al-Qudhāt 17)
 Ibn Hishām 2:199; Tabari 2:46; Ibn Atheer 2:131
 Wāqidi 1:407, 410; Ibn Salām, al-Amwāl 1:106; Muslim 3:1386
 Tabari 2:463; Bayhaqi 9:89
 Wāqidi 2:252; Muslim 3:1368; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:287
 Ibn Hanbal 3:377; Bukhāri (al-Jihād 144); Abu Dāwud (al-Eimān 31); Tirmidhi (al-Jihād 34)
 Dārimi (al-Farā’idh 43); Bukhāri (al-Salāh 75); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 97, 14); Nasā’i (al-Masājid 20)
 Ibn Hishām 2:199; Tabari 2:46; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:265
 Ibn Sa’d 3:116; Bayhaqi 9:89; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:203
 Ibn Hanbal 5:294; Abu Dāwud (al-Buyu’ 3)
 Ibn Hishām 1:300; Tabari 2:461; Ibn Atheer 2:131
 Bayhaqi 6:230; Zuhayli, Athār al-Harb fi Fiqh al-Islāmi: 412
 Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr 1:213; Ibn Atheer 1:246; Zuhayli: 412
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 146); Qurtubi 4:3059
 Wāqidi 3:989; Bukhāri (al-Jihād 142)
 Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 97, 116)
 Wāqidi 1:53, 2:563, 3:986; Ibn Hishām 2:268; Tabari 2:436
 Wāqidi 2:552; Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 84)
 Zuhri: 93; Ibn Hanbal 5:309; Bukhāri (al-Madina 12); Nasā’i (al-Ashribah 40)
 Refer to the books on Tibb including Tibb al-Nabawi and the chapters on al-Tibb in Bukhāri and Muslim
 Ibn Is’hāq: 308; Wāqidi 1:241; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:14
 Wāqidi 1:190; Ibn Hishām 3:60; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:301
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 38, 121); Muslim (Fadhā’il al-Sahābah 32, 35); The Prophet (s) had initially given the opportunity to his other companions like Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqās but they were unable to take down the fort of Khaybar. It is then that the Prophet (s) gave the command to ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (‘a) who finally gained victory over the Jews and brought down Khaybar (Ibn Hajar 2:503) (Tr.)
 Wāqidi 1:350, 2:644
 Wāqidi 1:87, 250, 334 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 2:34; Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 16)
 Wāqidi 1:393, 2:551; Ibn Hishām 3:85; Ibn Sa’d 2:117
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 67, Tibb 2); Muslim (al-Jihād 137, 141); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 32, 141); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 22)
 Wāqidi 1:247; Ibn Hishām 3:85; Ibn Atheer 3:78; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:12
 Ibn Hanbal 3:334; Bukhāri (al-Jihād 80, al-Tibb 27); Tirmidhi (al-Tibb 34)
 Wāqidi 1:334; Ibn Hishām 3:107; Ibn Sa’d 2:34; Tabari 2:534 onwards; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:13
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 30); Muslim (al-Jihād 66); Abu Dāwud (al-Janā’iz 4); Nasā’i (al-Masājid 18)
 Wāqidi 2:551; Ibn Sa’d 2:62; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:104
 Shaybāni 1:127; Ibn Sa’d 2:34
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 16)
 Bukhāri (al-Tibb 3, 5, al-Hajj 18); Muslim (al-Islām 18)
 Bukhāri (al-Tibb 52, 56); Muslim (al-Ashribah 155); Abu Dāwud (al-Tibb 12)
 Ibn Hanbal 6:77; Bukhāri (al-At’imah 43, al-Tibb 52); Ibn Mājah (al-Tibb 3)
 Wāqidi 2:569; Ibn Hanbal 6:380; Bukhāri (al-Tibb 6, 57); Ibn Mājah (al-Tibb 30)
 Ibn Hanbal 6:380; Abu Dāwud (al-Tahārah 120)
 Ibn Qayyim 3:134, 415; Ibn Katheer 4:195
 Wāqidi 1:53, 2:644; Ibn Hishām 3:69, 231; Kalā’i 1:130
 Wāqidi 2:644; Bukhāri (al-Madina 12); Tirmidhi (al-Ru’yā 10)
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 85, al-Ashribah 16)
 Bukhāri (al-Anbiyā’ 17); Muslim (al-Jihād 101); Abu Dāwud (al-Tahārah 33); Nasā’i (al-Tahārah 43)
 Zuhri: 79; Wāqidi 1:145, 152, 2:700, 825; Ibn Sa’d 2:43, 109; Ibn Hanbal 2:552; Nasā’i (al-Khawf 16); Kalā’i 1:112, 130; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:52m 131
 Ibn Is’hāq: 289; Wāqidi 1:145; Ibn Sa’d 2:11; Tabari 2:477; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:285
 Wāqidi 1:300 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 2:29; Ibn Hanbal 5:135
 Wāqidi 2:295; Ibn Hishām 3:263; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:67
 Wāqidi 2:769; Ibn Hishām 4:30; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:156
 Ibn Hishām 4:50; Ibn Sa’d 2:98; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, al-Durar fi Ikhtisār al-Maghāzi wal-Siyar: 232; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:173
 Wāqidi 3:922; Ibn Hishām 4:101; Ibn Sa’d 2:109; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:192, 193
 Wāqidi 2:750; Ibn Hishām 3:357; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:142
 Wāqidi 3:938; Ibn Hishām 4:129; Tabari 3:58; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:202
 Zuhri: 71; Wāqidi 1:176; Ibn Sa’d 2:19, 40; Ibn Khayyāt 1:27; Kalā’i 1:111
 Wāqidi 2:551; Ibn Sa’d 2:61; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:104; Ibn Qayyim 2:279
 Wāqidi 2:723; Ibn Sa’d 2:86; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:146; Ibn Qayyim2:358
 Wāqidi 2:741; Ibn Sa’d 2:89; Ibn Atheer 5:266; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 5:149
 Wāqidi 2:752; Ibn Sa’d 2:92; Tabari 3:29; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:152
 Wāqidi 1:1:347; Ibn Sa’d 2:36; Bukhāri 5:41; Kalā’i 1:111
 Ibn Sa’d 2:39; Wāqidi 1:355; Ibn Hishām 3:178; Ibn Khayyāt 1:30 (some of whom mention different numbers)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 29); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 156); Ibn Hishām 4:49; Ibn Sa’d 2:98
 Wāqidi 2:551, 723, 741; Ibn Sa’d 2:61, 86, 89; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:104, 146, 152
 Wāqidi 1:45, 152; Ibn Sa’d 2:6, 11; Tabari 2:431, 477; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:245, 285
 Wāqidi 1:300; Ibn Hishām 3:68, 129; Ibn Sa’d 2:27, 29; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:5, 27
 Ibn Hishām 3:231, 264; Ibn Sa’d 2:47; Tabari 2:570; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr: 194
 Wāqidi 2:574, 750; Ibn Hishām 3:231, 264; Ibn Sa’d 2:78; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:153
 Wāqidi 2:756, 769; Ibn Hishām 4:15, 30; Ibn Sa’d 2:97; Tabari 3:36; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:153
 Wāqidi 2:800, 812; Ibn Hishām 2:42, 50; Ibn Sa’d 2:97; Tabari 3:73, 81; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr: 232
 Wāqidi 3:889, 992; Ibn Hishām 4:83; Ibn Sa’d 2:108-110; Tabari 3:73, 81; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr: 242
 Wāqidi 2:889, 923, 938; Ibn Sa’d 2:114
 Wāqidi 2:551, 723, 741, 752; Ibn Sa’d 2:36, 39, 61, 86, 92; Bukhāri 5:41; Kalā’i 1:111; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:104, 146, 149, 152
 Dārimi (al-Muqaddimah 7); Ibn Mājah (al-Janā’iz 28); Abu Dāwud (al-Janā’iz 23); Tirmidhi (al-Janā’iz 31)
 Abu Dāwud (al-Janā’iz 38); Tirmidhi (al-Janā’iz 31)
 Ibn Hanbal 4:185; Dārimi (al-Jihād 19); Ibn Mājah (al-Muqaddimah 110, al-Libās 2); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 25); Tirmidhi (Fadhā’il al-Jihād 13); Nasā’i (al-Qisāmah 18)
 Ibn Hanbal 1:288, 463; Dārimi (al-Jihād 16); Bukhāri (al-Jihād 2); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 26); Tirmidhi (Fadhā’il al-Jihād 25); Nasā’i (Fadhā’il al-Jihād 83)
 Ibn Hanbal 1:386; Dārimi (al-Jihād 18); Muslim (al-Aqdhiya 16); Abu Dāwud (al-Aqdhiya 13); Tirmidhi (Fadhā’il al-Jihād 13)
 Bukhāri (al-Janā’iz 73, 79); Abu Dāwud (al-Janā’iz 27); Tirmidhi (al-Janā’iz 46); Nasā’i (al-Janā’iz 62)
 Bukhāri (al-Salāh 109, Manāqib al-Ansār 45, al-Maghāzi 8); Muslim (al-Janā’iz 26); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 115); Nasā’i (al-Janā’iz 117)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 36); Muslim (al-Jihād 2, al-Birr 117, 119); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 113); Tirmidhi (al-Jihād 14)
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 36, al-Dhabā’ih 25); Muslim (al-Jihād 2); Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 82); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 48, al-Jihād 14)
 Bukhāri (al-Janā’iz 75); Abu Dāwud (al-Adh’hā 11); Tirmidhi (al-Diyāt 14); Nasā’i (al-Dhahāyā 22, 26)
 Bukhāri (al-Janā’iz 34; al-Jihād 20); Muslim (Fadhā’il al-Sahābah 129); Tirmidhi (al-Janā’iz 31); Nasā’i (al-Janā’iz 12)
 Ibn Hanbal 1:248, 271; Abu Dāwud 2:279
 Ibn Hanbal 5:84; Dārimi (al-Jihād 30); Muslim (al-Jihād 141); Ibn Mājah (al-Jihād 37, al-Ahkām 14); Abu Dāwud (al-Buyu’ 89, al-Salāh 70)
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 67, al-Tibb 2); Abu Dāwud (al-Ashriba 44, al-Imārah 20, al-Adab 100)
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 65, Manāqib al-Ansār 18, al-Maghāzi 18); Muslim (al-Jihād 136)
 Ibn Hanbal 5:84; Dārimi (al-Jihād 30); Muslim (al-Jihād 141); Ibn Mājah (al-Jihād 37); Bayhaqi 9:22, 30
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 30); Muslim (al-Jihād 66, 141); Abu Dāwud (al-Janā’iz 4); Nasā’i (al-Masājid 18)
 Wāqidi 1:208; Ibn Hishām 3:72; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:9 onwards
 Wāqidi 2:278, 3:903; Ibn Hishām 4:89; Tabari 3:77; Kalā’i 1:145
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 66, al-Maghāzi 22); Tirmidhi (al-Libās 38)
 Ibn Hanbal 6:385; Bukhāri (al-Tibb 2, al-Jihād 67)
 Bukhāri (al-Hajj 316)
 Wāqidi 1:269, 3:904; Ibn Hishām 3:87, 88; Tabari 3:77; Kalā’i 1:145; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:11, 13
 Ibn Hishām 3:106; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:24
 Wāqidi 2:613; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr 4:1939; Ibn Atheer 2:205; Ibn Qayyim 2:308
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 66, al-Maghāzi 22); Muslim (al-Imārah 89, al-Salām 89); Ibn Mājah (al-Jihād 43); Abu Dāwud (al-Zakāh 33)
 Wāqidi 3:629; Ibn Hishām 3:340; Tabari 2:640; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:122
 For en example of the important role played by women in these battles see: Ibn Hishām 3:86
 Q60:10; Suhayli 1:26; Qāsimi, Mahāsin al-Ta’wil 16:5770
 Wāqidi 1:223, 3:897; Muslim 3:895; Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 107)
 Wāqidi 2:996; Muslim 3:895; Abu Dāwud (al-Jihād 107)
 Wāqidi 2:262, 269; Ibn Hishām 3:262; Ibn Hanbal 1:164; Tabari 2:570
 Wāqidi 2:460; Ibn Hishām 3:239
 Wāqidi 1:269, 3:904; Ibn Hishām 3:87, 4:88; Kalā’i 1:145; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:11, 13
 Wāqidi 2:661, 3:991; Ibn Hishām 4:159; Ibn Sa’d 2:120; Tabari 3:102
 Wāqidi 2:775; Ibn Hishām 4:281; Tabari 3:10; Kalā’i 1:112
 Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 65); Muslim (al-Sayd 17); Abu Dāwud (al-At’imah 46); Nasā’i (al-Sayd 35)
 Wāqidi 3:368, 2:637; Ibn Sa’d 2:19; Kalā’i 1:130; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:74; Wāqidi 2:644, 670, 680
 Wāqidi 1:755, 3:990; Ibn Hishām 4:16, 19; Ibn Sa’d 2:119
 Zuhri: 93; Wāqidi 1:183, 2:535, 3:943; Ibn Sa’d 2:61
 Ibn Sa’d 2:20, 41, 120; Bukhāri (al-Jihād 80); Muslim (al-Jihād 49)
 Wāqidi 1:176, 363, 2:496, 633, 267; Ibn Sa’d 2:1, 19, 40; Tabari 2:479, 581, 3:9; Ibn Hazm: 239
 Zuhri: 86; Ibn Shihāb 3:50 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 2:21, 44; Tabari 2:9; Kalā’i 1:130
 Wāqidi 1:187; Ibn Sa’d 2:20; Tabari 2:481; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:296
 Wāqidi 2:658, 664, 470; Ibn Hishām 3:253; Ibn Sa’d 2:78
 Wāqidi 1:182, 194; Ibn Hishām 3:46; Ibn Sa’d 2:21, 35, 43, 62
 Wāqidi 1:396; Ibn Sa’d 2:21; Suhayli 3:28; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 1:304
 Wāqidi 1:20, 88; Ibn Hishām 3:181; Tabari 2:513
 Zuhri: 87; Wāqidi 1:182, 2:749, 3:1123; Ibn Hishām 3:46; Ibn Sa’d 2:21, 28, 49, 97; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:281
 Wāqidi 1:396; Kalā’i 1:123; Ibn Sayyid al-Nās 2:106
 Bukhāri (al-Jihād 122); Muslim (al-Masājid 3, 5); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 5); Nasā’i (al-Jihād 1)
 Q8:65, Q9:19, 20, 41, 89; Bukhāri (al-Maghāzi 53, al-Jihād 110)
 Wāqidi 3:990 onwards, Tabari 3:101; Kalā’i 1:151