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Caliphate Council and Uthmans Election

By: Rasul Ja'fariyan
'Umar consulted with Prophet's (S) companions in several cases while never compelling himself to fulfill their notions. It should be said when 'Umar had no idea in some cases, he benefited others'. In judicial issues, he preferred Imam 'Ali's idea tens of times.
He consulted with companions about Hijra calendering and conceded Imam's opinion on determining Prophet's Hijra as the beginning (era) of Islamic date. [513]
Another example of consulting with Imam leading to his approved idea was about lands of Iraq. [514] The other one is about going out of Medina during the war with Iranians and defining a leader for Iranian troops. [515] In his suggesting to do some things, 'Umar cited favoring companions and consulting with them. [516]
Considering these counsellings, some have said that basically a consultative assembly was regularly taking place in a mosque and the political system during 'Umar's rule was a kind of democracy, even close to a republic. [517]
This view fails to comply with the truth of that time and what history has reported. Occasional counsels are parted from parliaments that adopt the majority of votes and regularly interfere with the affairs. The source of Amir 'Ali's utterance is what Qaďi Abu Yusuf [518] said as in the mosque there was the meeting of upper class among whom were the heads of tribes coming to Medina.
He has named this group people of Shura. Mentioning Amir 'Ali's inaccuracy in using words like parliament, about the current meaning of this word, and Ibrahim Bayďun says, There was nothing called parliament as an established and influential board in the regime in that age.
As 'Umar had a great influence in domestic and foreign political and all governmental affairs, this issue is more applicable in 'Umar's time. In fact, the afore-mentioned is the extension of the same thing in the Prophet's age. [519] It has been quoted from Imam as-Sadiq (a) that emigrants usually sat in the mosque and 'Umar confided the events in them, e.g. he asked them how to treat Magi (Majus), then Prophet treated them as Muslims, 'Abd al-Rahman Ibn 'Awf said. [520]
As said, 'Umar also consulted with the companions about writing traditions and 'Ali, unlike their approval, refused to do so.
In caliph's opinion, another example of consultation is matter of caliphate. For the first time, he confessed the truth of Abu Bakr's election, in his speech in Medina he said that election was without consulting the Muslims, thereafter caliphate should be based on Muslims' consultation; if anyone swore allegiance to someone without consulting, both should be killed. [521]
This speech led to the idea of one principle in choosing the caliph as outlined in this brief narrated phrase of caliph al-Imara Shura. [522] What 'Umar said about the matter of succession shows that he himself was perplexed. In the beginning, he wished his old friends were alive to make them caliphs.
One of them was Mu'adh Ibn Jabal. [523] The second person was Abu 'Ubayda Jarrah, third, present emigrants in Saqifa, [524] and the forth one Salim Mawla Hudhayfa who was not of Quraysh. [525] Surprisingly, despite all 'Umar's disagreements with Khalid Ibn Walid, [526] he had been quoted saying, If Khalid Ibn Walid were alive, he would be my successor. [527] Thus, it becomes obvious if one of these people were alive, it would not be a turn for Shura. [528]
In fact, all of his candidates for caliphate had passed away. Thus, it was the turn for those alive.
'Umar was with an Ansari (one companion), says 'Abd al-Rahman Qari when he got assured that the present people were confidant, he asked him about public opinion about his successor. He named some emigrants without mentioning 'Ali's. 'Umar objected and said, Why not Abu al-Hasan? If he comes to power, he will lead people to the truth. [529]
Mughira Ibn Shu'ba says, 'Umar asked me, who is qualified to be the successor? I responded, 'Uthman!
He criticised 'Uthman. I also named five people of the council, on each of whom he placed an imperfection and accused Imam of being witty. [530] Though he said, If he comes to power, he will lead all to the Truth. [531]
'Umar asked Ka'b al-Ahbar (who 'Umar believed was dealing with Scriptures) [532] about his successor, he replied, 'Ali is not qualified for it and as he had read in the books, those who have quarrelled with the Prophet (S) over faith could be caliphs. [533] It seems that he had meant no one but the Umayyads and ahead of them 'Uthman. 'Uthman had a great influence during the ages of Abu Bakr and 'Umar.
In your opinion, once he asked Hudhayfa, who was known as prophet's confidant, whom will people accept as the ruler after me?
Hudhayfa replied, I think people would leave themselves to 'Uthman Ibn 'Affan. [534] Hudhayfa's perception was right because the Qurayshites were all 'Uthman's advocates.
It should be mentioned that 'Umar was annoyed by the Hashimites. The discussion between 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas contains notable points.
'Umar, Tabari writes, told Ibn 'Abbas, Do you know why your tribe, (Quraysh) banned you from being prophet's successor?
I answered No.
Because they detested, 'Umar said, your caliphate and prophecy, then you would have so much vanity and glory. So Quraysh seized caliphate and it was the right thing to do.
May I speak? says Ibn 'Abbas.
'Umar said, Yes.
I said, Ibn 'Abbas says, about what you say Quraysh seized the caliphate, I should say that if Quraysh had picked what God had chosen, it was on the right path without being involved in any denial and envy. But what you say about their reluctancy of prophecy and caliphate in one family, God has defined hideously such a tribe, . Such they attested what God had sent, then their deeds faded away.
O, son of 'Abbas, 'Umar said, I've heard things about you I don't want to believe, if so, you'll be underrated.
If I'm saying the truth, Ibn 'Abbas replied, why my status would be underrated, and if you think it's credal error as wrong egoism he has kept away from himself. I've heard you said they divested 'Ali of caliphate for (their) envy and oppression, 'Umar said.
As for oppression, replied Ibn 'Abbas, any ignorant and wise man knows, and as for envy, devil envied Adam, and we who are being envied, are his offsprings too. Also, said 'Umar, By God, O Hashimites! Your hearts are filled with an indelible jealousy.
O 'Umar!, replied Ibn 'Abbas, don't charge the hearts, impurified by God, with having envy and alloy. Prophet (S) 's heart is of Hashimites'. [535] Some time, it was him who refused to recruit Khalid Ibn Sa'id because of his scruple objection with Abu Bakr's caliphate, it was obvious that he couldn't be contented with Imam 'Ali (a) who had sidestepped all this time and also, in the beginning, had withheld to swear allegiance for several months.
However, 'Umar was demoralized in choosing his successor. When Hafsa heard his father thinking of putting no one as the caliph, he told his father, If you had a shepherd looking after your sheep and if he had left his duty, you would have regarded him as a waster, so considering people becomes worse.
'Umar said that if he did not put anyone as the caliph, he had treated like Prophet (S) and if he chose someone, then he had done like Abu Bakr [536] both seemed to him religious traditions. 'Umar stated that during his life he had been shouldering the responsibility which he wouldn't want to do so after death. [537] However, he couldn't leave the caliphate.
'Umar said, Some people, according to Baladhuri, have said (and he himself accepted that) swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr was unbased and without cosultation. This would be done in Shura after me. [538] 'Umar chose six people instead of one, putting the responsibility on 'Abd al-Rahman Ibn 'Awf [539] to consult with each other and choose one of themselves.
I found, 'Umar said, you are public headmen and this should be done by no one but you. Caliph, as said, placed an imperfection on each of them except Ibn 'Awf whom he praised. [540] 'Umar determined the council members as well as saying its quality of task. They were supposed to gather in a house where fifty companions guarded them till they would choose a caliph.
It seemed that Talha was not in Medina; (Baladhuri says this is true) if five people chose someone with whom one person disagreed, he had to be decapitated; if two of them disagreed with four people's decision, they had to be killed; if three people were on one side and three on the other side, they had to agree with 'Abd Allah Ibn 'Umar's arbitration and if they didn't accept it, the group in which was 'Abd al-Rahman 'Awf, was preferred. And if the other three people disagreed with them, they had to be killed. [541]
'Abd Allah Ibn 'Umar's role in this council of six people, had a consultative aspect, but he himself couldn't be as a candidate for caliphate because in his father's opinion, he couldn't even decide about divorcing his wife much less that. [542]
Beyond all this, 'Umar had said this affair was for people of Badr as long as one of them survives, after them came people of Uhud as long as one of them survives. As for the released ones and their offsprings and the people who became Muslims in Mecca's conquest, they have no rights. [543] 'Amr Ibn 'As also tried hard to become a member of the Shura.
But 'Umar told him he would not leave the task to someone who had fought against Prophet (S) [544] and he meant when 'Amr Ibn 'As was an infidel.
In the beginning, 'Abbas asked 'Ali (a) not to enter Shura. But Imam said that first he was afraid of schism, second, what 'Umar had said, Your tribe doesn't agree with the prophecy and caliphate in the same lineage, should be proved wrong. [545] When Shura was shaped of members, Imam 'Ali (a)'s opinion was that 'Uthman would be chosen.
Imam's analysis was that 'Uthman and I are in this congress and we should obey the majority. Sa'd would not object to his cousin, 'Abd al-Rahman Ibn 'Awf (who both were of Banu Zuhra). Besides, 'Abd al-Rahman is 'Uthman's brother-in-law and they wouldn't disagree with each other, so 'Abd al-Rahman would choose him; [546] therefore, if there are only two persons remained, that is Talha and Zubayr staying with me, it is of no benefit because of Ibn 'Awf they would be preferred. [547] Moreover, since Prophet's time there was a pledge of brotherhood between 'Uthman and 'Abd al-Rahman'Awf. [548]
'Abd al-Rahman announced that he favored not caliphate, others normally were not disposed to caliphate, Sa'd left the task to Ibn 'Awf, but he said that in his opinion, 'Ali was superior to 'Uthman. [549] Thus, caliphate was exclusive to 'Ali (a) and 'Uthman. Now, schism in society, Quraysh and non-Quraysh came to be real.
One should know that, here, Quraysh is political Quraysh which excludes the Hashimites. According to Tabari, 'Abd al-Rahman had been consulting several nights. All emirs, noblemen and people recommended him to choose 'Uthman. [550] After three days, people gathered in a mosque in the morning. According to Zuhri, 'Abd al-Rahman attended the meeting and Ibn 'Awf said that he had asked people and they had qualified no one but 'Uthman. [551]
Then 'Ammar Ibn Yasir, Tabari says, cried,If you don't want Muslims to get involved in conflicts, choose 'Ali.
He is right Miqdad Ibn Aswad ratified.
If you don't want, said 'Abd Allah Ibn Sa'd Ibn Abi Sarh (whom the Prophet ostracized), Quraysh to come into conflict with each other, choose 'Uthman. Tabari adds that the Umayyads and the Hashimites negotiated. [552] 'Ammar and Miqdad were on the Hashimithes' side.
O, people! 'Ammar said in the mosque, God graced us by his Prophet and by his religion, He endeared us. Why do you divest it from his Household?
A man of Banu Makhzum ( he was 'Abd Allah Ibn Sa'd and was allied, in ignorance, with the Umayyads and Abu l- Jahl and Khalid Ibn Walid were of them) replied, O 'Ammar! You have stepped off your limits! How does the emirate of Quraysh relate to you? [553]
Then 'Abd al-Rahman called 'Ali, Do you swear, saying that, if you come to power, you would follow the Book, the biography of Prophet and Shiykhs!
I hope I behave in the bounds of my knowledge and ability (Baladhuri, Ijtihad), Imam said. [554] 'Abd al-Rahman called 'Uthman and he accepted Ibn 'Awf's conditions. Thus, 'Abd al-Rahman chose 'Uthman as the caliph and swore allegiance to him. You chose 'Uthman to return you to the caliphate, 'Ali (a) said. [555]
The evidence of Imam's speech was when 'Uthman got sick, then he called his scribe to write a letter of allegiance for 'Abd al-Rahman's caliphate after him. [556] Later, 'Uthman recuperated, the treaty dissolved and evoked hostility between Ibn 'Awf and him.
I haven't seen, Miqdad said, the Prophet (S) 's Household behaves like this after him. I wonder how Quraysh leaves a man whom I know no one wiser and more just. People look, 'Ali (a) said, at Quraysh and Quraysh does at his lineage. If the Hashimites comes to power, they would stay in power forever, but they can rotate caliphate in their lineage.
Talha who came to Medina the same day asked, Is Quraysh pleased with 'Uthman?
Yes! they replied. So he swore allegiance.
You did the right thing to choose 'Uthman, Mughira Ibn Shu'ba told Ibn 'Awf. We would not be consent if you were not elected, he told 'Uthman.
'Abd al-Rahman accused him of lying. [557] Another account of Tabari says about what Shura members said in the mosque.
We are the lineage of Nubuwwat, mine of theosophy, refuge of earth people and redemptive for those who seek salvation, [558] Imam 'Ali (a) says. Imam regarded Ibn 'Awf's deal in posing conduct of Shiykhs as a ″deceit″. [559] The narrator has considered that 'Amr Ibn 'As's had a hand in this craft but it's clear that it could not be done without Ibn 'Awf.
'Abbas believed Shura is settled in a way that it would result in 'Uthman's caliphate. Because of this, he asked 'Ali not to join Shura. [560] According to Ibn Abi l-Hadid, 'Umar asked the six people, Is everyone favored in caliphate?
Zubayr replied, Yes. If you become a caliph, our rank and acquaintances would not be less than you in ″Quraysh″.
Jahiz says, If Zubayr was not certain of 'Umar's death, he wouldn't dare say it in front of him. [561] He further says, Zubayr supported 'Ali [562] and because Talha was of Banu Tamim and Abu Bakr's causin, he was on the side of 'Uthman who was against the Hashimites. [563]
According to Ibn 'Abbas, 'Umar threatened Shura members, saying that if they are at odds, Mu'awiya would overcome them. He was then in Damascus. [564] After allegiance was sworn, Imam (a) returned home. However, 'Ammar said,

'O thou who declare death of religion, rise up because goodness vanished and badness ruled. [565]
Here, some points should be noted: First, since then the Umayyads who were politicians of Quraysh, owned caliphate. This time, 'Uthman represented them and they favored him a lot. It goes to say that, [566] By the Merciful God, I like you as much as Quraysh liked 'Uthman.
In contrast, Quraysh was hostile to 'Ali and it was 'Uthman who told 'Ali, It is not my fault that Quraysh dislikes you. [567] But this time, a noble branch of Quraysh came to power while it was not so during Abu Bakr and 'Uthman. Although 'Umar was wealthy [568], he did not lead an aristocratic life. Yet, 'Uthman was a nobleman with an Islamic past. [569] Then, the government gradually moved towards the aristocratic rulership of Quraysh and extremely used tribal norms overly in choosing the caliph. [570]
It is said that at the very moment of election, Abu Sufyan told 'Uthman, , by which he meant to say, Revive the customs of the pre-Islamic era. And he, of course, meant nothing but caliphate. [571]
As mentioned earlier, being a member of Quraysh was not a constitutional prerequisite for caliphate and the tradition had not yet become the basis of justify the rule of Quraysh, as it is not consistent with 'Umar's idea of making Salim Mawla Hudhayfa his successor, so he wished his survival and being a Qurayshite as an invalid condition, as 'Umar says, is what Shi'a since long has remained critical of. [572]
Second, Shura and deliberation about caliphate came to be posed for the first time. This Shura had two aspects, one was the six-member council framework of heads of Quraysh and the caliphate was in hands of no one but them. 'Umar had determined the rules of election and based it on the majority and the minority [573] and if equal, set the balance heavier on the part of three people among whom was Ibn 'Awf.
Another is Ibn 'Awf's consultation with people lasting several nights according to what is said. Of course, Ibn 'Awf was blamed for choosing 'Uthman because of his kinship and this consultation could cover it. Moreover, just like Abu Bakr and 'Umar, they had made a pledge of brotherhood.
It should be noted that later there appeared a conflict between 'Uthman and Ibn 'Awf and when Ibn 'Awf was badly thrashed by 'Uthman's agents, he passed away while being discontented with 'Uthman. [574] What is important is the role of Shura.
However, Shura consisted of six chosen people and this number could resolve choosing one person out of six. This was a kind of limited Shura among a few Quraysh elites, so no one could interfere save them. This effective method was seen, in the next periods, among some of Imam's opponents as well as among the Zubayrids who were against the Umayyads. This will be dealt with later.
The Third point concerned was allegiance. After Ibn 'Awf and other Shura members swore allegiance, 'Ali (a) still avoided doing so.
Swear allegiance, Ibn 'Awf told him, or I will decapitate you.
Imam left the house. Shura companions followed him and said, Swear an allegiance or we will Jihad with you.
Imam (a) followed them and swore an allegiance to 'Uthman. [575] This is something that is criticized. [576]
If you are a man of fighting, we will help you. Miqdad asked 'Ali (a).
Imam said, Who will help me to fight them?
'Ammar also said the same thing. [577]
This was based on what 'Umar had said, If anyone refused to swear allegiance, he should be beheaded.
As mentioned before, 'Umar was one of those who believed in securing allegiance by force [578]- despite what is ascribed to Abu Bakr. 'Umar could not believe some people were trying for schism.
At first, when he appointed Shura members, he said, If you all choose one person and one of you disagrees with them, you could kill him. [579] Later, it remains to be seen that after Imam (a) came to power, he ceased to agree to secure allegiance by force from those who refused to do so.
The last point is that one of marginal effects of Shura was the members caprice for caliphate. In 'Umar's opinion, they all had the privilege to seize caliphate and this aroused their expectations.
As said, When you become a caliph, Zubayr told him at the presence of 'Umar. we could also be caliphs because we are not lower in rank than you from the viewpoint of being a Quraysh and our precedence. [580] Normally, this Shura would make them expect more. There was a reason why 'Amr Ibn 'As and Mughira Ibn Shu'ba were trying to join this council. Such an expectation resulted in provoking next revolts and also objections against 'Uthman and later against 'Ali (a).
Mu'awiya's analysis was that since Talha, Zubayr and Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas supposed that they are eligible for caliphate, 'Umar's Shura raised differences among Muslims. [581] Sheykh Mufid also writes about Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas, Personally, he didn't identify himself equal to 'Ali (a) but as he joined Shura, he came to this feeling that he has the authority of caliphate, and this ruined his faith and life. [582]
Ibn Abi l-Hadid has quoted his professor's analysis that each of Shura members, inside themselves, had this feeling that they were capable of caliphate.This preoccupied them till the next differences appeared. [583]
In Jamal battle, Talha told 'Ali (a), Resign from caliphate, then we leave it to ″Shura″. We were also in Shura, two people who didn't want you, now have passed away, we are also three, he added.
You should have said that before swearing an allegiance but now that you have swore, you should be faithful, [584] 'Ali replied.
[513] There is a disagreement on whether the Messenger (S) set Hijra as the originating history or such an action has been taken in time of Umar Seemingly, due to significance of Hijra, Muslims had been using Hijra as one origin in the very beginning years of it but this has been formalized in Umars time
[514] Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, pp 151-152
[515] Muruj al-dhahab, vol. II, pp 309-310
[516] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. 4, p. 227
[517] Mukhtasar Tarikh al-Arab wa l-tamaddun al-Islami, Amir Ali, p. 90
[518] Kitab al-kharaj, p. 30
[519] Min Dawlat Umar Ila Dawlat Abd al-Malik, p. 89-91
[520] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. III, p. 853; Futuh al-Buldan, pp 266-267
[521] Previously the sources of the quotation have been mentioned in detail Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. 5, p. 445; Fath al-bari, vol. 12, p. 124; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 344; Masail al-Imamah, p. 63; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 881; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 12, p. 69; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. 4, p. 227
[522] Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. 5, p. 446; vol. 7, p. 278; vol. 10, p. 103
[523] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 590; al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 42
[524] al-Futuh, vol. II, p. 16; al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 42; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 412; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. 4, p. 227
[525] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 343; al-Futuh, vol. II, p. 86
[526] When Umar came to power, he said, I depose Khalid to make known if God helps his religion, Tarikh Khalifat Ibn Khayyat, vol. I, p. 106
[527] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 887; al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 42
[528] He explicitly interpreted that, If Salim had been alive, I would have not made Shura responsible for the affairs; Tarikh Abi Zara al-dimashqi, vol. I, p. 272; and he added, If he had been alive, I would have never doubted his supremacy over the Prophets companions; al-Muqni fi l-Imama, p. 59
[529] Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. 5, p. 446
[530] Ibid vol. 5, pp 447-448; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 880; al-Ahkam As-SulTaniyya, vol. 12, Nathr ad-Durr, vol. II, p. 49; Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 4, p. 501, No 1291; Kitab al-Futuh, vol. II, pp 85-86
[531] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 4, p. 501, No 1290
[532] See, Caliphs Thoughts
[533] Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. XII, p. 81; Gharib al-hadith, vol. III, p. 239; al-Faiq fi Gharib al-hadith, vol. II, p. 16; al-Futuh, vol. II, p. 87; The Umayya meant that Uthman was among them although he imself never fought with the Prophet over religion Later on, Kab al-Ahbar said Muawiya basically possessed succession after Uthman as if heavenly books reported this way Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 495, No 1278
[534] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 333
[535] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 223
[536] Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. V, pp 448-449; Hafsas reasoning is the simplest one in Shia for the necessity of succession by the Messenger (S) Others also with the same reasoning asked Umar to designate a successor, Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 343
[537] al-Ahkam As-SulTaniyya, p. 13; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 342; Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 501, No 1290
[538] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 500, No 1288
[539] Ibid vol. IV, p. 505, No 1303; Hayat As-Sahaba, vol. II, p. 33
[540] Ibid vol. IV, p. 229; Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I2, pp 258-259
[541] al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 42; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 229; Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. V, p. 504, No 1300,1301
[542] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 343; Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 160 An imagination that is not so unbased is that Umar feared heriditary caliphate and he had this as a principle in his mind that ruler should not use his relatives in handling the affairs or assigning them as his successors He mentioned this as an advice to Ali (a) and Uthman adding, If you became caliph, lest you might have the Hashimites or family of Abi MuayT dominate people, al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 43
[543] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 342
[544] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 503, No 1295; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 230
[545] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. I, p. 189
[546] Imam says in Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah,, vol. I, p. 184 After Abd al-Rahman payed allegiance to Uthman, Ali (a) said, He tilted towards his kins and set religion aside Al-Jamal, p. 123; Uthmans sister was Ibn Awfs wife merely on the part of his mother Umm Kulthum, daughter of Uqba Ibn Abi MuayT Ibn Abi l-Hadid,Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I, p. 189
[547] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 230; Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. I, p. 191; Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. V, p. 505, No 1304
[548] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 955
[549] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 506, No 1308; Makhul Shami says, Sad was not in Shura because of his abdication Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 507, No 1309
[550] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 928; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 230; Zuhri says, That night Ibn Awf consulted the outstanding people of Muhajir and Ansar, al-Musannaf, vol. V, p. 482 But we know even if he had consulted all of them, he would have observed only what Quraysh had said; Abd al-Aziz, al-Duri says, This supportive counselling of Uthman indicates that the Umayya were active from conquest of Mecca on in achieving a landslide so far as all agreed on Uthmans coming to power Muqadama fi Tarikh Sadr al-Islam, p. 59
[551] Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. IV, p. 477
[552] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 233; Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. I2, p. 194
[553] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, pp 929-930; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 233; According to Mufid (al-Jamal, p. 122), Miqdad shouted, Do not swear allegiance to someone who was present in Badr, escaped Uhud and was absent in Riďwan alleginace (he meant Uthman); Uthman said, By God, if I come to power, Ill return you to your previous conditions, al-Amali, Sheykh Mufid, pp 114-115 Amali, Sheykh Mufid, pp 114-115
[554] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, pp 233,238; Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 162; Yaqubi says, In front of the condition of practising according to biography of Shiykhs, Imam said, Following Book of God and tradition of the Messenger requires hiring of nobody; youre trying to make me overlook caliphate, Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 508, No 1311; al-Bad wa l-Tarikh, vol. V, p. 192; Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I, p. 188, vol. I2, pp 194,264 Zuhri fails to mention anything about Imam Ali (a) and only suffices to say, Abd al-Rahman set this condition for Uthman and he approved ; Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. V, p. 477
[555] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 930; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, pp 233-234; al-Iqd al-farid, vol. III, p. 76
[556] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, pp 1028,1029; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. VII, p. 254
[557] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, pp 233-234,239; Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 502, No 1294; and concerning Talha, p. 504, No 1300 Talha was rewarded although he was ranked as the worst enemy of Uthman in the course of his seige Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 506, No 1306; Regarding position of Miqdad, Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 163; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, pp 930-931
[558] Kitab al-Futuh, vol. II, pp 96-97; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 237, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I2, p. 195
[559] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, pp 238-239; perhaps deceit ment the same quotation of Imam by Yaqubi as Ibn Awf set the condition to keep him away from caliphate Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 162
[560] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abil Hadid, vol.I, p.189.
[561] Ibid vol. I, p. 185
[562] Ibid vol. I, p. 187
[563] Ibid vol. I, pp 187-188; Nathr ad-Durr, vol. II, p. 37
[564] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. I, p. 187
[565] al-Bad wa l-Tarikh, vol. V, p. 193
[566] al-Maarif, p. 192
[567] Marifat As-Sahaba, vol. I, p. 1301; this statement is attributed to Umar that Uthman may probably be named rather than Umar, al-Muqanna, p. 110; Manaqib, vol. III, p. 220
[568] Hayat As-Sahaba, vol. I, p. 347, Kashf al-astar, vol. II0, p. 303; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 935
[569] Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. I1, p. 67
[570] Muqadama fi Tarikh Sadr al-Islam, pp 58-59
[571] When Umar asked Ibn Abbas about Uthman, he said, He keeps love of this world and the world hereafter in his heart and if he comes to power, hell have family of Abi MuayT rule people; al-ďah, p. 86 In the very night of succession (beginning of Muharram, 24 H ), when Uthman was on his way to the mosque to say night prayers, there were people ahead of him carrying candles and Miqdad said, What innovation this is! (Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 163); he referred to starting point of ceremonial functions! Ibn Atham quoted Ibn Awf as saying that, I am pleased with the succession of the doyen of the Umayya ; al-Futuh, vol. II, p. 909
[572] al-ďah, pp 127-128; as said, the condition of being a member of Quraysh was because of dominating nature of tribalism Umar appointed Suhayb Rumi as congregational leader just for the three days Shura is engaged in talks and said, He is of Mawali (freed slaves) and will not be in conflict with you over succession; al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 42
[573] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 503, No 1298 The minority must follow the majority and whosoever opposes, he shall be dicapitated
[574] Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I, p. 196; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 1033; Ali (a) is said to have cursed Ibn Awf when selecting Uthman and Abu Hilal Askari says, Uthman and Ibn Awf were in disagreement over fulfilment of Alis invokation; Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. XII, p. 196
[575] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 508, No 1311; Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. IX, p. 55; vol. I2, p. 265; al-Bad wa l-Tarikh, vol. V, p. 193; Habib As-Siyar, vol. I, p. 496; Imam Himself expressed his statement that he has been told If he failed to swear allegiance, he would be fought He also says, I unwillingly pledged allegiance; al-Gharat, vol. I, p. 318 However, fanatic narrators have said that Ali was the first one to swear allegiance after IbnAwf! Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 63
[576] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. I2, p. 259 (according to Sayyid Murtaďa
[577] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I2, pp 265-266; al-Amali, Mufid, p. 115
[578] al-ďah, pp 187-188
[579] al-Futuh, vol. II, p. 91; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 61
[580] Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I, p. 185; Abu Bakr said to Umar that he had to be careful of Muhajirun because many of them were capricious of succession; Nathr ad-Durr, vol. II, pp 16,22
[581] al-Iqd al-farid, vol. IV, p. 281; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. IX, p. 85
[582] al-Jamal, p. 97
[583] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. IX, pp 28-29
[584] al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 95

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