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Thoughts of the Second Caliph Umar

By: Rasul Ja'fariyan
The second caliph, more than any other personality, influenced the thoughts and ideas of the Sunnites. As his period of caliphate was a highly crucial juncture in the history of Islam, his thoughts and deeds, too, were of great significance for Sunnites Muslims. This is the extent to which he is considered as a role model who made no mistakes and every word or act of him can be trusted as a religious tradition. Therefore, it is necessary to talk about him here.
The high status of 'Umar in Sunnites thinking, can not be compared to anyone else. In the narrations told about 'Umar's good traits, the ranking attributed to him is a little lower than prophethood! This status has been interpreted as Muhaddath. Muhaddath is said to be someone who receives revelations.
In a narration found in Bukhari, Muslim and in addition toothers, Abu Hurayra has been quoted as saying that the Prophet Muhammad said, There were people among the Israelian tribe who received revelations without being a prophet. If there is anyone in my Umma who is such, that person is certainly 'Umar. According to Qastalani, the commentator of the book of Bukhari, the if in the above-mentioned sentence, does not mean hesitation but means emphasis.
Besides such quotations, there is, on the whole, a certain idea about the caliph's measures at the Prophet's time, indicating that before God revealed something, 'Umar had ordered that and then, God had sent down some verses in that regard. These instances are known as 'Umar's Muwafiqat,or 'Umar's agreement.
It is interesting that in some cases, the viewpoint of the Prophet was in conflict with 'Umar's, but God has sent down verses agreeing with 'Umar's idea! 'Abd Allah Ibn 'Umar has been quoted as saying that all the verses God sent down about something discussed by 'Umar and others, were in accordance with 'Umar's idea. Some of such examples are saying prayers for Ibrahim, the verse of Hijab, the Badr captives, banning drinking, not saying prayers for hypocrites and so on. It is evident, then, why 'Umar's status was close to prophethood and later, his way of behavior was regarded superior even to that of the Prophet.
Here, we must note the point that 'Umar was as strong in practice as he was weak in thought. He, himself, had admitted this several times and had sought help from others in solving his problems. 'Allama Amini has allocated almost half of the sixth volume of the book of al-Ghadir entitled, Rare reports about the knowledge of 'Umar, on these issues.
It was due to this weakness in knowledge that 'Umar did not like religious discussions and debates and once, when someone asked him the meaning of . I Swear to pollinating winds, 'Umar beat him up. [307]
One of the main features of the second caliph's thinking was that he saw himself entitled to vast authorities as a ruler. He considered a special right for himself, not only in political and executive affairs, but also in divine legislation and making laws. Relying on the same authorities during his caliphate, 'Umar made innovations and changes and did not deem himself obliged to anything except having a general knowledge of the Qur'an and the Shari'a.
In cases where he found himself incompetent, he would hold consultations and deliberations with the Companions to get things done. Narrating an interesting story told by Tabari is appropriate here to realize the caliph's idea about his authorities, 'Imran Ibn Sawad says, I said the morning prayers with 'Umar and then, followed him.
He asked, You have a request?
I said, Yes, advice!
He said, Bravo! Go on!
I said, People find faults with you in several things.
Holding his lash under his chin, 'Umar said, Well?
I said, You have forbidden the lesser pilgrimage (the 'Umra Hajj) during the months of Hajj while Prophet Muhammad said it was permitted; neither did Abu Bakr act like you.
'Umar said, This was to show people that they were not exempt from the main Hajj by doing the 'Umra.
I asked, You have banned the temporary marriage of women while the Prophet had allowed it?
'Umar said, I am equal to Muhammad; I make them full and do so and so for them. If I do not do so (harsh behavior), I'll abandon the truth (this is ironical of his having right to do so). [308]
There are two basic points in this quotation containing plenty of proof for approving its inclusion, One is that 'Umar, in response to 'Imran, confirmed his disagreement with the Prophet (S) and also justified it. Second, his response to 'Imran's last objection started with this sentence, () I am equal to the Prophet. Zamil commonly means classmate and its old usage is referred to two people who ride on camels each of whom takes seat on one side or two people ride on two camels separately.
In the above statement, there is an opposite sentence that says, 'Umar has 'Umar been equal to the Prophet in Qarqarat al-Kudr war.
This sentence had no relation with 'Umar's response to the questions raised [309] but on the contrary, it was really misleading and was intentionally aimed at misleading the minds. 'Umar says he is equal to the Prophet, meaning he could enjoin to or forbid from something or label things as lawful or unlawful just as the Prophet could.
Thus, the caliph considered his authorities as vast as the Prophet and pretended to believe in nothing but the Qur'an.
What has been said about the caliph's ban on narrating hadith and writing is that it [310] exactly conforms to this idea of the caliph. It seems the caliph believed that only the Qur'an could remain unchanged, but not hadith. Therefore, the ruler can act at any time based on his expedience regarding this matter. In other words, what has been quoted from Prophet Muhammad, only refer to his authorities as a ruler and these are authorities 'Umar, too, had as a ruler.
It is unlikely to find any caliph other than 'Umar and 'Uthman who considered their authorities to include divine legislation and interference in religious affairs. Nasr Allah Munshi, in the preface to Kelilih wa Dimnih, quotes 'Umar as saying, What the state bans people from is prior to what the Qur'an prohibits. [311]
'Umar cut the share of Those whose hearts are captured, that God paid from the tax alms, saying, Islam has no fear of them any more. [312] He believed an unclean person who needs water should not say prayers if he cannot find water. When 'Ammar Yasir taught him the Prophet's tradition in Tayammum (making ablution with earth or sand), O 'Ammar! Fear God!
'Ammar answered, If you please so, I will not tell you the hadith of the Prophet! [313]
It is interesting that 'Umar hated Tayammum even during the Prophet's life. Once during a trip, someone from 'Umar's companions got impure at dawn and had to make Tayammum. 'Umar voiced objected to him.
When they got to Medina, 'Umar complained about him to the Prophet, but the Prophet said, I would have done the same if I were in his conditions. [314] Of course, if nothing occurred to his mind, 'Umar would follow the Prophet's Sunna. [315]
Ibn 'Abbas says, During the time of the Prophet and Abu Bakr and in two years of 'Umar's caliphate, if someone divorced his wife three times, it would be considered once. But, 'Umar considered it three divorces. [316] Malik Ibn Anas, Imam of Malikiyya, narrates, 'Umar was afraid that a non-Arab would receive inheritance from an Arab unless he was born among Arabs! [317]
These rulings were among the caliph's personal Ijtihads which were mostly based on his favored interests. Temporary marriage during Hajj and temporary marriage of women are among the main religious affairs allowed by Prophet Muhammad, but banned by the caliph. [318] As we mentioned, 'Umar believed these affairs were permissible at the time of the Prophet due to certain necessity.
Another example is dropping the line Hayya 'Ala Khayr al-'Amal (Rush to the best deed) from the Adhan [319] whereas people such as 'Abd Allah Ibn 'Umar and Iman as-Sajjad (a) always said this line in the call to prayers. [320]
Word has it that 'Umar was the first person to initiate the rising of Ramaďan. He did it in the 14th year of Hijra and ordered all towns and cities to do so. [321] This is the same nightly prayers of Ramaďan still common among Sunnis. Because 'Umar saw himself entitled to such authorities, he issued contradictory rulings in some cases. Such instances can be found in the issue of inheritance. [322]
Freedom of action in religious affairs could entail more claim of authority in non-religious domains. The caliph did not avoid innovation. The sudden expansion of Islamic countries at the time of 'Umar brought him face to face with numerous problems, so he often tried to find a solution to his problems even if through consultation with the companions. The collection of such solutions which were first based on the Prophet's heritage, second on consultations with the companions and third, on the caliph's innovations, led to the enlargement of the state authority.
Comparing the successful policy of 'Umar and Mu'awiya with that of Imam 'Ali, Ahmad Amin says the former two considered themselves free in interpreting religious texts while 'Ali believed in them. [323] Also, Suhayl Zakkar has referred to the point that 'Umar saw himself entitled to interpret new issues. [324] His instructions to Shurayh are also considerable for following the rules. [325]
As mentioned earlier, one principle of the caliph's thoughts was that he tried to only rely on the Qur'an as proof, so he ignored hadiths. His remark which said, [326] We relied on the Book of Allah.
This has been cited in many historical and hadith sources and implies nothing other than there is no need for hadith. Of course, this has no contradiction with 'Umar's use of the Prophet's quotations if he could not think of a certain solution. However, in return, he would do something if it were to his interest even if Prophet Muhammad had a special belief in that regard.
One such clear example was a wording about the Imamate of Imam 'Ali that was said by the Prophet. Not only 'Umar, but other companions also set aside the words due to some expediency they claimed.
Ibn Abi l-Hadid says, I asked my master about texts on the Imamate of 'Ali and said, Is it really possible that they have set aside the Prophet's words?
He answered, Those people do not consider caliphate among religious decrees such as daily prayers and fasting, but consider it a worldly affair and an issue like running the land, planning the war and ruling the subjects.
In these cases, too, if they saw it to their benefit, they would oppose the word of the Prophet. For example, the Prophet ordered Abu Bakr and 'Umar to join the army of Usama, but they refused to do so as they did not see it agreeable to the state interests. These happened during Prophet Muhammad's lifetime, he saw them and did not deny them!
The companions, collectively and individually, neglected many words of Prophet Muhammad and this was due to the interests they saw in doing so such as the shares of Relatives and those whose hearts are captured.
They acted according to their own will in many issues not mentioned by the Qur'an and the Sunna such as the limit of drinking wine,. They preferred their interests to the Prophet's words, saying, If you find it right, do it
As for the Prophet's words about 'Ali, they (in fact, Abu Bakr and 'Umar) said that Arabs would not accept his rule due to several reasons. Therefore, they agreed not to give him the power because they saw that Arabs would not obey him.
So, they interpreted the Prophet's words; however, they did not deny the word. They just said someone present can see something which the absent person cannot. The Ansar's act, too, helped them. So, they made allegiance with Abu Bakr to eliminate the Ansar's conspiracy. And later, in the face of 'Ali's protests, they said that he was too young, Arabs would not accept him, and that Abu Bakr was an old man, he was experienced, Arabs love him, etc.
They said if they had chosen 'Ali, Arabs would have turned apostate and Which way was to their interests? Following the Prophet's words and getting ready for Arabs' apostasy and the return of the Dark Age or deviating from the Prophet's words and safeguarding IslamPeople, too, remained silent
Ibn Abi l-Hadid says, My master, Abu Jafar Naqib, did not believe in Imam and did not obey them. Neither did he accept the words of Shi'ites fanatics. Yet, he had such an analysis. [327]
At any rate, this point must be taken into consideration that when 'Umar took the reins of caliphate, it was necessary to expand the administrative organization of the new government. Further conquests and enlargement of the lands under his rule as well as wars and peace deals forced him to forge some laws in order to run his affairs.
These measures are listed by Kattani in the book of al-Taratib al-Idariyya (Administrative Arrangements). Many of his measures took on a jurisprudent aura and in later texts of Sunnis, were used as the basis of Sunnites jurisprudence. Most of his edicts have been collected in the book of al-Musannaf by 'Abd al-Razzaq Sanani. Ibn Kathir, too, has gathered these edicts in a book entitled Musnad 'Umar ('Umar's Throne).
It was during his period that for the first time, the title of Amir al-Mu'minin or Commander of the Faithful became a common term to refer to the caliph. Before that, he was called Khalifa Rasul Allah or the Caliph of the Prophet. But, according to quotations, he got the title of Amir al-Mu'minin in the year 17 A.H. from either Mughira Ibn Shu'ba, Abu Musa Ash'ari or 'Adi Ibn Hatim. [328]
One the caliph's measures which had an important role in organizing the ruling system and establishing the government was the formation of Diwans in the year 20 A.H. [329] Prophet Muhammad was a pioneer in registering the names of Muslims, especially fighters. [330]
'Umar ordered the registration of the Companions and classified them based on tribal origins and religious records. [331] Then, he divided the huge booties gained during conquests. 'Umar began with the Hashimites and among them, with 'Abd al-Muttalib.40 The policy of the Prophet and Abu Bakr differed with 'Umar's policy [332] in that they divided the riches equally while 'Umar's division was based on different tribes and the people's record in Islam. It is said that 'Umar objected to Abu Bakr for observing equality. [333]
This act of the caliph led to the reinforcement of tribal strata among Arabs based on which, some tribes claimed superiority over others. This remark of Maqdisi who has quoted 'Umar as saying that he had learnt justice from Chosroe [334] gives strength to the probability that he had been somehow influenced by the Iranian system of social classification, though there is no other evidence to prove this claim. Word has said that towards the end of his life, 'Umar doubted the rightfulness of this method and said if he lived more, he would act equally towards all people. [335]
Also, an accurate date that was necessary for administrative affair was set in 'Umar's time. We mentioned elsewhere that during consultations with the companions, he acted according to the opinion of Imam 'Ali based on choosing the date of the Prophet's Hijra as the beginning date of Muslims' history. This was a significant step towards creating administrative discipline.
Regarding the sources of the second caliph's religious and political thoughts, we must note another point. Besides what he had gained from Islamic teachings, 'Umar tried to enrich his thoughts from other sources also. One of these sources was the knowledge of the people of the book and Jews had plenty of such knowledge in Hijaz.
First of all, we must admit that among different Islamic sects, there is a common accusation about 'Umar's use of Jewish knowledge, mostly due to the reason that Jews were greatly despised by the Qur'an and naturally, by Muslims. It should be known however that the people of the book in general and Jews, in particular, have left some traces in the historical texts and hadiths of Muslims.
This influence is more or less seen among practically all sects. Any way, there are some texts available that indicate the people of the book tried to grab a position for themselves in the new society by relying on the knowledge they already possessed and the cultural influence they had inherited from the era of ignorance.
Their religious texts had many things in common with Islam and it was on this basis that they claimed to have some knowledge about the interpretation of the Qur'an. Moreover, they said that in the earlier texts, the Prophet's ordainment had been announced.
They went on as far as claiming that in divine books, there had a lot of information about the trend of developments in the Islamic society, the story of caliphs, events and wars. Muslims' belief in this issue made it much easier for the people of the book. We had better set aside our general discussion in this regard, which has also been reiterated by Ibn Khadlun [336] and return to our main topic.
When the Muslim Muhajirs came to Medina and Islam spread in the city, the ground was prepared for a cultural relation between Islam and Judaism due to their common origins.
A quotation says, The Jews spoke with the companions of the Prophet (S). When Prophet Muhammad heard of that, he said, Do not confirm or deny them. [337] Though it seems that gradually, things got more serious until the Prophet banned the companions from listening to Jews or copying their works.
When he came to Medina, the second caliph decided to use the people of the book to increase his religious and historical knowledge.
He says, I copied one of the works of the people of the book so as to add to my knowledge. The Prophet was really angered to the extent that the Ansar shouted, as-Silah! as-Silah!, meaning Weapon! Weapon!
Then, the Prophet said, I have brought everything for you. [338] Elsewhere, 'Umar has been quoted as telling Prophet Muhammad, I came across a brother from Qurayza who copied the Torah for me. Shall I offer it to you? This question angered the Prophet. [339]
Zuhri says that Hafsa who was 'Umar's daughter and also the Prophet's wife, brought to the Prophet a book of stories about Joseph and read out the book. At the same moment, the Prophet's face turned red with anger and he said, I swear by God that if Joseph and I were among you and you followed him and abandoned me, you would be mistaken. [340] The fact that 'Umar and his daughter tried at the time of the Prophet to read the texts of other religions could not have been a mere incidence. This issue is clarified with the point told by Ibn Shahab Zuhri about 'Umar's naming as Faruq, the distinguisher.
He says, The first people to call 'Umar as Faruq were the people of the book while no news has reached us to indicate that the Prophet called him so. [341]
When 'Umar came to power, he pondered in this regard with a more peace of mind and right at the time when he encountered a Muslim-turned Jew from Yemen, he could benefit from him more. This person was Ka'b Ibn Mati' Himyari known as Ka'b al-Ahbar. [342]
He converted to Islam after the Prophet's demise at the time of Abu Bakr or 'Umar and then came to Medina. Later, he took permission from the caliph and headed to Damascus. It seems that his departure to Damascus and at the time of the second caliph, to Bayt al-Muqaddas, was to sign a peace deal with Christians and Ka'b accompanied him. Ka'b al-Ahbar died during 'Uthman's caliphate in the year 32 or 33 A.H in the town of Hims. [343]
This is while a tomb with a high dome was built for him in Egypt. Ka'b al-Ahbar was a trusted and reliable source for centuries and his quotations have filled books of history and interpretation. [344] But currently, given the new researches carried out, the image of Ka'b al-Ahbar has been shrouded in mystery and has made decision-making difficult for Sunnites scholars and religious men.
Ka'b al-Ahbar, on the one hand, received the second caliph's attention and on the other, is an important source for texts known as Israelite in the Islamic culture. These are quotations about the Torah and other Jewish scriptures that have a determining presence in Muslims' books of history, interpretation, Gnosticism and literature.
Ka'b al-Ahbar and Wahb Ibn Munabba are two main sources of the spread of Israelite in the Islamic culture. Since the anti-Israelite current gained force among Sunnis, the task of deciding about Ka'b has been made difficult. [345] We should not forget here that twice as much what Ka'b has quoted from earlier books, has been falsely attributed to him by others and he has been exaggerated.
Dhahabi says about him, He had knowledge of Jewish books and had a special talent in recognizing false and true texts. [346]
Here, the second caliph's trust in him, despite sufficient evidence, has not been trusted by those who did not believe the Israelites in general and Ka'b, in particular. Ibn Kathir says Ka'b al-Ahbar was the best of them (Muslim-turned Jews) who are quoted. He embraced Islam at the time of 'Umar and quoted the people of the book. 'Umar approved some of his quotations because they were truthful. [347]
Moreover, 'Umar tried to absorb him. Afterwards, the people quoted many things from him in so far as there were exaggerations and he, too, quoted much falsehood while some of his words were true. Ibn Kathir has implicitly admitted that 'Umar helped Ka'b find a place among the people who turned to him. Due to the cultural power of the people of the book, as soon as Ka'b arrived in Medina, people gathered around him and asked him to read them some news about the future events from the books of the predecessors. [348]
What made people trust him was that he claimed his words were all based on the Revealed Book of God. Here, book means the Torah about which Ka'b had told Qays Ibn Kharasha, The Torah says there is no inch of land other than what happens on it until the Day of Judgment. [349]
Ka'b spread his words among the people by underlining that he was quoting from the Book of God. Above all, the second caliph benefited from him and his knowledge. There are several instances to prove this. Hisham Kalbi says, There was famine at the time of 'Umar. Ka'b al-Ahbar told him, When the same situation occurred for the Israelian tribe, they resorted to their prophet's Household and said the prayer for rain.
This advice led 'Umar to ask 'Abbas to say this prayer. [350] Another quotation says 'Umar asked Ka'b to talk about death for him. While Ka'b was elaborating on death, tears rolled down the caliph's cheeks. [351] In another case, 'Umar asked him, which of Adam's sons had offspring and he talked in this regard in detail. [352]
When 'Umar wanted to travel to Iraq, Ka'b told him, Do not go to Iraq because the genies are there, as are their men and nine-tenth of sorcery, too. [353]
The quotation of Sayf Ibn 'Umar says that during the outbreak of plague, 'Umar called on his courtiers to guide him about different cities. Ka'b said the following about Iraq in response to 'Umar's seeking consultation. [354]
According to 'Abd Allah Ibn Mas'ud who met 'Umar with Ka'b, Ka'b said, Allow me to tell you the sweetest thing which I have read in The Books of Prophets. With 'Umar's approval, Ka'b al-Ahbar quoted parts of the book which is more than a page. [355] 'Umar asked Ka'b to tell him about Ka'ba and he said, God sent down to earth a hollow sapphire [356] and In another occasion, Ka'b was sitting in the mosque when 'Umar entered and asked him to intimidate him and others.
He said, O Ka'b! Frighten us! [357]
'Umar said, Prophet Muhammad told me, My greatest fear for my Umma is from the side of misleading Imam.
Ka'b said, I swear by God that fear for the Umma is from no one other than them. [358] Another quotation says once at the time of 'Umar, Ka'b stood up and asked, What was the last word of your Prophet?
'Umar said, Ask 'Ali.
And Imam 'Ali answered, While his blessed head was resting on my shoulder, he said, Prayers, prayers.
Ka'b said, This is the last oath of all prophets to which they have been obliged and ordained. [359]
Ka'b wanted to show himself well-versed in all books of prophets and in other cases, to make people accept what he said. Apparently later, some people noticed the problem that they could not rely on the distorted Torah.
Therefore, how could they accept the words of Ka'b? To solve this issue, it was made up that Ka'b used a Torah which had not been distorted. In the final hours of his life, Ka'b ordered someone to throw that book of Torah into the sea.
His justification was that he was afraid some people would use that book as a base for their reasoning. After narrating this story, Dhahabi says, Now, this Torah is not in our hands and after that, we cannot rely on the existing book of Torah. [360]
However at the same time, Ibn 'Abbas rejected the Torah as distorted and cautioned people against asking questions from the people of the book. [361]
Another narration says 'Umar had ordered someone to be lashed as punishment. When he was being lashed, he said, Subhan Allah or Praise be to God. 'Umar told the executioner to stop the lashing. Ka'b al-Ahbar burst into laughter.
'Umar said, Why do you laugh?
Ka'b answered, I swear by God that Subhan Allah is a mitigation of divine punishment. [362] In another case, 'Umar and Ka'b were standing.
Hutay'a, the poet recited a poem which said, Someone who does a good deed, his reward will never be wasted because the good deed is ever lasting between God and his people.
Ka'b said, By God, that it says the same thing in the Torah. [363]
Once, 'Umar asked Ka'b al-Ahbar about different cities.
He said, When God created the word and what is in it, Wisdom said, I shall go to Iraq. Knowledge said, I shall be with you. Wealth said, I go to Damascus. Trouble said, I am with you. [364]
In another occasion, Ka'b al-Ahbar entered the court of 'Umar and sat down at some distance from him. 'Umar asked him why he had done so. Ka'b pointed to the wisdom of Luqman and said, One should not sit close to a person of power because someone else may enter the assembly who is more endeared; then, you will have to sit back a little. This way, you will be belittled. [365]
'Umar asked Ka'b, How does knowledge leave the mind of someone who has learnt it?
Ka'b responded, Through greed and stretching one's hand out to the people. [366]
Once again, Ka'b told 'Umar, Woe unto the Sultan of the Earth from the Sultan of the Heaven?
'Umar said, Unless for someone who checks himself.
Ka'b said, I swear by God that this has been mentioned in the Torah exactly. [367] In another occasion, 'Umar asked Ka'b al-Ahbar to tell him about virtue. [368] Once 'Umar told Ka'b who was seeking permission to go to Damascus, Do not leave Medina which is the place of the Prophet's Hijra and his city of burial. Ka'b said he had read in the Revealed Book of Allah that Damascus was God's treasure upon the earth. [369]
In another case, a verse was discussed, . Whatsoever their skin is fried, it is replaced with a new one to taste the pain. [370]
Ka'b said, I have an interpretation about this verse which dates back to the period before the advent of Islam.
'Umar said, Say it, but we will confirm your words only when they conform to those of the Prophet (S).
Ka'b said, It means I will change their skin a hundred times each hour.
'Umar said, I heard the same thing from the Prophet (S) ! [371]
In Bayt al-Muqaddas, 'Umar asked Ka'b about the location of the Sakhra and he talked in this regard in detail. [372]
Despite these examples, only Abu Zur'a Dimashqi has quoted 'Umar as telling Ka'b, Quit the narration of Hadith al-Uwal the first hadith or I shall banish you to the land of apes! [373]
In another case, in continuation of a report from a follower of another religion talking about the traits of the caliphs in the Torah, 'Umar has been quoted as having cautioned people against quoting the people of the book. [374] Also, once 'Umar heard that someone in Kufa had the book of Daniel. 'Umar called him to Medina and afterwards, that person agreed to burn whatever he had. [375]
Such a position, even if existed, was not so firm towards Ka'b and the instances mentioned earlier, are proofs to our opinion. Once Ka'b came to 'Umar and asked permission to read the Torah. 'Umar answered, If you know that this is the same Torah sent down by God upon Moses in Mount Sinai, then read it day and night. [376]
During these consultations, once 'Umar noticed that Ka'b had not given up his Jewish thoughts yet. In the year that 'Umar went to Bayt al-Muqaddas, Ka'b accompanied him. On this journey when there were talks with others including a monk, [377] 'Umar asked Ka'b to determine the place of the mosque of Bayt al-Muqaddas. So, he asked Ka'b, In your opinion, in which direction should we place the altar?
Ka'b said, Towards the Sakhra (Jewish Qibla).
'Umar said, You speak in favor of Jews! I also saw that upon entering the mosque, you took off your shoes. [378] However, even after that, Ka'b's position remained the same to the caliph.
One interesting point here is the claim of Ka'b al-Ahbar and the people of the book about finding the name and characteristics of the second caliph in previous divine books. 'Abd Allah Ibn Mas'ud has been quoted as saying, 'Umar was riding a horse when it suddenly threw him off. At that moment, 'Umar's thigh was revealed. The people of Najran who saw a black mole on his thigh said, This is the same person who, our books say, drives us out of our homeland. [379]
Later, Wahb Ibn Munabba claimed that 'Umar's description had been mentioned in the Torah. [380] Aqra' who was 'Umar's Mu'adhdhin, says, The caliph sent me to fetch the bishop. I brought him so that he sat under the same shade with 'Umar.
'Umar asked the bishop, Have you seen my name in your books?
The bishop replied, Yes.
'Umar inquired, How?
The bishop answered, Like a horn!
'Umar lifted his lash and said, What is on my horn?
The bishop said, An iron horn, reliable and strong.
'Umar asked, Who succeeds to caliphate after me?
The bishop answered, A righteous caliph who sacrifices his life for his relatives.
'Umar asked, Who is next after him?
The bishop said, A righteous caliph who has drawn out his sword has shed blood! [381] Although this narration is unknown, first of all, it is likely that its beginning part is correct and the bishop said these things only about 'Umar. Second, even despite being an entire fabrication, those people have been mentioned by other bishops and those familiar with the pre-Islamic books.
Ibn Shubba says, During 'Umar's journey to Damascus, an old man approached the army on the way and complained about heavy taxes. He asked to talk to the caliph.
Talha asked him, Have you found the news of the caliph's descent in your books?
He said, Yes, we know the descriptions of your chief and the one before him as well as your prophet. Then, he mentioned those traits one by one! [382] Amali Muhammad Ibn Habib has been quoted as saying that Ibn 'Abbas said, Towards the end of his caliphate, 'Umar wished death for himself.
One day when I was with him, he asked Ka'b al-Ahbar, I see my death close. First, what is your opinion about 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib and second, what do you find in this regard in your books, because you believe that our affairs have been written in your books?
Ka'b said, In my opinion, 'Ali is not suitable for his job because he is a strictly religious man. He does not overlook any mistake, does not act to his Ijtihad and this way, he cannot control his subjects. But, what we find in our books is that the government does not fall to him or his sons.
'Umar said, Then, who gets the rule?
Ka'b al-Ahbar said, We find it so that after the believer in Shari'a and two of his companions, the government will reach those people with whom the Prophet (S) has fought over the principle of religion, [383] that is the Umayya. Also in another occasion, someone from the people of the book came to 'Umar and said, Oh, King of Arab, greetings upon you.
'Umar asked, Has such a thing been mentioned in your books? Has it not been said that the Prophet comes, then the caliph and then Amir al-Mu'minin?
He said, Yes. [384] This quotation is evidently a mere lie. At the time of 'Uthman, Ka'b al-Ahbar responded to someone who had said in a poem that after 'Uthman, 'Ali would come to power.
He said, You are lying. The caliphate will go to Mu'awiya. [385]
According to historians, Ka'b deviated from Imam 'Ali (a) and Imam, too, introduced him as a Liar. [386] Ka'b said he had read the news of the cities' conquests in the Torah and that these conquests would take place at the hands of a righteous man. [387]
'Umar's familiarity with the people of the book, especially his friendship with Ka'b, caused him to sometimes say something or take an action by relying on what the people of the book had stated.
One of the companions says, Prophet Muhammad (S) had said the afternoon prayers. After that, a man stood up to say prayers. 'Umar grasped him by his clothes and said, 'Sit down.' The people of the book were lost because there was no rest between their prayers. [388] Also, the caliph's important decision in preventing the Prophet's hadiths from being written down was made under the influence of the people of the book. [389]
Zuhri quotes 'Urwa Ibn Zubayr as saying, 'Umar decided to write down the hadiths and Sunna of the Prophet (S). He consulted the companions in this regard. They all agreed. 'Umar thought about the decision for a month and then said, I have thought about it. I saw that before you, the people of the book had written books on the book of God and relied on them. As a result, they abandoned the book of God. But, I will not cover the book of God with anything else. [390]
Despite the Prophet's clear ban on reading the works of the people of the book including obvious examples that were addressed to 'Umar, himself [391] some people freely spread these ideas. It is interesting that besides spreading these thoughts, the writing and narration of the hadiths was prevented. [392]
In order to complete this plan one side of which was the permission for spreading Jewish thoughts and the other one was blocking the narration of the hadith, a hadith was narrated, or in better words, was fabricated which quoted Prophet Muhammad as saying, Do not write any of my words and instead, narrate anything you want from the people of Israel. [393]
This is while people such as Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn Mas'ud openly voiced concern over the accessibility of the works of the people of the book for Muslims and rejected them. [394]
One of the phenomena which was created in this period and whose origin should be considered as a consequence of the spread of the Israelite, was story telling. Certain people known as Qas, the story- tellers quoted the historical-religious stories of Jews and used them as the interpretation of the historical verses of the Qur'an. Their main source for these stories was the Torah and the verbal quotations common among Jewish and Christian scribes.
These people made speeches for the people before and after the public prayers. This phenomenon did not exist at the time of the Prophet (S) and Abu Bakr, but became common at the time of the second caliph, with his permission and continued later on. The phenomenon of story-telling raised positive and negative reactions among the companions (Sahaba) and the followers (Tabi'in) which we have elaborated on in a special book. [395]
What is concerned here is that for the first time, Tamim al-Dari began story-telling with the permission of the second caliph. [396] 'Umar allowed him to preach through story-telling before the Friday prayers sermons. Later, 'Uthman allowed him to do so twice a week. [397] Tamim al-Dari was a Christian-turned-Muslim and many stories have been narrated about his virtue. This became the basis of a kind of Christian-style piety later greatly spread in the Islamic society.
Examples of these pious people who constantly quoted news from Jews and Christian monks, are abundant in the book of Hiliyat al-Awliya by Abu Na'im Isfahani. It has been said that Tamim al-Dari had learnt his stories in the synagogues of Damascus and from the preachers of that land. [398] Also, another person named 'Ubayd Ibn 'Umayr was permitted to tell stories at the time of 'Umar. [399] We will see later that Imam 'Ali (a) was seriously opposed to story-telling.

Umars Murder
According to certain narrations and more specifically what has been narrated by Tabari, some people have claimed that 'Umar was murdered with the plot of Ka'b al-Ahbar..Historians and narrators of Sunnites hadiths brought this news in their books for centuries. However, they believed so much in the predictions and reports of Ka'b and people like him that they did not have the least suspicion about Ka'b's role in the caliph's murder.
Jahiz who is a rationalist critic, has this opinion about what Ka'b has narrated from the Torah (although there is no such thing in the Torah), I believe that many of these reports which have been quoted with phrases such as We find them in the books or written in the Torah, have in fact been taken from the Book of prophets and works from the books of Solomon and Isaiah, the prophet. If the stories quoted from him about the characteristics of 'Umar, are from him (because he, himself, did not fabricate news), the problem cannot be solved unless with our justification. [400]
Therefore, Jahiz Mu'tazili, too, has not been able to have any doubts about Ka'b al-Ahbar. At any rate, forecasting 'Umar's murder before the actual incident and the opinion that Ka'b had seen the news in previous books did not attract the attention of the Prophet's companions and other Muslims. Infact, it is only in recent years that something has been said in this regard.
In our opinion, there is doubt about the truthfulness of what has been said by Ka'b. What has led to the linking of this fabricated news to Ka'b was nothing but the interest of some simple-minded people in the point that the caliph's martyrdom has been mentioned in the Torah or other books and especially that the title of martyr has been particularly emphasized.
Moreover, many stories have been quoted in different sources saying that others had reported on 'Umar's murder. Some of them have been collected by Ibn Sa'd and most of them have been related to the invisible voice or genie. They said, for example, a voice could be heard reading a poem and saying the news but no one could be seen. [401] What has come in certain texts is that Ka'b had told the caliph before his murder that he had found him a just and martyred Imam in the Torah.
'Umar had said, How will he be martyred in Medina? [402]
After 'Umar received a deadly blow at the mosque, Ka'b came to him and said, Didn't I tell you that you are a martyr? [403]
If the news ended here, there would be no problem, but Ibn Sa'd has another quotation from Sa'd al-Jari who was 'Umar's freed slave, Umm Kulthum told 'Umar, Ka'b, the Jew, says, 'Umar is standing at one of the doors of hell. 'Umar sent for Ka'b. Ka'b came to him and said, I swear by God that Dhi l-Hajja will not pass unless you are in heaven.
'Umar said, How is it that once I am standing at the gate of hell and the other time, I'm in heaven?
Ka'b said, We have found in the Book of God that you are standing at the door of hell and do not let anyone in, but after you die, people will again go to hell! [404]
We think what reveals the importance of the matter is a narration by Ibn Sa'd. He has quoted Ka'b as telling 'Umar, In the tribe of Israel, there was a king who reminds us of you when we think of him. There was a prophet at the time of the king. Once he told the king, Write down your will. You will die three days later. The king said, God! If you see that I am doing justice in my rule and obey you in the affairs, increase my life until my son grows up and my Umma increases in number.
God conveyed these words to his prophet and said, I added fifteen years to his life.
After 'Umar was wounded, Ka'b told him, If you ask, God will keep you alive.
The news reached 'Umar but 'Umar said, God, take my life at a time when I am not blamed and disabled. [405]
In our opinion, this news has been distorted and it seems as if three days before 'Umar's murder (which in fact was three days before 'Umar's death and after his being wounded), Ka'b had told him, You will die within three days, so ask God not to die. Interestingly, it has been said that Ka'b came on the second day and said, One day is left. This news seems to be right.
Now, let's go to Tabari's report which is the distorted form of the original news and has been quoted from Miswar Ibn Makhrama. He says, After Abu Lu'lu''s negotiations with 'Umar over his taxes and 'Umar's request from him for building a mill, Abu Lu'lu' threatened him sarcastically.
The day after that, Ka'b al-Ahbar went to the caliph and said, Make your will; you will die three days from now.
'Umar asked, Have you seen my name in the Torah?
Ka'b said, No, but I've seen your description and that your life has come to its end.
'Umar did not feel any pain.
The next day, Ka'b came and said, One day of the three days has passed and two days remain. Again, Ka'b came the other day and said, Two days are gone and one day and one day are left. The next morning, Abu Lu'lu' attacked 'Umar at the mosque and dealt six blows on him. [406]
The above news is evident in that Ka'b knew of 'Umar's murder beforehand, but when this news is compared with that of Ibn Sa'd, we realize that the story was such, Having adopted the news of the Israelian king and the prophet of his time, Ka'b came to 'Umar after he had been wounded and told him that story from the Torah and the three days.
Incidentally, 'Umar passed away on the third day after being injured. However later, the news underwent some changes to sound unnatural. This could have been intentional to gain some credit for the caliph by relying on Muslims' fascination with the divine news of the people of scriptures.
The quotation that after 'Umar's injury, Ka'b had told him if he called on God to delay his death, He would do so [407], is a proof to the comparison made by Ka'b between 'Umar and the Israelian king. Out of his interests in the caliph, Ka'b advised him to ask God to delay his death so that he could live for fifteen more years.
As said earlier, despite the existence of quotations from Tabari and others, historians did not have any suspicions about Ka'b al-Ahbar. We believe that the true story was something else but the reason for the historian's belief in Ka'b was their real trust in him and the caliph's virtues.
Meanwhile, some of the new Sunnites researchers who are influenced by anti-Israelism have ignored 'Umar's trust in Ka'b and have interpreted the above-mentioned news as a Jewish plot to murder 'Umar. [408] One of these writers has named Ka'b al-Ahbar as the mastermind of 'Umar's murder, saying he had instigated Abu Lu'lu' to kill 'Umar. His sources are the news of Tabari and the quotation mentioned by Ibn Athir from Tabari. [409]
About the caliph's murder, what has been clearly reported in history indicates that this issue was solely related to 'Umar and Abu Lu'lu' and the motive behind the act was, at least it appears so, that the murderer felt some injustice had been done to him and he had been overcharged.
He complained to 'Umar in this regard. But, the caliph said that the money taken from him was not so much compared to his abilities and skills and naturally, his income. Some time later, the assassination occurred and it could be natural that the incident was totally or partially related to the argument which had taken place earlier between the murderer and the caliph.
Mas'udi reports the incident as such, 'Umar did not allow non-Arabs to arrive in Medina. [410]
Mughira wrote to him, I have a servant who has been a painter, blacksmith and carpenter and can be useful for the people of Medina. If you agree, I shall send him to you. 'Umar agreed and Abu Lu'lu' came to Medina. Mughira got two dhms from him per day. Once, Abu Lu'lu' went to 'Umar and complained about the heavy tax.
'Umar said, What works do you do?
Abu Lu'lu' explained his works as a painter, iron-smith and carpenter.
'Umar said, Considering the jobs you do, your tax is not so much.
After a few days, 'Umar asked Abu Lu'lu' to build a windmill for him. Abu Lu'lu' said he would build such a windmill for 'Umar that all people would talk about it! 'Umar smelled threat from these words but said nothing.
It was after this encounter that Abu Lu'lu' murdered 'Umar at dawn in a mosque. He injured twelve others six,of whom died later. Then, he killed himself with a sword. [411] Mas'udi said Abu Lu'lu' was a Jew but some sources have termed him as a Christian. [412] This story shows that the murder was personally motivated. [413]
Abu Lu'lu' has been quoted as saying that apparently, after 'Umar did not respond to his protest, he said, How is it that the caliph's justice covers everyone except me? [414] Among his motives, one can also notice the point that Abu Lu'lu' wanted to take revenge in this way because Iranians felt defeated at the hands of Muslims. However, the evidence for this claim is lacking.
There are several possibilities about who had incited Abu Lu'lu'. One is 'Ubayd Allah, the son of 'Umar. Claiming that Hurmuzan was Abu Lu'lu' accomplice in the incident and he had seen them together the previous day, 'Ubayd Allah killed Hurmuzan as well as Abu Lu'lu''s wife and daughter.
He had no reason for this act and naturally, had to be killed as Qisas, retaliation for the murder of three people for whose blood there was no supporter but the government. Even Ya'qubi says 'Umar had recommended that 'Ubayd Allah receive the Qisas! [415] But 'Uthman did not agree and said, People will say, yesterday they killed the father and today, the son. [416]
The second guess coming from the caliph, himself, was that maybe some of the Muhajirun were involved in the murder. So, he sent Ibn 'Abbas to them and asked, Did you order my murder? And they said, ! [417] God forbid! We did not know and were not aware of it.
The date of the caliph's passing has been reported as the 26th or 27th of Dhi l-Hajja in the year 23 A.H whereas, he was only 55 years old. [418] Although elsewhere, Mu'awiya has been quoted as saying that he was 63 years old. [419] This forging may have been done to show that he died at the same age of Prophet Muhammad (S).
In his last days when he had been wounded, 'Umar seemed not be so satisfied with his worldly life. He repeatedly said, [420] I wish I were nothing. I wish my mother had not given birth to me. I wish I had been forsaken. I wish I were a weaver and would earn my own living.
Notes:
[307] al-Ibana An sharia al-firqa al-Najiya, vol. I, p. 415; Aqida As-Salaf Ashab al-hadith, Abu Uthman Ismail Ibn Abd al-Rahman As-Sabuni, pp 67-68
[308] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 225; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. XII, pp 121-122; al-Faiq fi gharib al-hadith, vol. I, pp 433-434(above translation in brief
[309] Ibn Abi l-Hadid presents a worse justification, vol. XII, p. 124
[310] Muqaddamihyi bar Tarikh tadwin hadith (An Introduction to History of Compiling Hadith) by the author of the same context
[311] Minawi, Translation of Kililih wa Dimnih, p. 4
[312] al-Taratib al-idariyya, vol. I, p. 228; al-ďah, p. 97
[313] al-Ghadir, vol. VI, pp 83-85 from, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. I, p. 53; Sunan Ibn Maja, vol. I, p. 200; Musnad Ahmad, vol. IV, p. 265; Sunan Nasai, vol. I, pp 59 and 61; Sunan Biyhaqi, voil I, p. 209 and other sources
[314] Futuh Misr wa Akhbaruha, p. 249
[315] Musnad Ahmad, vol. I, pp 190 and 195
[316] al-Ghadir, vol. VIU, pp 178-180 from, Musnad Ahmad, vol. I, p. 314; Sahih Muslim, vol. I, p. 574; Sunan Biyhaqi, ol VII, P. 336; Mustadrak Hakim, vol. II, p. 196; Tafsir Qurubi, vol. III, p. 130; Irshad As-Sari, vol. VIII, p. 127; Durr al-Manthur, vol. I, p. 279 and other sources
[317] al-Muwatta, vol. II, p. 12
[318] See the sources in works of the Sunnites in, al-Ghadir, vol. VI, pp 198-213 and more, Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. I, pp 716-720
[319] Iman as-Sajjad(a) said: Due to people remaining strong in Jihad, Umar removed the sentence, Haste for good deed From Azan; Kitab al-ulum, vol. I, p. 92
[320] As-Sirat al-halabiyya, vol. II, p. 110
[321] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 281
[322] Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. I, p. 181
[323] ahr al-Islam,vol. IV, p. 38
[324] Tarikh al-Arab wa l-Islam, p. 88
[325] Jami al-bayan al-ilm wa Faďla, vol. II, pp 79-72
[326] Umar said this on Yawm al-khamis event when the Prophet asked for pen and paper to write something to prevent people from going astray after he is dead About the sources, Ali-Bukhari, Kitab al-Ulum, Bab Kitab al-Ulum; Kitab al-Jihad, Bab Hal yastashfa Ila ahl al-dhamma wa bab Ikhraj al-yahud min jazira al-Arab; Kitab hglaghazi; Bab maraď al-Nabi; Kitab al-Marďa, Bab qawl al-Mariď: Qumu Anni, kitab hg-Itisam, Bab kirahiyya al-khalaf, al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. V, p. 438 and 439; Musnad Ahmad, vol. I, p. 336; Dalail al-Nubuwwa, vol. VII,p. 183; Jami al-bayan al-ilm, vol. I, p. 77; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. X,p. 292, hadith, 29475; for more sources, Tadwin As-Sunna Ash-Sharifa, Fihrist MusTalahat, under, Hasbuna kitab Allah
[327] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. XII, pp 82-90
[328] Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 150; Muruj al-dhahab, vol. II, p. 305; al-Futuh, vol. I, p. 157
[329] Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 153
[330] Taratib al-idariyya, vol. I, p. 227 Some believe the Prophet has initiated preparing administrative tribunal Ibid p. 228 Some others consider Umars policy in preparing it affected by monarchy system Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 209 Some people regard it to be influenced by the Sassanid government; al-Fakhri, p. 38
[331] Kattani writes in defining administrative tribunal, He had an account book in which he registered names of those who deserve to be gifted according to tribes Taratib al-idariyya, vol. I, p. 225
[332] Taratib al-idariyya, vol. I, p. 226
[333] Hayat As-Sahaba, vol. II, p. 222
[334] Ahsan al-taqasim, p. 18
[335] Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 154
[336] al-Muqaddama, Chapter of the Ilm al-tafsir
[337] al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. VI, p. 111
[338] Ibid vol. XI, p. 111; Lisan al-Mizan, vol. II, p. 408; Nathr ad-Durr, vol. I, p. 207; Gharib al-hadith, vol. IV, pp 48-49; Sunan al-Darimi, vol. I, p. 116; al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. VI, pp 112-113; Majma al-zawaid, vol. I, pp 172-173; Taqyid al-ilm, p. 52(in the footnote), Jami al-bayan al-ilm, vol. II, p. 42; Usd al-ghaba, vol. IU, p. 235; vol. III, p. 126; Zamm al-Kalam, p. 64
[339] al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. VI, p. 113
[340] al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. VI, p. 114; vol. XI, p. 110
[341] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. I, p. 66; al-Muntakhab Min Dhiyl al-Mudhayyal, p. 504, It is quoted from Kab al-Ahbar sayting to Muawiya, Umar al-Faruq is titled in Torah Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. XXI, P. 186
[342] About his life, Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. VII, pp 446-447; Tahdhib al-kamal, vol. XXIV, p. 193; Hilyat al-awliya, vol. VI, p. 45; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. XXI, pp 181-182; Siyar Alam al-Nubala, vol. III, p. 489
[343] Aďwa ala l-sunna al-Muhammadiyya, p. 148, footnoteIII
[344] More than others, Abu Naim Isfahani has quoted one hundred pages from him under his biography section in Hilyat al-awliya, vol. V and VI
[345] In recent times, Mahmud Aburiyya more than any other researcher has talked about negative role of Kab al-Ahbar and the like on outbreak of the Israelites Aďwa ala l-sunna al-Muhammadiyya, pp 145-194
[346] Siyar Alam al-Nubala, vol. II, p. 490
[347] al-Bidaya wa l-Nihaya, vol. II, p. 123
[348] al-Futuh, vol. IV, pp 326-328; Bihar al-anwar, vol. XXXXV, p. 315
[349] Aďwa ala l-sunna al-Muhammadiyya, p. 148; quoted from Tarikh at-Tabari, Biyhaqi as well as al-Istiab, vol. II, p. 533; al-Islam wa l-Hiďara al-Arabiyya, p. 164
[350] Ansab al-Ashraf, al-juz al-thalith, p. 7
[351] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. VI, p. 44 vol. V, p. 365
[352] al-Bad wa l-Tarikh, vol. III, p. 26
[353] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. VI, p. 23; al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. XI, p. 251
[354] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, pp 59-60
[355] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. V, p. 391
[356] Tarikh makka, vol. I, p. 40
[357] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. V, pp 391, 381 and 371; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. XXI, p. 185
[358] Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. XXI, p. 181; Marifat As-Sahaba, vol. I, p. 233
[359] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. II, p. 262
[360] Siyar Alam al-Nubala, vol. III, pp 393-394 quoted from Tarikh Ibn Abi l-Khaythama
[361] al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. VI, pp 110 and 112
[362] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. V, p. 390
[363] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. I, p. 44; Al_Mahasin wa l-masawi, vol.,I, p. 123
[364] Mujam al-Buldan, vol.,I, p. 48; al-Muntaam, vol. VIII, P. 70
[365] Bahjat al-Majalis, vol. I, p. 48; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. XXI, p. 185; al-Jawhar al-Nafis fi Siyasa al-riis, p. 114
[366] Bahjat al-Majalis, vol. I, p. 159
[367] Bahjat al-Majalis, ol I, p. 368; Hilyat al-awliya, vol. V, p. 389; Tarikh al-khulafa, p. 125 Kabs policy was that when Umar or Abu Hurayra or others spoke against his taste, he said, The very word is cited in the Torah He said about Abu Hurayra, I have never seen anyone like Abu Hurayra who has not read the Torah but his words accord with it this much Aďwa ala l-sunna al-Muhammadiyya, p. 207 from Taďkira al-huffa
[368] Maqamat al-Ulama bayn yaday al-khulafa wa l-Umara, p. 163
[369] al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. XI, p. 251 Kab praised Damascus very much in front of Medina and Mecca This is somewhat religiously and Jewishly rooted and is of a political motive to some extent for strengthening Muawiya They may have been later fabricated by the Umayya
[370] Nisa, p. 56
[371] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. V, p. 375
[372] al-Bidaya wa l-Nihaya, vol. VII, p. 59
[373] al-Bidaya wa l-Nihaya vol. VIII, p. 110, Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. XXI, p. 187 Aburiyya has said accordingly, Umar initially paid attention to his speech but later he found his weakness Aďwa, p. 152-153 As mentioned in the context, there are plenty of examples showing Umars giving him freedom of speech
[374] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol.,III, p. 1081
[375] al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol.,VI, p. 114
[376] Gharib al-hadith, vol. IV, p. 262; al-Faiq fi Gharib al-hadith, vol. I, p. 651,
[377] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. VI, p. 7
[378] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. III, al-Bidaya wa l-Nihaya, vol. VII, pp 57 and 650, al-Manar al-Munif, pp 89-90; Aďwa, pp 166-167 Once Ibn Abbas hearing Kab speak, ɿ Al-Kaf Ash-Shaf, p. 139 quoted from, Aďwa, p. 165
[379] Marifat As-Sahaba, vol. I, p. 205(in its footnote); al-Mujam al-kabir, vol. I, p. 20; Majma al-zawaid, vol. IX, p. 61; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 336
[380] Marifat As-Sahaba, vol. I, p. 213
[381] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. III, p. 1078-1079; Tarikh al-khulafa, p. 121 Someone who forged the news had a moderate belief towards Uthman and Ali (a) In a similar quotation we read, Umar sent for Kab al-Ahbar and he was asked, How do find my attributes in Torah? Hilyat al-awliya, vol. VI, pp 25-26
[382] Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. III, pp 1079-1080
[383] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. XII, pp 80-81; elsewhere it is quoted that the Jews came to Umar and said, A verse has been called to you, if it were called to us, we would celebrate the day of call The verse reads, I complemented your religion Umar said, Yes, I do remember that thr verse was sent on the day of Arafa(9th of Dhi Hajja) to the Prophet!! al-Qand fi Tarikh Samarqand, pp 434-435
[384] al-Musannaf, Ibn Abi Shayba, vol. VII, p. 529
[385] Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. XXV, pp 24-25; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 434; al-Niza wa l-takhasum, p. 78; Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. IV, p. 495, No 1278; al-Bad wa l-Tarikh, vol. V, p. 208; al-Kamil wa l-Tarikh, vol. III, p. 123
[386] Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abi l-Hadid, vol. I, p. 77
[387] al-Futuh, vol. I, p. 228
[388] Usd al-ghaba, vcol V, p. 199
[389] Buhuth maa ahl As-Sunna wa l-salafiyya, p. 97; As-Sahih Min Sira al-Nabi Aam (S), vol. I, p. 27
[390] Taqyid al-ilm, p. 50(in its footnote); Jami al-bayan al-ilm, vol. I, p. 64; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. V, p. 239; Dham al-kalam, p. 63; in another manner in, Taqyid al-ilm, p. 51; Taďkira al-huffa, vol. I, p. 5; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. I, p. 174
[391] Gharib al-hadith, vol. IV, pp 48-49; vol. III, pp 28-29
[392] Abu Hurayra says, As long as Umar lived, we never dared say, The Prophet (S) said, al-Bidaya wal-Nihaya, vol. VIII, p. 110
[393] Taqyid al-ilm, p. 31 Quote me just about Quran and unworriedly speak about Banu Israil
[394] Gharib al-hadith, vol. IV, p. 48; Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. VI, pp 110,112
[395] Pazhuhishi darbariyi naqshih dini wa Ijtimai qissI khanan dar Tarikh Islam, Qum, 1991
[396] Musnad Ahmad, vol. III, p. 449; al-Qussas wa l-mudhakkirin, p. 22; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. V, p. 321; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. I, p. 186
[397] al-Musannaf, Abd al-Razzaq, vol. III, p. 219; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. I, p. 11; al-KhiTaT al-Maqriziyya, vol. II, p. 253; Mukhtasar Tarikh Dimashq, vol. V, p. 321
[398] al-Mufassal fi Tarikh al-Arab qabl al-Islam, vol. VIII, p. 378
[399] al-Qussas wa l-mudhakkirin, p. 22
[400] al-Hayawan, vol. IV, pp 202-203
[401] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, pp 334-374, Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. III, pp 888-891
[402] Hilyat al-awliya, vol. V, p. 388, vol. VI, p. 13; See the detailed form in, Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. III, p. 392; Tarikh al-khulafa, p. 133
[403] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 342; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. XII, p. 191; al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, vol. I, p. 40
[404] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 322; Tarikh al-khulafa, p. 140; Hilyat al-awliya, vol. VI, p. 23
[405] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 354; Tarikh al-Khulafa, p. 154
[406] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. IV, p. 191; al-Kamil fi l-Tarikh, vol. III, p. 26; Nihayat al-irab, vol. XIX, p. 374 The same report is quoted by Ibn Shabba with a little difference Abd al-Aziz Ibn Umar Ibn Abd al-Rahman Ibn Awf is the person commonly mentioned in Tarikh at-Tabaris and Ibn Shabbas references Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. III, p. 891
[407] Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 361; Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. X, p. 225
[408] It seems Aburiyya, before everyone else, has mentioned this thanks to Tarikh at-Tabaris reports Aďwa ala l-sunna al-Muhammadiyya, pp 153-155; Fi l-ubur al-hiďari Kab al-Ahbar, pp 200-204
[409] Athar ahl al-kitab fi l-fitan wa l-hurub al-ahliyya, pp 237,240
[410] According to sources, Umar never let mature Arabs enter Medina As a matter of fact, the same man who was permitted to enter Medina, embraced on killing the caliph Afterwards, Umar reproached those who agreed on entering of these people into Medina and called them his murder Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, pp 889,903,904; al-Nihaya fi Gharib al-hadith, vol. III, p. 286 Those disagreeing with him said that Medina would be renewed just because of entry of the Alwaj
[411] Muruj al-dhahab, vol. II, pp 320-321; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 888; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 345; Ibn Juzi, Manaqib Umar, p. 210
[412] Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. III, p. 190
[413] Therefore, it seems unjust for any sect to defend him, although some traditionally knew him a Muslim, believing that his murder arises from religious differences al-Bad wa l-Tarikh, vol. V, p. 194
[414] Hayat al-hayawan, vol. I, p. 51
[415] Tarikh al-Yaqubi, vol. II, p. 161
[416] Tarikh Guzidih, p. 186
[417] Tarikh Guzidih, p. 184; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, p. 348; Abd al-Razzaq, al-Musannaf, vol. VI, p. 52; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 904
[418] Ibn Qutayba, al-Maarif, p. 183; For other sources, Marifat As-Sahaba, vol. I, from 194 on
[419] Tarikh Khalifat Ibn Khayyat, p. 53
[420] al-zuhd wa l-raqaiq, pp 79-80,145,146; Bahjat al-Majalis, vol. II, p. 399; Hayat As-Sahaba, vol. II, p. 115; Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. III, pp 360-361; Tarikh al-Madinat al-Munawwara, vol. II, p. 920; Sheykh Mufid, al-Amali, p. 50

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