Merits of Adam and Hawwa (Eve)
Hayat Al-Qulub Vol. 1,
By: Allamah Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlisi
It is related through authentic chains that Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja‘far as-Sadiq said, “Adam was named ‘Adam’ because he was ‘Adeemul Arz’, that is he was created from the face of the earth (from dust). And Hawwa’ is named so because she was created from a being (Hayya), that is Adam.” According to another opinion “Adeemul Arz” is the fourth (layer of) earth.
In another report it is mentioned that ‘Abdullah bin Salaam asked the Messenger of Allah why Adam is named thus. The Prophet replied it was because Adam has been created from the dust of the Earth. ‘Abdullah asked whether Adam was created from dust of one particular location or from a mixture of dust collected from various places. The Prophet said, “The dust resembles him most because it is white, red, green, pink and blue. It has sweet, sour tastes, agreeable and disagreeable temperaments, hard and soft qualities of mind. This has caused the people to be soft and hard, red, black, yellow, pink based on different types of soil.”
‘Abdullah asked him whether Hawwa’ was created from Adam or Adam created from Hawwa’. The Prophet replied that Hawwa’ was created from Adam and if Adam had been created from Hawwa’, the woman would have had the prerogative to divorce.
‘Abdullah asked whether Hawwa’ was created from a specific part of Adam’s body or from this whole body. The Prophet replied, “From a specific portion and if she had been created from his whole body the commands of retaliation would have been equal for both.”
‘Abdullah asked whether she was created from the external part of Adam’s body or from an internal portion. The Prophet replied, “From the internal. If she were created from an external part, she would have been allowed, like men, to go out without Hijab (veil). Therefore it is necessary that men should have their women covered in Hijab.”
‘Abdullah asked if she was created from the right side or the left side. The Prophet replied, “If she had been created from the right side, men and women would have received equal shares of inheritance. Because as she was created from the left side the woman has one share and men have two shares. And the testimony of two women is equal to that of one man.”
‘Abdullah asked, “From which part of Adam’s body was she created?” The Prophet replied, “She was created from the clay that was left over after making of the rib of Adam.”
According to a reliable chain, Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq had said that woman is known as Mar’ah (Arabic word meaning woman) because she had been created from ‘Mar’ (Arabic word for man), this is based on the fact that Hawwa’ is created from Adam.
In another reliable tradition Imam says that women are known as ‘Nisa’ (Arabic word for women) because Adam was not interested (having ‘uns’) in anything before he got the company of Hawwa’.
Authentic narrations from Imam ‘Ali state that the Almighty created Adam from the soil of all the surface of the earth. Thus, as there are different types of soil, like salty, sweet, fertile and infertile, the progeny of Adam also consists of people who are good and evil.
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has been quoted through trustworthy chains of narrators that he said, “When the Almighty sent Archangel Gabriel to bring a handful of dust from the earth for the creation of Adam the earth said, “I seek refuge of Allah from you taking away my soil.” Archangel Gabriel returned and said to Allah that the earth sought His refuge. The Almighty sent Israfil and authorized him similarly. The earth again prayed for Allah’s refuge. Israfil also returned due to the entreaty of the earth. Now, Mika’il was ordered to collect the soil. He too came back as the earth pleaded for Allah’s refuge. Finally the Angel of death was deputed with the command to collect some mud from the Earth. It requested for Divine refuge from this Angel too. The Angel of death said he too sought refuge of Allah from returning empty-handed. Thus, he collected a handful of dust from every part of the earth.
From correct chains of narrators, the Holy Prophet is quoted to have remarked, “When Angels passed by the body of Adam who had been created from clay and was lying in heavens, they used to say, ‘You have been created for an important affair.’ When the accursed Satan passed by, he kicked the body of Adam and said, ‘You are made for a great affair.’
From reliable chains of traditionalists, ‘Abd al-‘Alim wrote a letter to Imam Muhammad al-Taqi and asked him why the urine and stool of man had such a foul smell. Imam replied that it was so, because when the Almighty created Adam his body was clean and he lay in that position for forty years. The Angels passed by remarking, ‘You have been created for a great affair.’ The Satan enHtered his mouth and passed through him emerging from the other side (anus). As a result, whatever is inside the belly of son of Adam is smelly and unclean.
Another tradition from the Messenger of Allah states that the Almighty created Adam on a Friday.
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that when the soul was ordered to enter the body of Adam it found it detestable. The Almighty said that it should enter with dislike (forced in) and leave it in dislike (forced out).
Authentic chains mention that Abu-Basir asked the same Imam the reason for Allah creating Adam without a father and mother, and of creating ‘Isa without a father whereas He created the rest of humans from both parents. Imam replied it was so that people may become aware of the Omnipotence of Allah that He is capable of creating without a male and of creating without a male and female. They should realize that Allah is the Creator of every being and has power over everything.
In another reliable tradition, Imam says that when the Almighty created Adam and ordered the soul to enter his body, the soul had not completely permeated into the body and according to another tradition it had reached only unto the knees, when Adam tried to stand up but he could not, and fell back; thus, the Almighty said, “Man is created with a hasty temperament.”
Salman the Persian is quoted in authentic books to have remarked that the first organs of man to be created were the eyes. Adam saw the creation of the rest of his body. Before the creation of legs was complete, he tried to stand up but could not succeed. That is why the Almighty said, “Man is created a hasty being.” When the soul entered his complete body he grasped a bunch of grapes and began to eat them.
According to an authentic tradition of Imam as-Sadiq, there are three fathers; the first is Adam the progenitor of the believers, second is Jaan the progenitor of Jinn and third is Satan the progenitor of infidels. The progeny of Satan is not created through pregnancy. It multiplies through eggs and chicks are hatched. All of them are males. They have no females.
Imam al-Baqir says that the Almighty decided to create a being, by His power. This was 7000 years after the Jinn and men had inhabited the earth. When Allah intended to create Adam, He opened the layers of the heavens and addressed the Angels: “Look at the inhabitants of the earth and behold the Jinn and men.” The Angels witnessed the vile acts and saw the unjust bloodshed in the earth as also the widespread corruption. Then they understood the great matter. They were infuriated at the inhabitants of the earth and they lost their temper. They addressed Allah: “O our Lord! You are superior, powerful, forceful, punisher and possess a great honor whereas these creatures of yours are weak, lowly and subjected to Your power. They survive only because You provide them with sustenance but they are oblivious of Your kindness. They disobey Your commands and sin blatantly, yet You are not infuriated at them and do not take revenge. We feel it is a great affair and perceive the audacity of these creatures.” When the Almighty heard this, He said that He was going to appoint a vicegerent on the earth. “He shall be My proof on My Creatures.”
The Angels said, “We consider You to be purified from every defect. Would You create such a group on the Earth that it will cause bloodshed and corruption as the progeny of Jinn initiated bloodshed and corruption, and envied each other and bore enmity with one another? Appoint one of us as Your Caliph (representative). We shall neither cause bloodshed and corruption nor practice jealousy and rivalry. We would rather praise and glorify You. We shall consider you absolutely Pure (of any deficiency).” The Almighty said, “I know what you know not.” (2:30)
“I wish to create a being and from his progeny create Prophets, Messenger, righteous servants and guiding Imams and appoint them as My representatives on the inhabitants of the Earth so that they may prohibit the people from My disobedience, warn them of My chastisement, invite them towards My worship and lead them on the way liked by Me. I shall appoint them as My proof on My creatures and remove the Jinn from the earth, and purify the Earth from their filth. I shall remove the filthy Jinn away from My new creation and from My greatness, and make them inhabit the atmosphere surrounding the Earth. My new creation will not be in their company. I shall put a curtain between the jinn and Men so that humans cannot see the jinn and cannot interact and associate with them. Then whomsoever from the progeny of humans disobeys Me, I shall put him in the vicinity of transgressors, that is in Hell and I shall not care from them.”
“As you wish,” said the Angels, “We have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.” (2:32)
As a result of this misdemeanor of theirs, the Angels were removed by Allah to a distance of 500 years’ travel. The Angels took refuge at the Divine Throne and pleaded for forgiveness pointing out with their fingers. The Almighty saw their humility and sincerity and bestowed His Mercy upon them. He appointed them at al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur (the much-frequented Fane) and ordered them to leave the Holy Throne and keep on circling the al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. That would earn His satisfaction.
So the Angels began to circle al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. It is a house where 70000 Angels enter everyday, and none ever returns. The Almighty has created al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur as a site of repenting for the inhabitants of the heavens and appointed the Ka‘bah for the inhabitants of the Earth, that they may seek forgiveness here.
Then, Almighty Allah said, “I shall produce a being from dry mud that produces a sound and a mixture of clay and sand. (That is, from foul smelling and dirty clay that has changed its appearance). So when I complete it and blow My soul in it you all shall fall down in prostration.”
This was the preface to the creation of Adam that the Almighty used to complete His argument upon the Angels.
Imam al-Baqir says, “Our Lord kneaded the clay with sweet water and said, ‘I shall create from this until the Resurrection Day, Prophets, Messengers, righteous servants and guided Imams who shall invite the people towards Paradise and the people who follow these personalities. I do not care if anyone questions this action of Mine.’” Then He took some sour water and kneaded the clay with it saying, ‘I shall create from you, until the Resurrection Day, the oppressors, aggressors, people of ‘ad and the brethren of Satan. They shall invite the people towards Hell and I shall also create from this clay the followers of these people. I don’t care if anyone raises an objection against this action of Mine and all of them shall be questioned. I shall subject them to Badaa (change of destiny).
Allah can change them into the people of the right (for heaven) or transform them into the people of the left (dwellers of Hell). Thus, He mixed the two kinds of clay and threw it before the Divine Throne. The clay broke into a few pieces. Then he ordered the four Angels of different winds (North, South, East and West) to blow their respective breezes on those pieces of clay. They blew at the pieces, pulverized them, and shaped them with the four elements: Madness due to the effect of north wind, phlegm due to east, bile due to west and blood as a result of the Southern wind. Thus, the body of Adam was complete.
One part of it is madness that creates an attraction for the female sex and instigates hope and vying for their love. Phlegm is responsible for desire to eat, drink, to act charitably, intelligence and hospitality. Bile causes anger, stupidity, evil, oppression, injustice and haste. The four element of blood creates sexuality, instigation to perform illegal acts and sexual desires. Imam says, ‘We found it mentioned in the same way in the book of Amir al-Mu’minin.
Thus, Adam was created and remained in his original form for forty years. When the accursed Satan passed by, he remarked, “You have been created for something great,” and used to say, “If Allah commands us to prostrate before him, I shall indeed disobey.”
Then Allah blew the soul into Adam’s body. When it reached his brain, he sneezed. “Alhamdo lillaah!” exclaimed Adam.
“Yarh’amokallaah!” responded the Almighty.
‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas narrates from the Holy Prophet that after creating Adam Allah made him stand near Him. Adam sneezed. The Almighty sent a direct revelation to him and he praised Allah.
The Almighty said, “O Adam! You have praised Me! By My Might and Greatness if I did not intend to create two persons at the time, I would not have created you.”
“O my Lord!” said Adam, “By the exalted status of those personalities, please inform who those two are.”
“O Adam! Look upon the Divine Throne.” When Adam looked he saw two lines inscribed on the Holy Throne. The first line said, “Muhammad is the Prophet of Mercy and ‘Ali is the key to Paradise.” The second line was: “I swear by My Holiness, I shall have mercy on those who love them and punish those who hate them and are inimical to them.
According to a reliable tradition of Ja‘far as-Sadiq some people gathered in a house and initiated a discussion. Some claimed that the father of men, Adam was the best of the creatures. Some said it were the proximate Angels. Others maintained the bearers of the Divine Throne to be the most exalted beings. Just then he entered and the people said, “One who will solve this problem for us has arrived.” He saluted and took a seat and asked what the discussion was about. They told him. He said, “Be patient! I shall return to you shortly.” So saying he went to his father Adam and narrated the facts. Adam said, “O my son! When I stood near the Lord of the Worlds, I saw the following inscription on the Holy Throne: Bismillaahir Rah’maanir rah’eem Muh’ammadinw wa aalo Muh’ammadin Khairun min barrillaah.
(Translation: In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful. Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad are the best of Allah’s creatures.)
Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali is quoted in a reliable tradition that Hawwa’ was created from a small rib of Adam while he was sleeping. The rib was replaced with flesh in the body of Adam.
According to authentic reports from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq: “Allah created Adam from dust and water. That’s why the efforts of men are centered on the acquisition and construction of buildings (That are composed of dust and water). Similarly Hawwa’ was created from the rib of Adam; therefore, women are less daring than men. So protect them in your houses.”
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq remarks in an authentic tradition, “Hawwa’ was named thus because she was created through ‘wahy’ (revelation). As the Almighty says, “Created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind).” (4:1)
In authentic traditions, people asked Ja‘far as-Sadiq regarding the creation of Hawwa’. They said, “Some people say that Allah created Hawwa’ from the left rib of Adam?” Imam said, “Allah is Purer and Higher than what these people allege. One who utters such a thing believes that Allah is not Omnipotent. They provide opportunities for those who taunt and raise objections. Why do they make such statements? Allah shall decide between us and them.”
Then he said, “The Almighty created Adam and commanded the Angels to pay obedience to him. Then He induced sleep on Adam. When Adam was asleep, the Almighty created a new being and placed her between the feet of Adam so that women remain obedient to men. Hawwa’ moved and woke Adam. Hawwa’ was ordered to separate from Adam. Adam’s sight fell on Hawwa’ and he beheld a beautiful face. He saw that she resembled him, but was a female.
He began to converse with her and asked who she was. Hawwa’ spoke in his tongue and said that she was a creature of Allah as he could see.” Adam addressed the Almighty and asked, “Who is this beautiful creation that attracts me? Seeing whom I lost my fear?”
“She is my slave-girl, Hawwa’,” said the Lord. “Do you want her to live with you, remain attached to you, converse with you and do what you bide her?”
“Yes, my Lord!” replied Adam, “As long as I live, I shall continue to thank you.”
“Then you pray for her and request me so.”
At that moment Allah created in Adam the desire of seeking the nearness of woman and He had already taught Adam the tenets of faith. Adam said, “My Lord! You have permitted me to take her, but what can I give in return so that You are pleased?”
“Impart to her religious knowledge and I shall be satisfied with you.”
“I shall do as You desire,” agreed Adam, “I accept!” said Allah, “I hereby marry her to you. Take her.”
Adam called Hawwa’ towards him but the Almighty told Adam to get up himself and go towards Hawwa’. So Adam arose and moved towards Hawwa’. If this had not been so women would have required to come as suitors to men. This was the account of Hawwa’.
Through authentic chains we know that Abdul Miqdam asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir how the Almighty created Hawwa’. Imam asked what other people say about it. He was told they think Allah created her from a rib of Adam. Imam said that they were liars. “Was Allah incapable of creating her other than from Adam’s rib?” The narrator said, “May I be your ransom, then how did Allah create her?”
“My father has quoted my forefathers and they in turn report that the Messenger of Allah said, “The Almighty took a handful of dust and by His power created Adam and from the leftover of the same dust He created Hawwa’.”
Both Shi‘ah as well as Sunni scholars have recorded the tradition from Wahab bin Munabbah which says that Allah created Hawwa’ from the leftovers of the clay in the same form and while Adam was made to go to sleep and dream, he was shown Hawwa’. It was the first dream that occurred to people on the earth. When Adam awoke he saw Hawwa’ near his head. The Almighty revealed, “O Adam Who is sitting near you?” “She is the same one I saw in my dream,” replied Adam.
It is related through authentic channels that a Jew came to Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali and asked him why Adam was named Adam and Hawwa’ as Hawwa’?
Imam replied, “Adam is named thus because he is ‘Adeemul Arz’, that is, he was created from the face of the earth. The Almighty ordered Archangel Gabriel to collect white, red, black and brown mud, as also hard and soft earth. He also commanded him to bring four kinds of waters; sweet, salty, sour and dirty in order to knead the different kinds of mud. The sweet water was used for his throat, salty water for the eyes, sour water for the ears and dirty water for the nose. Hawwa’ is called Hawwa’ because she is created from haywan (animal/living being)!”
On the basis of authentic and well-known traditions Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali says describing the creation of Adam, “Hard and rigid, soft and slippery, sweet and salty mud was gathered. They were kneaded with water and it became a homogenous mixture. From this mixture Allah constructed a face, hands, legs, organs, tissues and joints. They were dried until they became solid and strong. They sounded like cymbals and were left to lie in that condition until the time Almighty had appointed for blowing the spirit. At the appointed hour the Almighty blew into it His exalted spirit. It resulted in the creation of a human being capable of flexing his muscles and moving his joints. He can use his limbs and organs in a number of ways, he puts them into his service and moves them in different ways. The Human being was capable of knowing his creator and had the sense of discrimination between right and wrong. He has the sense of taste and sense of smell. He can distinguish colors and kinds. In short, man was a conglomeration of different kinds of essences and temperaments. He became a collection of different contradictory qualities. Like heat and cold, dryness and moisture, sorrow and happiness.”
Sayyid Ibn Tawus says he has seen in the scrolls of Idris that he praised the creation of Adam in the following words: “The Almighty introduced the earth by creating from it a species consisting of those who obey and those who disobey. The earth shuddered by itself due to the Might of Allah. It implored Allah not to create a being that would disobey Him and become eligible for Hell. Archangel Gabriel came to Earth to take the dust for Adam’s creation. The Earth protested in the name of Allah’s Might and requested him not to pick up any dust. It sought refuge from Allah by extreme courtesy. Archangel Gabriel refrained from collecting the dust and Allah commanded him to return. Then Allah ordered Mika’il. When the Earth repeated its protests, Israfil was dispatched, but he also met the same sort of resistance.
Finally Israel was issued the order. When he reached the Earth it shivered and expressed its humble request. Israel said, “My Lord has commanded me and I shall obey His commands, whether you are happy or aggrieved.” Thus he took a handful of dust, flew to the heavens and stood at his appointed place. The Almighty revealed to him that just as he had collected dust from the surface of the Earth despite its protests, he would be appointed to capture all the souls from creatures of the dust until the Resurrection Day. When the morning of the second Sunday dawned, it was the eighth day of creation. An angel was ordered to knead and mix the mud for Adam’s creation. He continued to leaven it for 40 years until it became sticky. Then for forty years it was made into Lajn.
For the next forty years he dried it like a pot created from a potter’s wheel. When 120 years had passed, Allah announced to the angels that He would create a man from this clay.
The Almighty said, “So when I have shaped him and blow My spirit into Him, all of you fall down before him in prostration.”
The Angels agreed. Allah created Adam in the form that was already decreed and recorded in the Protected Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz). Then He created the body of Adam and left it to lie for forty years on the way that the Angels frequented while going to the heavens.
When the jinn who were the inhabitants of Earth perpetrated untold corruption Iblis complained to Allah and prayed that he be raised to the ranks of Angels. His request was granted and he joined the rank of Angels in heaven. When the transgression of jinn crossed the limit, Allah ordered Iblis to go to the earth with other Angels and drive out the jinn.
Then Allah blew the spirit into the body of Adam and commanded the Angels to prostrate. All of them fell in prostration except Satan who was from the jinn.
Adam sneezed and Allah sent a revelation to say ‘Alhamdolillaah.’
When he said ‘Alhamdolillaah, Allah said, ‘Yarh’amokallah’.
Allah said, “I have created you so that you believe in My Oneness, worship Me, have faith in Me, do not deny Me and do not associate anyone with Me.”
Authentic reports say one person asked Imam al-Ridha, “O son of the Messenger of Allah, people claim that the Holy Prophet said Allah has created Adam in His Own form?”
Imam replied, “May Allah destroy them! They have omitted the first part of hadith. One day the Messenger of Allah passed by two men who were calling each other names. Each one them was saying, “May Allah disfigure your face and the faces of all your relatives.” The Messenger of Allah said, “O servant of Allah do not say such things to your brother. Verily Allah has created Adam in His image.” A similar type of hadith has been recorded from ‘Ali also.
It is related through authentic chain of narrators from Imam as-Sadiq that when Allah wished to create Adam He sent Archangel Gabriel in the first part of a Friday who took a handful of dust. His fist moved from the first heaven to the seventh taking some dust each of them. In the left hand he took samples of dust from the first layer of the Earth to the last.
The Almighty said addressing the dust in his right hand, “From you I shall create the Prophets, messengers, vicegerents, the truthful ones, believers and the righteous people. And those whom I shall raise in status.”
Then He said to the dust in Archangel Gabriel’s left hand, “From you I shall create the tyrants, polytheists, disbelievers and the deviated people. And those whose evil and corruption is known to Me. Then Archangel Gabriel mixed the dust of both his fists. This is the interpretation of the ayah.
“Surely Allah causes the grain and the stone to germinate,” (6:95)
Imam says ‘Hab’ is the clay of the believers in which Allah has appointed His love and ‘Nawaa’ is the clay of disbelievers, which is away from every type of goodness. This is the meaning of Allah’s words: “He brings forth the living from the dead and He is the bringer forth of the dead from the living.” (6:95)
The living from the dead are those believers who are born from the Tinah (essence) of disbelievers and the dead that emerge from the living is the disbeliever who is born from the ‘Tinah’ of a believer.
According to trustworthy chains Imam Muhammad al-Baqir said, “Before the Almighty created the creatures He told them to become sweet water so that He can create from it the Paradise and His worshippers. And He told it to become bitter than water that he may create from it Hell and people who disobey Him. Then He commanded and the two liquids mixed with each other. This is the reason that believers are born from disbelievers and disbelievers are born from believers. Then He took some dust from the Earth and after mixing it He dusted it with His mighty hands. resulted in the creation of tiny ant like organisms. To the ones that were on the right side, Allah said, “You can proceed towards Paradise safely.” And to those on the left, He said, “Go towards Hell, I don’t care.”
The same Imam says in a good traditional report that the Almighty took a handful of Adam’s clay, mixed it with sweet water and left it for forty days. Then he mixed it with sour water and left it for another forty days. When it became like leavened bread, Archangel Gabriel kneaded it thoroughly and ant-like organisms fell on the left and the right side. Then Allah ordered a fire to be made, and directed all of these creatures to enter the fire. When the organisms from the right side entered, it became cool and safe for them. The ones on the left were terrified and abstained from entering the fire. On that very day the obedience of the creatures was tested. Then Allah ordered all of them to revert to their clay form. Finally Adam was created from this clay.
In another good tradition the Holy Prophet is quoted to have said that when the Almighty extracted the progeny of Adam from his loins to take their covenant regarding His absolute authority and the belief in all the Prophets, the first Prophet about whom He took the covenant was Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdullah. Then the Almighty Allah revealed to Adam to cast a glance at his progeny. He saw that they were minute particles filling up the whole sky.
“How numerous is my progeny!” exclaimed Adam. “My Lord! You have created them for a great affair. Why did you take a covenant from them?”
“So that they may worship Me; And do not attribute partners to Me. That they may believe in the Prophets and follow them,” replied the Lord.
Adam said, “But some of these particles are greater in size. Some of them more luminous. While others are dim or completely dark. What is the reason for this?”
“They are created like this so that I may examine them in every way,” replied Allah.
“Can I ask some more questions?” asked Adam.
“Yes, you may.”
Adam said, “If You had created them equal, of one mood, one creation, one color, one age and bestowed the same amount of sustenance. Some of them would not have oppressed others. There wouldn’t have been jealousy, enmity and any kind of controversy among them.”
Allah the Almighty addressed Adam, “You have opened your mouth against the spirit which is most exalted in my eyes. And you have said something about it due to your lack of knowledge. I am the All-knowing Creator. I have created the variety. My Wisdom and My command runs over them. And each of them is subservient to what I have destined. There is no change in My creation. I have created human beings and jinn only that they worship Me. I have created Paradise for those who worship and obey Me and follow My Prophets. But I care less if they don’t. I created Hell for the infidels. Those who would disobey Me and deny My Prophets. I do not care for these also.
I created you and your progeny not because I had any need for them. I created them in order to test them as to which of them are of the best in character. It is for this reason I created the world and Hereafter, life and death, obedience and disobedience, Paradise and Hell. This is what I intended with predestination and free will and in the light of My knowledge that encompasses all of them.
I created them with different hues and colors, different faces, physical features, ages, difference in the quality of their sustenance, and differences in the extent of their obedience and disobedience. Among them are evil and the righteous, blind and seeing, short and tall, beautiful and ugly, intelligent and foolish, rich and poor, obedient and disobedient, sick and healthy. Some of them will be involved in different kinds of discomforts while most of them shall never have any problems. So that when the healthy ones look at the sick they praise Me for being spared. The sick may see the healthy people and pray to Me for cure. Also, that they may remain patient and earn divine rewards for the same, and be raised in degrees.
In the same way the rich man would see a destitute and thank Me for the affluence that I have bestowed upon him. On the other hand the less privileged one would see the affluent and supplicate Me. The Believer shall see the infidels and Praise Me that I have guided him and created him for examination in good times and bad, through the trails and tribulations that I shall subject them to, through the bounties that I shall bestow upon them, and through the things that I have prohibited for them. I am Allah the King of Power, it is for Me to cause the things that I have decreed. It is also for Me to cause change in whatever I have destined. I can advance the occurrence of one thing and I can postpone another. I am One that can do anything He desires. No one can dare question My actions. But I shall question my creatures regarding their actions.”
According to authentic chain of narrators Imam al-Ridha has been reported to have said, “The finger ring of Adam had the inscription, La ilaaha illallaah Muhammadur-Rasulollaah. He had brought it from the Paradise.”
 These difficult traditional reports require detailed analysis, however it is beyond the scope of this book. Those who wish to pursue the subject further may refer to my book, Behaarul Anwaar.