When the Almighty Allah transferred our lights from the Holy Throne to the backbone to Adam, he (Adam) saw a bright incandescent light emanating from his back. He asked, “O Allah! What are these lights?” Allah said, ‘These are some personalities whom I have transferred from the best place in the Holy Throne to your backbone. It is due to the greatness of these personalities that I ordered the angels to prostrate before you. For you are the carrier of there personalities.’ Adam said, ‘O my Lord! It would have been better if you had made these personalities apparent for me.’ Allah told him to look at the Divine Throne. When Adam looked towards the Holy Throne our lights emerged from his backbone and began to shine brightly. There the faces of our ethereal bodies were hidden. Just as a person can clearly see his face in the mirror Adam saw the lights on the Holy Throne. He asked what was the appearance or shape of our bodies (faces).”
Allah said, “These are the best of creatures and they have been created by Me. This is Muhammad and I am Praiseworthy (hamid) and Praised (Mahmud). Because whatever I do for my creatures deserves praise. I have named him as a derivative of one of My names. This is ‘Ali and I am A’laa and A’zeem (High and Great). This name (‘Ali) is also a form of one of My names. This is Fatimah and I am Fatir (originator) of the Earth and the Heavens. This Fatimah shall separate My enemies from My Mercy on the Resurrection Day and she shall remove the defects from my devotees. That is why I named her with conjugation of My Quality. This is Hasan and Husayn and I am Mohsin (One who does Ahsaan-goodness). I have given them names related to this little of Mine because they are my exalted creation and the most honored. I shall accept My worship only through their channel and through them would I bestow salvation to My creatures. Through them shall I punish and reward. O Adam! Approach Me through their mediation. If a detestable action is committed by you, seek forgiveness through their intercession. Because I have vowed not to reject anyone who petitions Me through them. I shall not spurn anyone who prays for forgiveness through their intercession.” When Adam committed Tark al-Awla, he prayed for Divine forgiveness through them and was forgiven.
According to an authentic source Imam Musa Ibn Ja‘far said, “A Jew came to Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali and requested him to show a miracle like the Prophets of the past had shown. He asked, “Was it due to the lofty position of Muhammad that Almighty Allah ordered the angels to prostrate before Adam?”
‘Ali said, “That’s right. But their prostrations were not those of worship. The Angels did not worship Adam. Their prostration was an acknowledgement of respect for Adam due to his extraordinary virtues.”
It was Divine Mercy for Adam that was bestowed through Muhammad who was superior to him. Indeed, the Almighty Allah sent benedictions upon them in His heavenly Majesty and all the Angels followed suit. The believers were also commanded to recite Salawaat for them. Thus his status was higher than that of Adam himself.
Authentic chains quote Imam al-Ridha from his ancestors from Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali that the Holy Prophet said, “The Almighty Allah has exalted His Prophets and Messengers over the Angels, and He is has exalted me over the other Prophets and Messengers. And after me you ‘Ali and the Imams from your progeny have been exalted over the other people. Then he said, “The Almighty Allah created Adam and entrusted us to his backbone. Then Allah commanded the Angels to bow down as a mark of respect. But their prostration denoted Allah’s worship and obedience and an acknowledgement of Adam’s exalted position. It was a Sajdah of obedience because we were in his (Adam’s) loins. Thus how could we not be superior to the Angels? While they all prostrated to Adam.
In an authentic tradition a person asked Ja‘far as-Sadiq whether it was allowed to do Sajdah to someone other than Allah.
“Certainly not!” replied Imam “Then how Allah the Almighty Commanded the Angels to prostrate before Adam?”
Imam said, “One who prostrates in compliance with Divine Commands, prostrates for Allah.”
The enquired then asked about Iblis. Imam explained, “Iblis was a creature whom the Almighty had created that he may worship Him and confess to His Oneness. Although Allah knew what Iblis actually was and what was to be his final end. Iblis worshipped Allah in the ranks of the Angels. Till the time he was tested by Adam’s Sajdah. He refused to do Sajdah due to jealousy and evil that overpowered him. Allah cursed him and drove him out of the ranks of Angels. Allah made him an outcast and sent him to the earth. Iblis became an avowed enemy of Adam and his progeny. He has no authority upon the children of Adam except that he makes evil suggestions to them and deviate them from Allah’s path. In spite of such a disobedience he is a believer in Allah’s sovereignty.”
Another reliable report mentions that Abu-Basir asked Ja‘far as-Sadiq “Did the Angels perform Adam’s Sajdah by putting their foreheads on the ground?”
“Yes”, replied Imam “This was a distinction granted to Adam.”
Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi says in another reliable tradition that the Sajdah of Angels was not for Adam. It was a sign of their compliance to the Divine Commands. It was a proof (hujjah) from them to Adam
A correct chain of narrators from Ja‘far as-Sadiq mentions that he said, “When Allah the Almighty commanded Satan to bow down before Adam he said ‘If you excuse me from Adam’s Sajdah I shall worship you with such fervor as no one has ever worshipped before.’
The Almighty said, “I want to be worshipped in a way I prefer.
Ja‘far as-Sadiq says in another reliable tradition that when the Almighty ordered the Angels to perform Adam’s Sajdah, all of them obeyed but Iblis refused due to the jealousy that afflicted his heart. Allah was enraged and He asked him what prevented him.
Iblis said, “I am better than Adam because you created me from fire and him from clay.” Imam said, “The first one to draw analogy (Qiyas) was Satan. He was proud. That was the first sin. He said, ‘O Lord! Exempt me from Adam’s Sajdah, and I will perform your worship in a way that not even a proximate angel or a Messenger Prophet has done.” Allah said, ‘I am not in need of your worship acts. I want my servants to worship Me in the way I prefer and not as they like.’ Get out of the heaven, you are the rejected one. You are cursed until the Resurrection Day. Iblis said, “O Allah You are not unjust, so who do You deprive me of the rewards that I deserve for my worship?” Allah said, “Ask whatever you wish.” The first thing that Iblis asked was to be able to live until the Resurrection Day. Allah allowed him.
Then he asked for the power to subdue the sons of Adam. Allah agreed. He said, “Authorize me over the people and grant me the ability to penetrate them like blood that circulates in the body.” Allah agreed. He said, “If they have one child, I will urge them for more. A child for them and two for me. I can see them but they cannot see me. I will put them in trouble in every way, at every time.” Allah said, “I have given you all these powers.” He said, “O, Sustainer! This is enough for me. I swear by Your glory. I will make them to follow the wrong path and perform bad deeds except your true believers. I will put them in all kinds of difficulties from left, right, from front and behind. And they will be the ungrateful to You.”
According to another tradition he will put them in trouble from front means he will make the people doubtful about the day of judgment. He says, “There is no heaven, no hell. Everything is present here, whether good or bad. From behind means that he makes the people busy in worldly life and prevents them from good deeds like, looking after their children, worshipping Allah etc. He confuses them in worldly matters. Trouble from the right side denotes the pain a disbeliever gives to the believers and from the left means he makes the people busy in enjoyment etc.
According to reliable sources Imam has stated that Allah strengthened Iblis and granted him all his desires. Prophet Adam asked, “O! Allah, You gave him power over my children and allowed him to control their mind and heart and penetrate every cell of their bodies. But what will you grant to my sons?” Allah said, “A single good deed will be counted as ten and one sin will be count as one sin only.” Prophet Adam said, “Grant something more than this.” Allah said, “I will accept their repentance until their last breath.” Prophet Adam said, “Grant something more.” Allah said, “I will forgive their sins and will overlook their evil deeds.” Prophet Adam said, “This is enough for me.” The narrator asked Imam, “May I be sacrificed for you, explain to me why Allah has granted Iblis the authority on the people’s heart and mind?” Imam said, “He recited a two Rak‘ah prayer in standing position and performed it in four thousand years.”
According to another reliable source Prophet Adam prayed to Allah, “You have authorized Iblis on my children and on me. He has the power to control the mind and heart and is also in blood. What do you say about me? What is your order?” Allah said, “If anyone intends to do evil, his sin will not count and if he intends to do virtuous deed but does not do it, then only his reward will be counted.” Prophet Adam said, “Grant us more.” Allah said, “If anyone of you does wrong and repent for it, I will forgive the sin.” Prophet Adam said, “Increase Your favor.” Allah said that He would accept their repentance until the last breath.” Prophet Adam said that was enough for him.
There are different views regarding whether Iblis was from the Angels or not? According to some views, he was not from Angels but belonged to the Jinn community. Some scholars say that he was from the Angels but actually he lived with the Angels and performed Allah’s worship with them. Jamil asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq whether Iblis was from the community of Angels or jinn? Imam said, “Angels were thinking that he was from them but when he was asked to make obeisance to Prophet Adam, he refused.”
Regarding this matter, Jamil, the narrator, asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq if Iblis was an angel or a caretaker of some heavenly affair? Imam said, “He was not an angel but the angels thought he was one of them. He was not connected to any heavenly affair and neither commanded any special position. The Jamil went to Tiyar and told him what Imam has said. He said, “How this is possible. If Iblis were not from the Angels when Allah ordered the Angels to bow down, the command was not applicable for him. He cannot be said to have disobeyed when the order was not meant for him in the first place.” Tiyar himself came to Imam and asked, “When Allah mentions the group of believers, does it also include some hypocrites?”
Imam replied, “Hypocrites are deviated people and all those who make an outward show of faith. All are included in this.”
Abu-Sa‘id asked the Holy Prophet Muhammad about Iblis. Prophet Muhammad said, Allah says in Qur’an
: “He said, O Iblis! What prevented from paying obeisance to one that I created? Are you proud or one of the exalted ones?” (38:75)
The narrator asked the Holy Prophet who were superior than Angels. Prophet Muhammad replied: They are ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. And two, thousand years before Prophet Adam they were at Allah’s empyrean glorifying Allah. Hearing them, the angels also repeated. When Allah, the Almighty created Adam and asked His angels to bow to Adam it was not an obeisance to Adam alone. All the angels prostrated except Satan. Allah said, “Are you proud or are you of the exalted ones?” That means the five names of five exalted persons were written on the curtain of empyrean.
According to another tradition from the Holy Prophet has stated when Iblis refused to make obeisance to Adam he was expelled from the heavens. Then Allah asked Adam to go to the angels and salute them. Allah taught Adam to say Salaamo A’lakum wa Rah’matullahe wa barakaatoh. Adam went to them and saluted. The angels saluted him in return. When Adam returned to his place, Allah said, “This salutation is recommended for you and your community until the day of judgment.”
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has stated that Satan was the first one to think that he was better than Adam and said that Allah had created him from fire and Adam from dust. If he had compared his fire with the matter from which the spirit of Adam was created he would have certainly found it hotter.
Another tradition of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq states that the first one to fall a prey to vanity was Satan when he said
: “I am better than he; Thou hast created me of fire, and him Thou didst create of dust.”
If he had compared Adam ’s brilliance with that of his own fire he would have found that Adam’s brilliance was more than that of his own fire. 
According to a reliable tradition from Imam ‘Ali the first prayer was performed on the land behind al-Kufah. Today it is known as Najaf-ul-Ashraf and by the order of the Almighty, Angels made obeisance on the same land. From a reliable tradition of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq the first profanity was when Allah created Adam and Satan became a unbeliever and refused to obey the command of Allah. The first jealousy was manifested between Habil and Qabil. The first instance of greed was when Adam tasted the forbidden tree even though he had access to all other fruits of Paradise. This greed caused him to be expelled from Paradise.
According to the same Imam, Satan asked Allah to respite him until the appointed hour and Allah agreed. That is the day when Prophet Muhammad will crush him below the stone of Jerusalem.
According to another tradition that Imam asked Ishaq bin Jarir that what his companions’ opinion regarding the claim of Iblis that Allah created him from fire and Adam from dust? He said, “May I be sacrificed for you. It is as Allah declared in Qur’an.” Imam said, “Iblis lied. O Ishaq, Allah created him from dust and not from fire. Allah says that He created fire from a green tree and created Iblis from that fire. But the origin of that tree is dust. Allah has created the world from dust.”
In another tradition it is mentioned that in Satan the component of fire was more than that of dust.
Sayyid Ibn Tawus has quoted from the book of Idris that when Satan asked Allah for respite until day of judgment, Allah said, “No, you will be spared, until the appointed hour. It is the time when I have decreed purge the earth of polytheism, disbelief and sin and evil. For this I will select some whom I would have tested for firmness of belief; and piety, sincerity, belief, abstemiousness. They eagerly await the day of judgment. They have a true belief regarding the Resurrection Day. They are my devotees and friends. I have created for them a great Prophet and they shall be his helpers. I have kept the day of their appearance a secret. Surely, that day will came and on that day you and your followers will perish. Now, get out from here until the appointed time.”
Then Allah told Adam to open his eyes and see the Angels standing before him. “They have made obeisance to you. Salute them with the words “As salaamo a’laikum wa rahmatullahe wa barakaatoh.” Adam came to them and saluted. Angels returned his salutations, Wa a’laika yaa aadamo wa rahmatullahe was barakaatoh.
Allah said, “O, Adam! This is a salutation for you and your children until the Resurrection Day.” Then Allah brought out his offspring from the backbone and took the covenant of His oneness. Prophet Adam saw a group from his progeny, bright and brilliant and hee asked who they were. Allah said, “They are the apostles from your offspring.” Adam asked their number and Allah responded, “They are One hundred and twenty four thousand. Among them are three hundred and fifteen Prophets.” Adam asked, “Who is the last of them and who looks more luminous than others?”
Allah said, “He is Muhammad My Messenger, My trustworthy, My beloved and My friend, My chosen one and most exalted of My creatures. He is My favorite and one who has recognized more than anyone else. He is the best with regard to forbearance, knowledge, faith, belief, righteousness, worship, humility, piety and obedience. I have taken an oath from the bearers of the throne and those who are below that they believe in him and recognize his Prophethood. O, Adam! You also believe in him, so that your status and respect increases.”
Prophet Adam said, “I believe in Allah and His Prophet.” Allah said, “O, Adam I have exalted your respect and appointed you as the first Prophet. And your son Muhammad is the seal of the Prophets and Messengers. He is the one for whom I created and the heavens and the Earth, and he will be the first to arrive on the day of judgment. The angels shall clothe him in heavenly garments and bring him astride a horse. He would be the first person to intercede and his intercession will be accepted. He will be first person for whom the doors of Heaven will be opened and he will enter first. O, Adam! Your patronymic is from him. You are Abu Muhammad, the Father of human beings.” Adam said, “Praise be to Allah. I am very grateful to Him, that He created such a personality from my offspring who would be the first to enter Paradise. And I am not jealous of him.”
Imam Al-Hasan al-’Askari has stated that when Iblis disobeyed Allah, He cursed him and exalted the Angels who made obeisance to Adam. Allah ordered them to take Adam and his wife Hawwa’ to the Garden. Allah mentions in Qur’an
: And We said, O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree or you will be of the unjust?” (2:35)
Allah ordered Prophet Adam and Hawwa’ not to approach the tree because it was the tree of knowledge of Prophet Muhammad and the family of Muhammad. Because they are specially selected for this tree. No one is allowed to eat from this tree except them.
And ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn distributed their food to poor, orphans and prisoners and themselves fasted for three days at a stretch and ate with the Prophet. Whatever was made available to him was sent from this very tree. Allah sent the Qur’anic Verses (Hal Ata) by revelation and sent for them food from heaven. After having this food, they never felt hunger and thirst. That tree was more eminent than other trees because different kinds of trees produce different kinds of fruits but this tree was producing every kind of fruits and grains like wheat, grapes, figs, jujube and many other things.
That is the reason that scholars hold different views about this tree. Some say, it was a wheat tree. According to some it was a grapevine. Some think it was a jujube tree. Allah said, “Do not go near that tree because it you may vie the status of Muhammad and his progeny.” That is beause Allah has chosen them as His favorites. If anyone were to eat from that tree by permission of Allah, he would be given the knowledge of divine revelation. If anyone eats by his own will, he would be disappointed and hopeless and would have disobeyed Allah. Allah says clearly regarding this tree
: “And do not approach this tree or you will be of the unjust?” (2:35)
That is, if you disobey in this matter you would fall into degradation.
But the Satan made them both fall from it, (2.36)
Satan began to make evil suggestion to them and said, “Your Lord has not forbidden you this tree except that you may not both become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortals.” (7:20)
“And he swore to them both: Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you.” (2:21)
The Satan entered the Garden by hiding in the serpent’s mouth. Adam thought the serpent was speaking to him. Initially Adam rejected his suggestion and said, “O serpent! This is Satan’s suggestion. How can Allah deceive us? Why do you swear of Allah? You say that Allah deceives us yet you say that you are a sincere adviser to us? You know very well that Allah is Kind and Merciful. Allah has forbidden me not to approach the tree without His permission, so how can I do so?” The Satan was disappointed and again he entered the garden with the help of a serpent. Hiding in its mouth he met Hawwa’ the wife of Adam and spoke to her. She thought the serpent was speaking. Satan said, “O Hawwa’! Allah had forbidden you to approach the tree but now He has made it legitimate for you because you have obeyed His orders faithfully. The angels are appointed to guard this tree and protect it from the beasts, it will not prevent you if you approach it. Then you can rest assured that it has become legitimate for you. If you taste the fruit before Adam you will subdue him and rule over him.”
Hawwa’ looked towards the tree. The angels tried to prevent her, but Allah revealed to them, “A person who has been given the knowledge but disobeys My orders is repelled from here. Let them do whatever they like. I have told them if they obey My orders I will be pleased and if they disobey, they would deserve My punishment.” So the angels did not come forward to prevent them. Hawwa’ thought that Allah has ordered His angels not to prevent them from eating from the tree and made the tree legitimate for them, and that this serpent has been a true advisor.
Hawwa’ ate the fruit and did not feel any change in herself. She narrated everything to Adam who was also deceived and he too tasted the forbidden tree. As soon as he ate from it he was driven out of the Garden. Allah says in Qur’an
: “But the Satan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said, Get forth some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.” (2:36)
Then He says
: “Then Adam received (some) words (Archangel Gabriel taught Adam to ask forgiveness of Allah for the sake of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn) from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; He is oft returning (to mercy), the Merciful.” (2:37)
“We said, Go forth from this (state) all.” (2:38)
Imam explains that Allah ordered Adam, Hawwa’, Satan and the serpent to go away together and not one by one. The serpent was better than other animals and the Satan came down on the earth by the side of heaven as it was unlawful for him to enter the heaven.
Finally Allah says, “So surely there will come to you a guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve.” (2:38)
Imam Al-Hasan al-’Askari has stated that when Allah accepted Adam’s repentance, Prophet Adam requested the Almighty that He accept his repentance and grant him the same position as before. Indeed their evil inclinations became manifest to them. Then Allah said, “O Adam! You didn’t remember My Order, seek My help by the sake of Muhammad and his family.” Prophet Adam said that he had forgotten. Allah said, “Implore Me by the names of Muhammad ‘Ali Fatimah Hasan and Husayn, and I will accept your prayer.” Prophet Adam said, “O Allah, the Sustainer! For the sake of your five noble followers accept my prayer and forgive my mistake. I am your first Prophet and your angels made obeisance to me and you appointed the angels for my service.” Allah said, “O Adam! I ordered the angels to make obeisance to you because you were the vessel of their lights. If you had implored Me through their names I would have kept you safe from disobedience and warned you of the deception of Iblis. But whatever I had anticipated has occurred. Now, pray to Me so that I accept your request.
Prophet Adam prayed to Allah with the names of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and asked Him for forgiveness. Allah was pleased with him and said that his repentance was accepted. Imam has stated that Allah taught him the five auspicious names. Then Allah told Prophet Adam and Hawwa’, the serpent and the Satan, “There are provisions for you on the earth and you will be happy on the earth until you die.” Allah has created the fruits, flowers and vegetables for them, to make them happy and do good deeds for the hereafter. Sometimes Allah puts His believers in trial by subjecting them to difficulties and disease. Allah bestows all the bounties as rewards and it is not possible to get all the benefits without toiling for them. The bounties of the hereafter are much better than worldly life. Allah tests us by pain and difficulties so that we would be aware of the punishment of the Resurrection Day when there shall be no relief.
The Almighty Allah says, “And We said, O Adam! dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) where ever you wish and do not approach this tree, then you will be of the unjust.” (2:35)
However Satan put them in doubt. He wanted them to become conscious of their sexuality. He said, “Allah has forbidden for you this tree so that you may not become angels and stay in the heaven forever.” And he swore to them that he was a sincere advisor. In this way Satan deceived them and Adam could not refuse him. Satan convinced them to taste the forbidden tree. When they tasted their heavenly garments vanished and they became nude. They tried to cover their nudity with leaves. Allah said, “Did I not forbid you that tree? Did I not warn you that Satan is your avowed enemy? Adam said, “Our Lord! We had been unjust on ourselves. If You do not have Mercy upon us and do not forgive us, we shall be of the losers.” The Almighty told him to leave the Paradise and dwell on the Earth
: Get forth some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.” (2:37)
Allah said that they will have to stay on the Earth until they die and will be raised from here on the day of judgment.
At another occasion Allah said, (7:27) “O, Son of Adam! Do not follow the wrong path. Your parents were expelled from heaven and were deprived of their heavenly garments, that their private parts became apparent. We took promise from Adam but he did not keep it. When We asked the angels to make obeisance to Adam; they obeyed. But Satan disobeyed. We told Adam that Satan is your open enemy and would cause you to be expelled from Paradise and as a result you will have to face troubles and difficulties. The Garden is the best place for you. You will be free from thirst and hunger, and you will not be naked. You shall remain in shade.”
But the Satan misguided him and said, ‘Shall I show you the way to the eternal tree? One who tastes the fruit of this tree, becomes immortal, he never dies. His kingdom and kingship never decline.’ Thus they tasted the fruit from that tree and at once became nude. They began to cover themselves with leaves. They disobeyed Allah’s order and followed the wrong path. Allah forgave them and accepted their repentance and asked them to leave the Garden. He said, “Go to the earth and some of you shall be enemies of others. If any apostle comes to you, believe him. He will guide you against evil. If anyone will believe in Me, he will be free from the wrath. If not, he will be deserving the chastisement.”
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has stated that the people asked Imam regarding the verse
O you who believe! Obey Allah and His Apostle and do not turn back from Him while you hear. (8:20)
Imam said, “The private parts of Adam and Hawwa’ were covered, that is, they were not apparent outwardly, but when they tasted the fruit, they became visible.” The tree forbidden by Allah, were the ears of wheat and according to another report, it was a grapevine.
People asked Imam al-Baqir regarding the verse of Qur’an: “and do not approach this tree,” (2:35)
Imam replied that Allah meant to say that they should not partake the fruit of that tree.
Imam ‘Ali al-Naqi has stated that the tree forbidden to Adam was the tree of jealousy. Allah took the oath from Adam and Hawwa’ that they will not be jealous of those who were more exalted to them and to all the creatures. But Allah did not find Adam firm in this.
People asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir regarding the verse from Qur’an: And certainly We gave a commandment to Adam before, but he forgot; and We did not find in him any determination. (20:115)
And that according to some people Adam forgot the commands of Allah? Imam said, “ How could Adam have forgotten when Satan himself said that Allah has told them not to touch the tree for they might become angels or immortals? Actually Adam followed Satan’s evil suggestion and disregarded the command of Allah. Here forgetfulness denotes disregard.”
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has related from Prophet Muhammad that Prophet Musa prayed to Allah to meet Prophet Adam. When they met he said, “Are you the same whom Allah has created by His own hands? And when you became alive, Allah asked the angels to make obeisance to you and decorated the heaven for you and spoke to you. He forbade you to eat from the tree but you were not patient and thus expelled you from the heaven. You could not control yourself because of the Satan’s evil suggestion and obeyed him and for this reason we are on the earth?”
Prophet Adam replied, “O Son! Be kind with your father and try to understand about the tree. Satan was my enemy. He came to me and deceived me and swore by Allah that he was my sincere advisor and that he was one of my true friends and a well-wisher. He said that he was very unhappy for me. When I asked him the reason he said it was due to his attachment to me that he felt very sorry that I would be expelled to the earth, which I did not like. I asked what I should do. Satan said that, he would show me the eternal tree and said if anyone ate from it, he will be immortal and his kingdom will never be destroyed. If I and Hawwa’ ate from it, we both would remain in heaven with him. He swore that he was my well-wisher. I never knew one could take a false oath and considered his oath true.” Then he said, “Tell me, Has Allah, the exalted, sent to you something (Torah)? Did you find a mention of my creation and mistake revealed this book? Musa said, “Yes, the holy book Torah had been written a long time ago.” The Holy Prophet said thrice: The argument of Adam was exhausted on Musa.
According to an acceptable tradition of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq: Adam asked Musa, “O Musa! How many years before my creation did you see my sin mentioned in the Torah?” “Thirty years” replied Musa. “It is enough,” said Adam. Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that Adam overcame Musa’s argument.
According to a reliable tradition people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq how long did Adam and Hawwa’ remain in the heaven and when were they expelled? Imam said, “It was Friday at sunset, Adam came to life and Allah created his wife Hawwa’ from his last rib. Then Allah ordered His angels to make obeisance to Adam They all did. By Allah, Prophet Adam did not stay in heaven for more than six hours. And they both were expelled at sunset. They passed their night out of heaven until morning. Their heavenly clothes vanished and they became nude. They felt ashamed and prayed to Allah with tearful eyes and asked for forgiveness and said, “We are guilty. We confess our fault.” Allah ordered them to go down from the heavens as guilty people cannot stay there with Him in the heavens.” When Prophet Adam tasted the fruit from the tree he remembered Allah’s prohibition and became very sad but when he tried to move away from it, the tree caught his head and pulled him near by the permission of Allah and asked why he had touched it? Imam has narrated that the private parts of the body were concealed but when they ate from the tree they became apparent.
In another tradition Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq states that the spirits were created two thousand years before the bodies. Allah created the exalted souls of Prophet Muhammad ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn and after them the souls of all Imams. Then Allah sent all these souls on the skies the lands and the mountains. All of them became ashamed by their brightness. Allah told the heavens, earth and the mountains, “They are My true friends and confidants and they are the leaders of all. I have not created anyone like them. Paradise is for those who believe in them, and the fire of hell is for those who disbelieve in my communications and those who claim to be like them. I shall send a severe wrath upon them and they will be sent to the bottom of the hell. Those who accept their leadership and friendship, will be given a place in the Garden and will get what they desire. I will make them stay with the righteous ones. Their friendship is a security for life. Who shall volunteer to accept their Wilayah as trust? The mountains, the skies and the land feared Allah and declined to take the charge.
Almighty Allah told Adam and Hawwa’ to dwell in the Garden and eat whatever and wherever they desire but not the wheat plant, otherwise they would be of the unjust. Adam and Hawwa’ beheld the dignity of Prophet Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn and other Imams. They saw their great status in the heaven. They asked Allah when He had bestowed them with such dignity. Allah said, “Raise your head towards my empyrean (the Holy Throne) and see.” They raised their heads and saw the names of Muhammad ‘Ali, Fatimah, hasan, husayn and other Imams on the Holy Throne.
Adam asked, “O Allah! Why are these names so respectable to you?” Allah said, “I have created you and the universe because of them. They are My honest and faithful treasurers. Do not be jealous at them and do not vie their great status otherwise you will be one the disbelievers and unjust.” Adam asked Allah to show their condition in hell. Allah ordered hell to show him the different kinds of chastisements and said that their abode is in the depths of hell. If they try to come out the guards push them back. When their skin is burnt, a new skin is created for them, that they can taste the chastisement again. “O Adam and Hawwa’! Do not be jealous of them otherwise you will be out from My vicinity and will be sent to the earth; and there you will suffer a lot.” Satan put them in doubt and they went to the tree.
Thus Allah expelled them. They ate some grains from that tree and their heavenly clothes and jewels separated from their bodies leaving them naked. They covered their private parts with leaves. Allah revealed to him that He had forbidden them to eat from that tree and had said that Satan was their open enemy. So they lamented, “Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (7:23)
Allah ordered them to go away from His Presence. Those who disobey His orders cannot stay in the heavens so Allah sent them to the earth. When the Merciful Allah wanted to forgive him, He sent Archangel Gabriel to them. He came and said, “Certainly, you are the losers by disobeying the order. Now recite the names that are written on the Holy Throne for forgiveness and pray to Allah to accept your repentance.” Adam prayed to Allah, “For the sake of Muhammad ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn accept my prayer and have mercy on me.” Allah forgave him as He is Kind and Merciful. After that Adam memorized the names of the Holy Five and also informed the people of his community.
Allah says in Qur’an, “Surely We offered the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to be unfaithful to it and feared from it, and man has turned unfaithful to it; surely he is unjust, ignorant.” (32:72)
According to a reliable tradition, people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq why the inheritance of a male is twice that of a female? Imam replied, “Adam and Hawwa’ picked up eighteen grains. Adam ate twelve and Hawwa’ ate six grains. Therefore the inheritance of a male is twice that of female.”
In another hadith, Imam ‘Ali has stated that there were three grains. Adam ate two and Hawwa’ ate one. However the first tradition is more reliable. It is possible that it may be a bunch of grapes and from the bunch, Adam and Hawwa’ ate three grapes.
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says, “If Adam had not committed that mistake the believers would have been free from mistakes too. If Allah had not accepted his repentance, He would not have accepted the repentance of other people.”
According to reliable sources Abul-Salt al-Harawi asked Imam al-Ridha about the tree that Adam and Hawwa’ had tasted, because there were different views about it. According to another tradition, it was a wheat pod and one more tradition indicates it was a malicious tree. Imam said, “Both traditions are true.” “How can it be?” asked Abu’l-Salt. Imam said, “The tree bore all kinds of fruits. It was a wheat pod. It was an auspicious tree not an ordinary one. When Allah, the Almighty exalted Adam and asked His angels to make obeisance, they obeyed. Then Adam entered Paradise. He thought that Allah has not created anyone like him? But Allah knew his thoughts, as He is Knowing and Hearing.
Allah revealed to him, ‘O Adam! Raise your head and look at My empyrean.’ Adam raised his head and beheld some names on it. Adam asked, ‘Who are they?’ Allah said, ‘They are from your offspring and are much better than others. I have not created the heavens, the earth, and the hell, but only out of love for these five Honorable beings, I have created you and all creatures for them. Do not be jealous of them otherwise you will be deprived of My bounties.’ But due to Satan’s instigation Adam desired for his high status and ate the fruit that was forbidden by Allah. Satan overcame Hawwa’ and she desired to taste the fruit and Adam also ate. So they were expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth.”
Reliable sources mention that people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq if the Paradise of Adam was a part of this earth or a Paradise of the Hereafter? Imam said, “It was from the gardens of the earth where the Sun and Moon rise and set and the Paradise of the Hereafter is that from which no one returns.”
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir has related from the Holy Prophet that Adam and Hawwa’ did not stay in heaven for more than two hours and they were expelled on the same day.
According to reliable sources Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said that Satan became worried and agitated four times: When Allah cursed him, when he was expelled from the heavens, when Prophet Muhammad was commissioned by Allah and when the Holy Qur’an was revealed. He cried out loudly on all these occasions. But he became very happy when Adam tasted the fruit from that special tree and was driven out from heaven.
‘Ali ibn Ibrahim has quoted that Prophet Adam came to the earth but he was not trained properly. It was impossible for him to understand what is good and what is bad for him. He didn’t know the proper way of living and having marital relationships. When Allah told him to stay in the Garden, he passed by the tree innocently. Then Satan came and deceived him. They tasted the fruit from the auspicious tree. Their clothes separated from their body and they concealed the body with leaves etc...
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has quoted that when Prophet Adam landed on the Earth. Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, “Allah has created you by His own hands, he put His soul in your body and ordered the angels to make obeisance to you and bestowed you with all the bounties from heaven and He forbade you to go to the tree but you disobeyed His orders.” Prophet Adam said, “Whatever you say is true but the Satan swore that he was my sincere advisor and I was not knowing that anyone could take a false oath. He came to me and said, ‘If you eat from that tree, you will become immortal like the Angels and stay in the heaven forever.’ He swore that he was my true friend.” When they ate from the tree their heavenly clothes were removed and they covered their bodies with foliage.
Imam Al-Hasan al-Mujtaba has stated that some Jews came to the Messenger of Allah and inquired many things. One of their questions was why Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day? The Messenger of Allah said, “Because when Adam ate from the forbidden tree it was the time of Asr. Allah sent him to the earth and made the prayers of Asr compulsory for Adam’s children until the Resurrection Day. And Allah ordered the Muslim community to keep up this prayer. Thus it is my favorite prayer. I have been ordered to establish it. When the repentance of Adam was accepted it was Maghrib. At that time Adam recited three Rak’ahs (units). One for his mistake, one for that of Hawwa’’s and the third for the acceptance his apology. Allah made these Rak’ahs compulsory for my people. There was a gap of 300 years (of Earth) from the time Adam tasted the fruit and when Allah forgave him. A day of the Hereafter is equal to one thousand years of the Earth.”
The Jews asked, “Why does Wudhu’ involve the particular four parts of the body that are clean most of the time?” Prophet said, “When Satan deceived Adam he went to the tree and became disgraced. He ate with his hands and his heavenly dress separated from his body. He put his hands on his head and wept. When Allah accepted his repentance He asked him to wash the face because he had first looked towards the tree. Then to wash his hands as he picked the fruit by them. Then He ordered him to anoint his head as he had put them on the head and ordered him to anoint on the feet because he used them first for disobeying His command. Thus we perform Wudhu’ in this way.” They asked why Allah made thirty fasts compulsory. Prophet answered, “Because the fruit remained in his stomach for thirty days. Allah made thirty fasts incumbent on Adam and his children. But it is His grace that He allowed them to eat before sunrise. Fasting was obligatory on Adam, therefore it is compulsory for my people too.” Allah says in Qur’an,
O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard (against evil). (2:83)
According to another tradition Al-Ma’mun asked Imam al-Ridha, “Are you not convinced that Prophet of Allah was innocent?” Imam said, “It is true.” Then he asked, “What is the meaning of the Qur’anic verse: “…and Adam disobeyed his Lord, so his life became evil (to him).” (20:121)
Imam said, “Allah said to Adam ‘O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plentiful (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree for then you will be of the unjust.’
Allah indicated towards the wheat tree. Adam obeyed Allah and did not go near that tree. They enjoyed the fruits of other trees. But the Satan deceived him and said, ‘Allah has forbidden you this tree but not the other trees of the garden. If you eat from this tree, you will become immortal like the angels and will stay here forever.’ He took a false oath that he was a true friend. Adam and his wife had never heard a false oath and they trusted him. This was the first fault of Adam and it was not a blunder. It was a Tark al-Awla that occurred even before he was appointed a Prophet. And Tark al-Awla is condoned before revelation. When Allah exalted him and appointed him a Prophet, he became infallible and did not commit even a minor mistake. Allah says, ‘…and Adam disobeyed his Lord, so his life became evil (to him). Then his Lord chose him, so He turned to him and guided (him).’ (20:121-122)
Also, ‘Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the descendants of ‘Imran above the nations.’” (3:33)
 This is the exegesis in Tafsir of Imam. The gist of this interpretation is as follows: When the Angels tried to justify that they glorified Allah’s praise whereas, the creation that was to come to the Earth were going to be a corrupted lot. The Almighty Allah taught Adam the names of his progeny and informed him of their exalted status. Then Allah presented the Holy lights (Noor) of the Prophets and their legatees to the Angels. He asked the Angels if they knew their names and qualities. When the Angels confessed their ignorance Allah appointed Adam to teach them the names and qualities of these benevolent personalities.
When Adam mentioned the names, the Angels realized that there were definitely some personalities in the children of Adam who were more deserving of Divine vicegerency than the Angels themselves were.
Almighty Allah exhausted the proof on them in two distinct ways: firstly the Angels had said that all creatures that are going to be created the Earth are corrupt, without any exceptions among them. Allah proved their ignorance in the matter. It was only after Adam had mentioned their names did they realize that among the progeny of Adam were many personalities more deserving of Allah’s Caliphate.
Secondly the Almighty removed the misconception the Angels had harboured about themselves. They thought they were unsurpassable in piety and praising Allah. They could not even imagine that a person like Iblis was also one of them. Hence another fact became clear for them.
It must be clarified that there is a difference of opinion between two schools of thoughts as far as the absolute infallibility of Angels is concerned. According to Shi‘ahs the infallibility of Angels is proved beyond any doubt according to Qur’anic Ayats and traditions of Masoomeen Furthermore their questioning Allah’s decision was not an act of arrogance and they knew very well that Allah shall do whatever is best. Yet they questioned him to know the wisdom it.
Such a type of questioning falls under the category of Tark al-Awla, therefore it didn’t harm the infallibility of the Angels.
There is also a difference of opinion among the Shi‘ah and Sunni Commentators regarding the names taught to Adam. According to some, Adam was taught the names of things in various languages. The children of Adam learnt the various languages from him. When they separated, each of them spoke the language he liked best. Due to the passage of time each of the languages diverged from each other. Some more traditions on this topic shall be quoted in the forthcoming discussion.
There is also a group that interprets ‘names’ to mean rights, obligations and origins of different things. For example, the creation of water, making of the earth, prescriptions of medicines and diets, mining of metals, and all things concerned with life and hereafter.
The experts also think that both these meanings are general. And the last interpretation is the summary of all varying traditions.
People may object that the superiority of Adam was due to the fact that Allah taught him the names beforehand whereas He didn’t teach the Angels. So it was an unequal match. The reply to this is that Allah might have taught Adam in front of the Angels but they were unable to grasp the meaning whereas Adam could.
There are many aspects to this problem and it is beyond the scope of this book to mention them all. The interpretation of Imam is not in need of detailed explanations. (i.e.. It is self - explanatory.)
This view is supported by two narrations of Ja’far al-Sadiq wherein he says, “The Almighty Allah taught Adam the names of all His Proofs that were in the spiritual form at that time. Then He presented them to the Angels. Allah asked the Angels to name them to support their claim of superiority over Adam in the matter of Divine vicegerency. The Angels said, “They said: Glory be to Thee! we have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.” (Surah Baqarah 2:32)
Allah told Adam to mention the ‘names’ along with their status and characteristics. When Adam did so, the Angels became aware of their names and their high station. Then the realization dawned on the Angels that those personalities were really more deserving of Allah’s Caliphate and to be Allah’s proof on His creatures than the Angels were.
Then their lights was hidden from the eyes of the Angels. Allah Commanded the Angels to cultivate love and devotion of these luminaries.
Allah then said, “Did I not say that I was having knowledge of whatever is hidden in the Earth and the heavens, and whatever you manifest and hide?’
 The splendor of Allah could denote the light of recognition that Allah deprived the Angels; that they had previously possessed. It could mean the light of His Greatness and Glory that was manifested in the Holy Throne and the curtains.
 All the Muslims agree that the Sajdah of Angels to Adam’s was not a Sajdah of deification. Because Sajdah for anyone other than Allah is Polytheism and Disbelief. There are three opinions regarding this Sajdah. First: The Sajdah was for Almighty Allah and Adam was just a Kiblah. Just as people face the Ka‘bah during prayers. The first traditions proves this point. Second: The word ‘Sajdah’ indicates honoring or paying respect and not the Sajdah in the literal sense. Although the former is in consonance with the dictionary meaning but most of the traditions disprove it. Third: The Sajdah to respect Adam was actually the Sajdah of Allah’s worship. Because Allah had ordered it. This point is also stated in the majority of tradition.
Thus it proves that doing Sajdah for anyone else other than Allah with the intention of worship is infidelity. It is a sin if Allah had not commanded it. Although there is a possibility that Sajdah of respect was permitted in previous nations but it is emphatically stated to be haram for this Ummah. A number of traditions to this effect have been recorded and as mentioned below.
 There are different views regarding Iblis, some which are erroneous. First of all they have considered greatness as the root. Secondly Prophet Adam’s excellence is concerned with his soul because ‘noor’ is a basis of all things. And the ‘noor’ of Adam was imbued with divine recognition and knowledge. Both these things are bestowed to Allah’s beloved people. And the fire’s luminosity is imperfect. It depends how much it is beneficial; if anyone goes near it, it destroys him. Fire burns to ashes. In comparison, Adam’s brilliance is different. Thirdly, Satan thought fire is better than dust and this was his mistake. He thought all attributes of fire are beneficial. Allah granted a temporary brightness to fire and it became proud, so Allah the Supreme, disgraced it. Allah bestowed the dust with superiority. He grew tasty fruits and vegetables from it. It became useful to all mankind and was bestowed with natural power. Its inherent qualities were concealed in the earth. The dust was taken to the Holy Throne and exalted. The kings and ordinary persons all are ultimately buried in it.
 We should know that there are different views about how Satan deceived Adam. He had already been expelled from heaven whereas Adam and Hawwa’ resided. According to some scholars, Adam and Hawwa’ came up to the entrance of heaven and the Satan also had access until there. And he used to speak to them from outside. Some have stated that Satan wrote an anonymous letter to them. According to another view when Satan tried to enter the Garden he was prevented by the guards. So he approached in turn all the animals of Paradise but they all refused to gain him entry. At last he came to the serpent and said, “I swear, I will remove your baneful effect from the son of Adam and you will remain in my protection. Now take me inside the Garden.” The serpent asked him to sit between his two fangs and smuggled him into Paradise. At that time the body of the serpent was covered. He had four limbs and was much better in appearance than other animals. He was as tall as a camel. When he brought Satan into Paradise, Allah became angry and stripped him down and cut off his hands and legs. From that day the serpents crawl on the earth because they helped Satan to enter the Garden in contravention of divine command.
 There are many different views about the administration of divine justice. It is possible that Allah created Prophet Adam for the Earth and not for the heaven.
 There are different views regarding the tree which was forbidden by Allah. Some say it was a fig tree and for some it was a grapevine and some others say it was a camphor tree. Shaykh al-Tusi has narrated from Imam ‘Ali that it was a tree of secret knowledge and death and the same Imam has mentioned that it was an eternal tree from which the angels eat and acquire immortality.
We have already proved that Prophets are infallible. Jealousy is a sin and a Prophet can never commit a sin. Here it must be clarified that jealousy implies a desire that the recipient of bounty should lose it. Whereas it was obvious that Adam had already learnt of the high status of the family of Muhammad and could never have wished them to lose the Divine Bounty. Thus it was not exactly ‘jealousy’. Hence, at the most it could be said to be Makrooh (detestable) or Tark al-Awla (Leaving the preferable option).
 There are some differences regarding the Paradise of Adam. Whether it is on the earth or in the heavens? Is it the same that the virtuous people will enter or some other? The writers of Qur’anic exegesis agree that it was one of the gardens of heaven. The others say that it was a garden of the earth and from the same tradition have stated that one who enters once never comes out. Regarding this people say that due to the good deeds a person will enter in the heaven and will not come out. But it is a doubtful matter. For example, Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa ’s flight to the heavens and back. The angels also come and go. Besides this, there are different opinions about it. In most traditions it is stated that the Paradise of Adam was on the heavens.
 The text of this hadith is same as those quoted above so we refrain from repetition.
 The other prayers are not mentioned in this hadith