An Account of the apology of Adam and Hawwa’ after their arrival on this Earth
Hayat Al-Qulub Vol. 1,
By: Allamah Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlisi
It is narrated from the Holy Prophet that when Adam disobeyed Allah, a caller called out from near the Holy Throne, “O Adam! Get out from My vicinity of Mercy because whoever disobeys Me cannot stay here.” Adam began to cry and even Angels cried. Then Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to Adam who brought him to the Earth. At that moment the whole body of Adam had become black. When Angels saw him in this condition they cried bitterly asked for permission to help Adam until their voices rose to a high pitch. All of them came to the realm of the Almighty and said, “O, the One Who has given life to one of Your creatures and then put a chosen soul in it and ordered the Angels to prostrate to it. And due to just one sin You have changed his fair complexion to a dark one?.”
At that moment a caller called out from Heaven, “O Adam, today you shall fast for your Creator.” It was 13th of the month. Adam kept a fast. One third of the darkness disappeared. On the 14th the same voice ordered him to keep a fast. Adam again fasted and two thirds of the blackness disappeared. On the fifteenth the voice once more prompted Adam to fast. Adam did and the remaining darkness disappeared. He became fair once more. It was because of this that the three days were referred to as the days of settling down. Then a caller called out from the sky, “O Adam! I have appointed these three days for you and your children. If anybody would fast on these three days of the month it would be as if he has fasted for the whole year.
Adam was sitting with his head on the knee and very much dejected and sorrowful. Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to Adam. He asked him why he was so forlorn. He replied, “I will remain sorrowful like this until death takes me.” Archangel Gabriel said, “I am the messenger of Allah. Allah has sent salutations and said, “Hayaak allaaho wa bayyaak allaah!” Adam, “I know the meaning of ‘hayaak allaah’, it is ‘may Allah keep you alive’, but what is the meaning of the phrase ‘bayaak allaah’?” Archangel Gabriel said, “It means, ‘may Allah keep you happy’.”
Hearing this Adam went into a prostration. Then he raised his head, looked towards the sky and prayed, “O Allah! Increase my beauty and elegance!” Next morning a black beard covered his face. Adam felt it and asked Allah what it was. He was told that it was a beard and that Allah has made it a sign of beauty for Adam and his sons.
According to a good chain of narrators Imam as-Sadiq said that when Adam landed on the Earth his body from the head to toe became black. He became very sad. Archangel Gabriel came and asked him the reason for his sadness. He said that blackness had enveloped him. Archangel Gabriel told him to get up and recite prayers as it was the best time for prayers. Adam recited the prayers and the blackness vanished from head to the chest. When it was time for the next prayer Archangel Gabriel told him that it was time for second prayer. Adam prayed the second time and the darkness vanished up to his navel.
Again after some time Archangel Gabriel reminded that it was time for the third prayer. Adam prayed the third time and darkness vanished from the navel to the thighs. Then again Archangel Gabriel said that it was time for the fourth prayer. Adam completed his fourth prayer and the darkness vanished until the legs. Then Archangel Gabriel told Adam to pray the fifth time and all the darkness vanished from his body. Adam praised Allah and thanked Him profusely. Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam! This is the model prayers for your children. It means that if they pray five times a day all their sins shall be cleansed like the darkness vanished from your body.”
A reliable tradition from Imam as-Sadiq states: During the circumambulation a man approached my father, kept his hand on his shoulder and said, “I want to ask you three questions and I know that no one knows the answers except you.” Imam al-Baqir kept quiet and when he completed the circumambulation he came to hijr Isma‘il and offered a two-Rak‘ah prayer. After concluding the prayers he inquired about the person who had questioned him. He came and sat down facing my father. He asked, “How did the Angels regain Allah’s pleasure after they had objected to His creation of Adam. Imam replied, “The Angels performed the circumambulation of the Holy Throne for seven years and sought divine forgiveness and only then did Allah forgive them.” “You have spoken the truth,” said the man. “Then how did Allah become satisfied with Adam ” Imam said, “When Adam came down to the Earth, he landed at Hind (India). He prayed to Allah who is the Creator of the House. Allah told him to come to His House, circumambulate seven times and perform all the rituals of the hajj in ‘Arafat and Mina. From India, he came to Makkah and wherever he placed his feet, the places became inhabited and prosperous. And where he did not step the places became remained deserted. Then he performed the circumambulation seven times and completed all the hajj rituals as ordered by Allah. Due to this Allah accepted his repentance and forgave him. Seven rounds of Adam were equivalent to seven years’ circumambulation of the Holy Throne by Angels. At that time Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, “Congratulations! Allah has forgiven you. And I have also performed circumambulation of this Holy House 300 years before you did.” Adam said, “O Allah! Forgive me and my progeny.” Allah said, “I will forgive those who believe in Me and My Prophet.” The man said, “You have said the truth!” and left the assembly. My father said to me, “That was none other than Archangel Gabriel. Your teacher in religion came to teach you.”
It is narrated through a reliable chain of narrators that Imam as-Sadiq said, “When Adam came down to the Earth. He performed the circumambulation of Ka‘bah for a hundred years. During this period he did not once glance at Hawwa’. Due to the expulsion from the Heaven he was weeping and tears flowed freely from his eyes. Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, “Hayyaak allaaho wa bayyaak allaah!”
When Archangel Gabriel said, “Hayyaak allaaho” Adam understood that Allah had forgiven him, and when Archangel Gabriel said “bayyaak allaah” he became extremely happy and stood at the door of the Ka‘bah which had the covering of cow and camel skins and said, “Allahumma aqelni a’thrati waghfir li dhanbi wa aaedhoni ila addaar allati akhrajtani minha.” Allah said, “I have forgiven your sins and pardoned your deviation and I will put you back in the heaven from where you were expelled.”
The Sunnis have narrated through numerous chains from ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas that he said, “I asked the Holy Prophet regarding the words that Adam learnt from his Lord, through which his repentance was accepted.” The Holy Prophet said, “He sought forgiveness through the right of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and was forgiven.” There are quite a few traditions on this subject that we shall discuss them in the third volume of this book.
Through other chains of narrators the Shi‘ah and Sunni scholars narrate from Ibn ‘Abbas that when the Almighty created Adam and put in him His spirit, Adam sneezed all of a sudden. Allah sent to him a revelation and Adam said, “Praise be to Allah.” Allah said, “Yarhamaka rabboka” (May your Lord have mercy upon you.) When the Angels prostrated before him he asked, “O my Lord have You created anything dearer than me?” There was no reply. He asked the same question the second time, but still there was no reply. He repeated the question the third time. This time Allah said, “Indeed there are some creatures. And if they hadn’t been there I wouldn’t have created even you, O Adam!”
Adam requested Allah to show him those exalted personalities. The Almighty ordered the Angels of Hijab (coverings) to remove all the coverings. The coverings were removed and five luminous personalities became visible before the Holy Throne. “Who are these?” asked Adam. Allah said, “O Adam! This is Muhammad, My Prophet, and this is ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, this is Fatimah the daughter of My Prophet, and these two are Hasan and Husayn, the children of ‘Ali and the sons of My Prophet. And O Adam! They are from your progeny.” Adam was pleased to hear it. And when he committed that grave error he repented and sought forgiveness upon the rights of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. Allah forgave him. This is the meaning of the Qur’anic verse, Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; (2:37)
When Adam came to the Earth he made a finger ring and engraved upon it: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and ‘Ali is the Commander of the Faithful. The agnomen of Adam was Abu Muhammad.”
According to a authentic tradition Imam as-Sadiq said that Adam requested, “O Allah! I implore You in the name of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, accept my repentance.” Allah asked him how he knew Muhammad. Adam said, “When I was created and I raised up my head I saw the following words written on the Holy Throne: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and ‘Ali is the Commander of the Faithful.”
According to a reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that, “Adam sought forgiveness in the following words: Allahumma laa ilaha illa anta subhaanaka wa be hamdeka inni a’melto sooo-an wa zalamto nafsi faghfirli innaka anta atawwaabuurraheem. Laa ilaaha illa anta subhaanaka wa be hamdeka inni a’melto sooo-an wa zalamto nafsi faghfirli innaka anta khairul ghaafereen
According to a reliable tradition when a Mu’min gets up from sleep, he should recite the sentence, which aHazratHazrat Adam (a.s.) lane from Ha Adam learned from Allah! And the Dua is: Subboohun quddoos rabbul malaaekati warrooh. Sabaqat rahmatoka ghadaboka. Laa ilaaha illa anta inni zalamto nafsi faghfirli war hamni innaka anta atawwaabu arraheemul ghafoor
According to a reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that on the day of covenant, Adam was presented to his (Prophet’s) progeny. Muhammad al-Mustafa. ‘Ali was with him and was passing with him. Fatimah was behind him and Imam Al-Hasan and Husayn were behind her. Allah said, “O Adam! Do not look towards them with jealousy. Otherwise I will take you out from My Vicinity of Mercy.” When Allah put him (Adam) in heaven, Muhammad al-Mustafa, ‘Ali, Fatimah Hasan, Husayn came before him. Adam saw them with jealousy. At that moment the love and Wilayah of Ahl al-Bayt was presented to Adam, that he have accepted, but he did not. Heaven showered its leaves.
When Adam repented and accepted the Wilayah of these personalities and prayed by the rights of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah Hasan and Husayn, Allah forgave him. These were the words that Adam had learnt from his Lord.
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from ‘Ali the words that Adam uttered, “O Allah I ask You on account of Muhammad and his progeny that you accept my repentance.” “How did you recognize Muhammad?” asked Allah. Adam replied, “I saw their names on Your vast curtain when I was in the Garden.”
According to a reliable hadith of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq: Five people are famous for their extreme lamentations, Adam, Ya‘qub, Yusuf, Fatimah al-Zahra’ and Imam Zayn al-‘abidin. Adam cried so much due to his expulsion from heaven that two streams of tears flowed on his cheeks.
It is narrated from the Messenger of Allah that Adam came to this earth on a Friday.
According to a reliable tradition from Imam as-Sadiq when Adam was sent to Earth he brought with him 120 trees. 40 of them bore fruits whose external as well as internal parts were edible. And the fruits of 40 others had inedible kernel. Adam brought with him a bag containing seeds of every type.
According to reliable chains of narrators it is narrated that Ibn Abu-Nasr asked Imam al-Ridha why the first fruit, which was sown on the Earth grew to be a tasty one. Imam asked him what his co-religionists thought. He said, “They say that when Adam came to India from heaven he cried in nostalgia. His tears fell on the Earth and formed potholes creating a sweet odor.” Imam said, “It is not so, rather Janabe Hawwa’ fragranced her hair with the leaves of Paradise. When she came down to earth, after the calamity she menstruated and then performed Ghusl. When she unfurled her hair, Allah sent a breeze that dispersed the heavenly leaves in the places where Allah wished.”
According to reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that Safa Mountain is called Safa because Adam descended on it. It was named after a derivation of Adam’s title ‘Mustafa’. As Allah says, “Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh…” (3:33) And Hawwa’ came down on Marwa mountain and it is named thus because Marwa (woman) descended on it.
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated that a Syrian asked ‘Ali, “Which is the most famous valley on the Earth?” Imam replied that it was Sarandeep. Adam came down to Earth in this same valley.
According to reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Bukayr that Imam as-Sadiq asked him, “Do you know what the Black Stone was originally?” “No,” said Bukayr. Imam said, “It was a Great Angel of Allah. When Allah took the covenant from angels, it was the first to believe and accepted Allah; the Black Stone is the same angel. Allah made him His trustee over other creatures and made them perform hajj near it every year.
When Adam committed the mistake and neglected the covenant that was taken from him and his children, for Muhammad and his Legatee, he landed on the Earth, puzzled and perplexed. When his repentance was accepted, Allah sent this same angel in the form of a pure white shinning pearl to Adam from heaven when he was in India. Adam saw the Angel and was enchanted by him but he thought it was a pearl. Allah made it speak. It said, ‘O Adam! Do you know me?’ He said, ‘No.’ It said, ‘You do know me but Satan has overpowered you made your heart forget Allah.’ Saying this he regained the form that Adam seen in heaven. Then he asked Adam of his covenant with Allah. Adam moved towards him, then suddenly remembered the covenant and began to weep. As a mark of respect to the covenant and renewing of oath, he kissed the Angel.
Allah again made it into a white glowing pearl. Due to its importance, Adam carried it on his shoulders. When he used to get tired, Archangel Gabriel used to carried it, until they reached Makkah. Adam always showed a great regard for it and renewed his oath day and night. When Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to construct the Ka‘bah, he came down between the Rukn, Hajar and door and appeared Adam when he was renewing his covenant. Therefore, the covenant was entrusted to the Angel at this very place. He fixed the Hajar to this pillar. Archangel Gabriel took Adam from Ka‘bah to Mt. Safa and Hawwa’ to Mt. Marwa. Adam praised and glorified Allah.
Therefore it is recommended for all to face the Hajar from Mt. Safa and recite Allahu Akbar.”
From a reliable tradition it is narrated from Holy Prophet that Adam was lowered to Safa from heaven and Hawwa’ on Marwa. In the heaven Hawwa’ had made up her hair. When she came to the Earth she said, “How can I hope for beauty and embellishments on this Earth when I am under the wrath of Allah?” She unfurled her hair and the fragrance that she had used in the heaven spread in the surroundings. The breeze spread the fragrance all over and it reached India instantly once.
In another tradition he said, “When Hawwa’ loosened her hair Allah sent a breeze that carried the fragrance from East to West.”
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from ‘Ali that people asked Holy Prophet how Allah create the dog? He said, “From the saliva of Satan.” When he was asked to explain the process he said, “When Allah sent Adam and Hawwa’ to Earth they were lying down and shivering like chickens. Iblis, the accursed, ran to the animals that inhabited the Earth before Adam and said, “A couple of chickens have fallen from sky; they are so big that no one has ever seen such huge chickens before. Come and devour them.” The beasts were with Satan while he continuously ushered them, “It is only a short distance and we are about to reach them.” Due to this soft conversation, his saliva dripped to the ground. Allah created a pair dogs from it, a male and a female. The dog came to Adam and the bitch went to Hawwa’ and stood there. They did not allow the beasts to come near them. From that day, wild animals became avowed enemies of dogs.
According to a reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that in heaven the duration of Adam’s stay in the Garden was seven minutes of this world until they ate from the prohibited tree. Allah sent them down to earth on the same day. Adam said, “O Allah! Did You destine for me the sin and whatever I will do in the future before You created me? Or did the villainy overpower me?” Allah said, “O Adam! I created you, taught you and placed you and your wife in heaven. But due to My bounty and Power, which I have honored you, you have become capable to disobey Me. Although you weren’t hidden from My Eyes and My Knowledge had anticipated your action.” Adam said, “O Allah! Your proof is complete on me.” Allah said, “I created you, gave you a beautiful form, ordered angels to prostrate to you and raised your name on the heavens and exalted you. Then I placed you in My Garden. I did all this due to My satisfaction and to test you through the bounties. Because all the bounties that I have bestowed on you were without your efforts.” Adam said, “O My Lord, Goodness is from Your side and evil from mine.” Allah said, “O Adam! I am the Generous One. I created goodness before evil and also created Mercy before My wrath. Created fame before disgrace. Before creating punishment, I appointed My proofs as a necessity (who warned people against divine wrath). O Adam! Did not I prohibit you from this tree and did not I say that Satan is the enemy of you and your wife? And did I not make you two aware of Satan before you entered heaven? Did not I say that if you eat from that tree you will do injustice to yourself and will be My sinful servant? O Adam! An unjust one or a sinner cannot reside near Me in heaven.” Adam said, “O my Creator, Your Proof is complete for us. We did injustice to our souls and we have disobeyed You. If You won’t forgive us nor have Mercy on us we will be from among the losers.”
When they confessed their sins and accepted the completion of proof upon themselves Allah, the Beneficent and the Mercy of the Merciful engulfed them and He accepted their repentance. Allah said, “O Adam! “Go down to earth with your wife. If you rectify your actions, I will condone you. If you work for Me, I will bestow you power and strength. And if you strive for My satisfaction, I will compensate. If you fear Me, I will make you fearless from My wrath.” Adam and Hawwa’ heard this and wept. They said, “O Allah! Help us to rectify ourselves and perform acts that cause Your satisfaction.” Allah said, “Whenever you commit a mistake repent for it immediately, so that I accept your repentance. And I am the Acceptor of Repentance and (I am) the Beneficent.” Adam said, “O Allah! By Your Mercy send us down to Your favorite land.” Allah asked Archangel Gabriel to take them to the bountiful city of Makkah. Archangel Gabriel placed Adam on Mt. Safa and Hawwa’ on Mt. Marwa. They both stood there and looked towards the sky and started weeping and lamenting. “Why are you crying when I am satisfied with you?” asked Allah. They said, “O Allah! We are weeping for the sin that has separated us from the presence of Your Mercy. Because of us the purity and glory of Angels got veiled, our private parts became apparent. Our sins have forced us the toil cultivation, eating and drinking. We are terrified of the separation.”
Allah! The Beneficent and Merciful had Mercy on them and revealed to Archangel Gabriel, “I have Mercy on Adam and Hawwa’. As they have confessed to their sin and complained of their tribulations, take for them a tent from heaven, console them and teach them patience. Unite them in the tent because I had pity on them due to their weeping from fear and loneliness. Pitch the tent on the raised ground between the mountains of Makkah and the foundation that the angels have raised. Archangel Gabriel brought the tent, which was equivalent to the height of Ka‘bah, and placed it at that particular spot. Then he brought Adam and Hawwa’ from Safa and Marwa to the tent. The centre pole of the tent was of Red Ruby and due to its glow, the surroundings of Makkah and nearby mountains lit up. The glow arose as high as the sanctuary. The sanctity of the House increased due to the presence of the heavenly tent in its vicinity. It is for this reason that good and bad actions attain greater weight when performed in this area. Allah stretched the ropes of the tent around the sanctuary. It’s pegs were fixed in the branches of Paradise.
In another tradition, the pegs were of heaven’s pure gold. And its ropes from heaven’s purple ropes. Allah revealed to Archangel Gabriel to take 70000 angels to earth to supervise and protect the tent from evil jinn and befriend Adam and Hawwa’. They should show respect to the tent by circling around it. Angels descended and settled near the tent. They guarded it from the arrogant and evil Shaitans and circled Adam’s tent and Ka‘bah day and night as they used to circle al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur in the heavens. The Ka‘bah is exactly below al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to Adam and Hawwa’ and take them away from the foundation of Ka‘bah as He wanted to send a group of angels to the Earth to build the Holy House for Angels and the progeny of Adam. Archangel Gabriel brought Adam and Hawwa’ out of tent and took Adam to Mt. Safa and Hawwa’ to Mt. Marwa and took the tent back to heaven. Adam and Hawwa’ asked Archangel Gabriel “O Archangel Gabriel! Is it due Allah’s wrath that you have separated us from the House and separated us or is it due to some wisdom for the satisfaction of Allah?” Archangel Gabriel said, “It is not because of divine wrath. But no one has the right to question Allah’s actions. O Adam! The 70000 angels that were sent for your company on earth and to do circumambulation around tent or the foundation of House asked Allah to replace it with a House equivalent to al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur so they can circle it as they circled al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur in the heaven.
Thus Allah asked me to take you away from there and take the tent back.” Adam said, “I am resigned to destiny and Divine order. It is for our good.” Therefore Adam and Hawwa’ were staying at Safa and Marwa respectively. Adam was pained at his separation from Hawwa’. He came down from Mt. Safa and looked towards Mt. Marwa in passion. He saw Hawwa’ on Mt. Marwa but when he reached the valley between Safa and Marwa he could neither see Mt. Marwa not Hawwa’. Adam feared that he has lost his way and began to run in the valley until he reached Marwa. He stopped running and climbed the mountain to Hawwa’ and greeted her with salaam. Both of them looked towards Ka‘bah that perhaps its foundations have elevated by then. He prayed to Allah to return them to the House. Adam came down and returned to Mt. Safa. Again he looked towards Ka‘bah and prayed. Again he longed for Hawwa’. He came down from Safa the second time and went towards Marwa. He did this three times and returned. When he reached Safa and prayed to Allah to keep them together and Hawwa’ also prayed. At that time, both of their prayers were accepted. It was afternoon (Zawal).
Archangel Gabriel told Adam to come down from Safa and meet Hawwa’. Adam came down from Safa and rushed towards Marwa, reached Hawwa’ and told her what Archangel Gabriel had said to him. Both of them were delighted. They thanked and praised Allah. It was due to this that the ritual of Sa’y (running seven times between Safa to Marwa) became established. Archangel Gabriel informed him that Allah has sent Angels to construct the Ka‘bah with stones of Mount Sinai and Jabal as-Salaam, (Najaf). Allah ordered Archangel Gabriel to build the Ka‘bah with the help of these Angels. Archangel Gabriel dug up the four stones that Allah had ordered and fixed them. Then he drew foundation of pillars as Allah had chosen. Allah revealed to Archangel Gabriel to complete the house with the stone that was kept as a trust on Mount Abu Qubays (the Black Stone). He also opened two doors in the Ka‘bah one opening to the east and other West. When Archangel Gabriel finished, the angels began to circle the Ka‘bah. Adam and Hawwa’ saw the Angels performing circumambulation so they also took seven rounds. Then they left the sanctuary to find something to eat. All this happened on the day they came down to Earth.
According to trustworthy chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that Adam was in Sajdah for 40 days on Mt. Safa and was lamenting the separation from Divine Mercy and heaven. Archangel Gabriel came to him and inquired why he was weeping. He said, “Why should not I cry? Allah has separated me from the vicinity of His Mercy and sent me down to Earth.” Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam! Ask forgiveness from Allah.” “How should I repent,” he asked. Allah sent for him a dome of light at the site of Ka‘bah. Its glow illuminated the mountains of Makkah as high as the sanctuary. Allah ordered Archangel Gabriel to mark the precincts of the sanctuary. On the 8th of Dhu’l-hijjah Archangel Gabriel came to Adam and told him to arise. He took him out of the sanctuary and instructed him to perform Ghusl and wear the Ihram. Then he took him to the Mina and camped there overnight. Next morning they went to the plains of ‘Arafat. On the day of ‘Arafat at the time of Dhuhr prayers Adam was told to recite the Talbiya and perform Ghusl. After he completed the prayers Archangel Gabriel told him to stand on the plains of ‘Arafat and taught him the words that he had learnt from his Lord: Subh’aanaka Allahumma wa be hamdeka laa ilaaha illa anta. A’melto sooan wa zalamto nafsi wa’tarafto be dhanbi. Faghfirli innaka antal gafoorur rah’eem. Subhaanaka Allahumma wa be hamdeka laa ilaaha illa anta. A’melto soooan wa zalamto nafsi wa’tarafto be dhanbi. Faghfirli innaka anta khairul ghaafereen. Subhaanaka Allahumma wa be hamdeka laa ilaaha illa anta. A’melto soooan wa zalamto nafsi wa’tarafto be dhanbi. Faghfirli innaka anta attawwaaburraheem.
Adam kept standing, prayed to Allah with sincerity, and wept. At sunset, Archangel Gabriel took Adam to Mash’ar and they stayed there for the night. In the morning, Adam stood on Mountain of Mashar-il-haram and prayed to Allah with the words that were taught to him. Allah forgave his sins. Then Archangel Gabriel brought him to Mina and asked him shave his head and again brought him to Makkah. Upon reaching al-Jamarah al-Ula, the Satan came to him and said, “O Adam! Where are you going?” Archangel Gabriel told Adam to say Allahu Akbar and hit him seven times with pebbles. When Adam did this, the Satan fled. Again, he met Adam at al-Jamarah al-Thaniyah. Archangel Gabriel again told him to toss seven pebbles. Adam obeyed reciting Allahu Akbar simultaneously. Satan ran away. At al-Jamarah al-Thalithah, Satan appeared once again and Adam threw seven pebbles at him while repeating Allahu Akbar. Satan ran away. Archangel Gabriel said, “You will not see him again.” Archangel Gabriel brought Adam towards Ka‘bah and ordered him to do circumambulation seven times. Archangel Gabriel said to Adam that Allah has accepted his repentance and has made his wife halal (permissible) to him. When Adam finished the hajj he met Angels at Abtali who said, “May Allah accept your hajj. We have performed the hajj of this House 2000 years before you.”
According to an authentic tradition Angels told him this when he was going to ‘Arafat. And in another good tradition when Adam was doing circumambulation of Ka‘bah and his Dua was about to be accepted and Archangel Gabriel told him to confess his sins at that place. Adam said, “O Allah every action carries a reward. What is the reward of my action?” Allah revealed to him, “O Adam! I will forgive all those from your progeny who visit this place and confess their sins.
A reliable chain of narrators has narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that when Adam constructed the Ka‘bah and did circumambulation he said, “Every doer of an action gets a reward. I also performed an act.” It was revealed to him, “O Adam! Ask what you want.” Adam said, “O Allah! Forgive my sins.” It was revealed to him, “O Adam! You are forgiven.” Adam said, “O Allah forgive my progeny also.” A voice came, “O Adam! Whoever performs this act and accepts his sins will be forgiven.”
In one of the traditions it is narrated that when Adam’s progeny increased and some of them were sitting with him and talking among themselves while Adam was silent. They asked him why he was so quite. He said, “When Allah expelled me from the vicinity of His Mercy He made me promise that I would talk less and that consequently He would accept me back in His Presence.”
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Musa ibn Ja‘far when Adam and Hawwa’ committed ‘Tark al-Awla’ Allah sent Adam to Mt. Safa. It is called Safa because ‘Adam Mustafa’ (Adam the Chosen one) descended on it. Hawwa’ was brought to Mt. Marwa. It is called Marwa because it is ‘mar’a’ means one upon whom a woman descended. Adam thought that he was separated from Hawwa’ because she was not lawful for him. Therefore, Adam remained aloof from her. During the day he used to be with Hawwa’ at Marwa and at night return to his place at Mt. Safa due to the fear that desire does not overcome him. He had only the company of Hawwa’ until Angels were sent by Allah. Women are called ‘Nisa’ because Hawwa’ was the cause of affection for Adam. Allah favored and rewarded them by giving them Tawfiq for repentance and taught them some words. When Adam repented with those words, Allah accepted his repentance and sent Archangel Gabriel to him. Archangel Gabriel said, “As-Salaamo A’laikum O Adam! Allah has sent me to teach you the rituals of hajj, so that you get purified.”
Archangel Gabriel brought him to Ka‘bah. Allah sent a cloud over Ka‘bah to shadow them and it was equal to al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam! Trace the boundaries of the Holy House around the shadow of this cloud and a cubicle will appear. It shall be the Qiblah for you and your children.” When Adam marked the boundary, a cubicle appeared under the cloud. Allah also sent the Black Stone and it was whiter than milk and brighter than Sun. As polytheists also touched it repeatedly, it became black. Archangel Gabriel told Adam to perform hajj and seek forgiveness for his sins at all the significant places. Then he said that Allah has forgiven him and now he must pick up pebbles from Mash’ar for stoning the Al-Jamarah. So he went near Al-Jamarah (as mentioned before, and his three encounters with Satan).
When he finished stoning, he was ordered to present a sacrifice in the way of Allah and shave his Allah as a mark of humility and respect. Then he was commanded to circle the Ka‘bah seven times and do perform Sa’y (act of trotting between Safa and Marwa) seven times. Again he was obliged to perform the circumambulation of Ka‘bah. That was Tawaaf Al Nisaa’ (Women Circumambulation) — a man cannot establish lawful relationship with his wife unless he performs this circumambulation. When Adam completed all the rituals Archangel Gabriel said that Allah has forgiven all his sins, accepted his repentance and has made lawful for him his wife.
In an authentic report Imam as-Sadiq performed circumambulation and recited two Rak‘ah prayers between the Black Stone and the door of Ka‘bah and said, “Adam’s repentance was accepted at this particular place.”
In another reliable tradition, it is narrated that people asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir how (with what instrument) was the head of Adam shaved after hajj. He said, “Archangel Gabriel brought a Ruby from Heaven and it was rubbed on Adam’s head and all his hair fell off.”
According to a trustworthy chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that when Adam came to Earth to India the Black Stone was dropped towards him. It was like a red Ruby from the Holy Throne. When Adam saw it, he recognized it. He kissed it and carried it to Makkah. On the way when he used to be tired, Archangel Gabriel carried it. Archangel Gabriel saw Adam often sad and dejected. Once he complained to Archangel Gabriel. Archangel Gabriel said, “Whenever you are sorrowful recite, “Laa Hawla walaa quwwata illaa billaahil a’liyyil a’zeem.”
Shi‘ahs and Sunni sources have narrated from Wahab that Adam came down to down to Earth on a mountain in the eastern part of India. It was called Basim. Allah ordered him to proceed to Makkah. Earth rolled up for him. Wherever he set his foot, the place became populated. Adam wept for 200 years due to his expulsion from heaven. Allah sent a tent from heaven for his consolation and placed it at the position of Ka‘bah. It was of Red Ruby and had two golden doors. One towards the East and another facing West. Two lanterns of gold shone brightly in it. The Black Stone arrived and it was a white Ruby from heaven. A chair that Adam used in the heaven also came down and was placed in tent. When Adam died, the tent was lifted up to the sky and at that particular place the sons of Adam constructed a house of mud that did not submerge in the deluge of Nuh. It was intact until the time of Ibrahim.
According to a reliable chain of narrators, it is quoted from Imam as-Sadiq that Adam had an Angel as a special companion. When Adam was expelled to the Earth the Angel became uneasy. He complained to Allah and asked permission to visit Adam on the Earth. He came and saw that Adam was sitting alone in a desert. Adam saw him he kept his hand on his head and raised such a loud cry that every creature heard it. The Angel said, “O Adam! You disobeyed the Lord and undertook the burden you were not capable of. Do you know what Allah had told us about you and we had differed with him?” “No,” replied Adam. “Allah told us that He was going to appoint His vicegerent on the Earth. We protested saying this would create mischief and bloodshed. Thus Allah actually created you for the Earth not that you remain in the heavens.” Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said thrice, “I swear by Allah, these words comforted Adam.”
It is narrated from the Holy Prophet that Satan was the inventor of singing and musical instruments. When Adam ate from the prohibited tree, Satan started singing. When Allah sent Adam from heaven to earth, he started singing songs of the camel driver. When he was himself expelled to the Earth, he remembered the bounties of heaven and sang dirges.
In another reliable tradition it is narrated from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq that no one has wept like Adam, Yusuf, and Dawud. People asked how much they had wept. Imam said, “When Adam was sent from the heavens to Earth, he raised his head towards the sky and due to his tall stature his head reached a door of heaven. When he cried the inhabitants of heaven became restless. They complained to Allah and Allah reduced his height. Dawud cried so much that his tears caused grass to sprout up and he sighed so deep that the grass withered. Being separated from his father Yusuf cried so much that other inmates became uneasy and demanded that he lament on alternate days only.”
It is narrated from ‘Ali ibn Husayn that whenever Adam had sexual desire he used to take Hawwa’ out of the sanctuary and after performing the ritual bath they returned.
According to correct chain of narrators it is mentioned that Safwan asked Imam al-Ridha regarding the Holy Sanctuary and its signs. Imam said that when Adam descended on Mt. Abu Qubays; and people say he came down to India, he complained to Allah for the fear that he experienced and the absence of incantations of divine praise that he used to hear in the Heaven. Allah sent a red ruby that He kept at the location of Ka‘bah. Adam used to do circumambulation around it. Adam marked the boundaries as far as the glow of the ruby reached and Allah appointed it as the Sanctuary.
A reliable chain of narrators mention Imam as-Sadiq was asked regarding the origin of fragrance. He asked what people say? He was told that the people say that Adam came from heaven and had a crown on his head. Imam said, “I swear by Allah Adam was so much aggrieved that he could have a crown on his head! Before eating the fruit Hawwa’ had fragranced her hair with one of the heaven’s fragrance. When she came to earth, she loosened her hair. Allah sent a breeze that spread the fragrance from the East to the West. Every fragrance originated from that.”
In another reliable tradition, it is said that when Adam ate from the prohibited tree the robe that he was wearing suddenly separated from his body leaving him naked. He covered himself with leaves. When he came to the Earth, the fragrance of the leaves got mingled with grass. The south wind carried it to the west. When it halted in India, the fragrance merged with the trees and grasses and the land of India became fragrant. The first animal to feed on this grass was the Musk deer, the fragrance was instrumental in development of its flesh and blood, and it accumulated at its navel.
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam al-Ridha that on 28th Dhu’l-Qa’dah Mercy of Allah spread wide, Earth was stretched and it became vast, and on the same day Ka‘bah was constructed and Adam came to earth.
It is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that Ka‘bah was at a raised plateau. Its flooring was white and shone like the Sun and Moon. When Qabil killed Habil the floor became black. When Adam came to earth, Allah raised the land for him so that he could see everyone. It was revealed, “All this is for you.” Adam asked, “O Allah! Is why the floor is so white and shinning?” He was told, “It is for Me, and I have made it incumbent upon you to do circumambulation 700 times everyday.”
In another reliable tradition, it is said the cirrus accompanied Adam for one month from Sarandeep to Jeddah.
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam ‘Ali that he asked Holy Prophet why some trees bore fruits and others did not. The Holy Prophet said that when Adam glorified Allah by reciting one Tasbih (saying: Subhanallah), fruit bearing tree grew. When Hawwa’ recited a Tasbih one non-fruit tree grew.” ‘Ali asked, “Through what did Allah create barley?” Holy Prophet said, “Allah ordered Adam to do cultivate land and Archangel Gabriel got a handful of wheat for him. Adam took some of it and Hawwa’ some. Adam prohibited Hawwa’ to undertake cultivation but she did not listen and sowed the wheat. So that which Adam sowed gave wheat grown and that which Hawwa’ had sown gave Barley.”
According to an authentic tradition from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir Adam visited Ka‘bah a thousand times, and on foot. Seven hundred times for hajj and three hundred times for Umrah.
Reliable hadith of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that when Adam came to the Earth and had eaten the earthly food he felt a hardness in his stomach and digestion. He mentioned it to Archangel Gabriel. Archangel Gabriel told him to go and sit in a corner. He did so and subsequently passed stool (for the first time)
Sunnis narrators quote the Holy Prophet to have said, “Your father Adam was like a date palm, sixty yards tall.”
Some people asked Imam as-Sadiq, “how tall were Adam and Hawwa’ that came to the Earth?” Imam replied, “I saw in the book of ‘Ali that when Allah sent Adam and Hawwa’ to Earth their feet touched Mt. Safa and heads were touching the sky. They complained of the severe heat of the Sun. Allah revealed to Archangel Gabriel to reduce the body by seventy hands for Adam and by thirty-five hands for Hawwa’.”
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir quotes the Holy Prophet to have said that Allah sent down Adam to Earth and ordered him to grow his own food. After enjoying the bounties of heaven now, he should make his own effort to acquire sustenance. Adam continued to weep for 200 years due to his expulsion from heaven. He went into Sajdah and did not lift his head for three days and nights. He said, “O Allah have You not created?” Allah said, “Definitely, I have.” Again, he asked, “Have you not blown my soul into my body?” He was told, “Surely I have.” He asked, “Did You not settle me in heaven?” He was informed, “Yes I have.” He said, “Did you not subdue Your Wrath by Your Mercy for me?” Allah said, “Yes I did, but did you have patience and had thank Me?” Adam said, “There is no god except You, You are glorified, I have been unjust to my soul, so forgive me, surely You are all Forgiving all Merciful.”
It is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that when Allah wanted to accept the repentance of Adam, Archangel Gabriel was sent to him. Archangel Gabriel came and said Assalaamo A’laikum! O! The one who is patient on his calamities and repent of ones mistake. Adam, Allah has sent me to teach you the rituals by which Allah would accept your repentance.” He took Adam’s hand and went near Ka‘bah. A cloud hovered from sky and shaded the precincts of Ka‘bah. Archangel Gabriel told him to mark the limit of the Sanctuary. Then Archangel Gabriel took him to Mina and showed him the site of the mosque. Adam marked the boundaries of the mosque. Archangel Gabriel now took him to ‘Arafat and asked him to wait until sunset and confess his sins seven times. Adam did as taught by Archangel Gabriel and due to this; the place was named ‘Mo’taraf’ or Ma’raf. This practice was established for Adam’s progeny.
Archangel Gabriel asked him to return from ‘Arafat. Adam passed the seven mountains and Archangel Gabriel asked him to say four times “Allahu Akbar” on each of the mountains. They reached Mashar-il-haram after three fourth of the night had passed and recited evening prayers and the Night Prayer. Due to this Mashar is called as Jama. Archangel Gabriel asked Adam to rest at Mashar and he went to sleep. In the morning, he was told to go upon Mashar and at sunrise confess for his sins and repent seven times and seek forgiveness from Allah. Adam did as commanded.
Thus, acceptance of sins became possible at these two places, ‘Arafat and Mashar. For the descendants of Adam it became the ritual that if they reach ‘Arafat it is as though they have completed the hajj. Adam left from Mashar and reached Mina at mid-morning and upon the instructions of Archangel Gabriel recited two Rak‘ah (units) prayers and sacrificed (an animal) for Allah. Allah accepted his sacrifice and a fire appeared from the sky and burnt the sacrificial animal. This was also included in the hajj rituals for the children of Adam. Archangel Gabriel said to Adam that Allah has favored him by teaching you the rites of pilgrimage and because of these rites, his repentance was accepted. And that his sacrifice was also accepted.
Therefore, he should shave his head as a mark of helplessness and humility before Allah. Adam shaved his head and Archangel Gabriel took him towards Ka‘bah. Satan met Adam near Jamarah Uqba and said, “O Adam where are you going?” Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam hit him seven stones and with each one say Allahu Akbar. When Adam did, Satan fled. The next day again Archangel Gabriel caught Adam’s hand and brought him toward Al-Jamarah al-Ula. Again Satan appeared. Archangel Gabriel asked Adam to throw seven stones on him and while throwing say Allahu Akbar. When Adam did so, Satan ran away. Satan appeared at second Al-Jamarah and said to Adam, “O Adam where are you going?” Archangel Gabriel asked Adam to hit seven stones and every time say ‘Allahu Akbar’. Satan disappeared.
Similarly, on the 3rd and 4th day, the Satan was chased away and Archangel Gabriel said that he would not be seen again. Archangel Gabriel took Adam to Ka‘bah and ordered him to do circumambulation seven times. Adam did so, and then Archangel Gabriel said Allah has forgiven his sin and accepted his repentance. Now his wife was also lawful for him.
It is narrated from Ja‘far as-Sadiq that when Adam came to the Earth he prayed to Allah for fruits of heaven. Allah sent two bunches of grapes. Adam sowed it. Leaves sprouted, and then it bore fruit that was finally ripe. Satan, the accursed, arrived and built a boundary wall around it. Adam said, “O Accursed one! What you have got to do with it? Satan said, “It is for me.” “You are a liar,” said Adam. Both of them went to The Holy Spirit for arbitration. The Holy Spirit threw fire on the tree and it began to burn. Flames rose up. Adam thought that the whole tree would burn. Even Satan thought so. But when the flames calmed they saw that 2/3 of the tree was burnt and 1/3 remained. The Holy Spirit said that the burnt portion constituted the share of Satan and what remained belonged to Adam.
In another tradition narrated from Ja‘far as-Sadiq when Allah sent Adam to Earth He ordered him to plant a tree start cultivation. Four plants were sent for Adam from heaven i.e... date grapes, olive and pomegranate. Adam sowed them for his children and they enjoyed the fruits. Satan the accursed said, “O Adam, what is this tree that I have never seen before on the Earth? Although I was here much before you. Permit me so that I take few fruits from it.” Adam rebuked Satan and refused to oblige him. When Adam was at his death bed Satan went to Hawwa’ and said, “I am extremely hungry and thirsty.” Hawwa’ said that Adam had put her under oath not to allow Satan any of the fruits since they were from heaven and Satan did not have any right to eat the fruits of heaven. Satan said, “All right, at least put a little bit on my hand.” Still Hawwa’ refused. He said, “Give me a fruit. I will just suck at it.” Hawwa’ gave him a bunch of grapes. He began to suck. When he sucked one third Hawwa’ pulled it out from his mouth. Allah revealed to Adam, “Satan who is My and your enemy has sucked the grapes. Therefore, the juice, that becomes wine, is haram on you. If Satan had eaten them completely I would have made grapes haram for humans.”
In the same way he deceived Hawwa’ and sucked dates also. Dates and grapes both were more fragrant and sweeter than Musk but their fragrance was lost and sweetness decreased after the enemy of Allah, Satan the accursed had sucked them. Imam as-Sadiq said, “After the death of Adam Satan the accursed urinated at the base of date and grape plants and the water got mixed up with his urine. Due to this, the fermented juices of these fruits have a foul smell and intoxicating quality. Allah made unlawful all intoxicating liquids.” And in another reliable tradition said that our dates were sent to Adam from heaven and are better than all other dates.”
According to a correct chain of narrators Imam al-Ridha said that the date palm of Maryam was Ajwa. Ajwa and Ateeq were sent for Adam and through them, other kinds of dates evolved.
It is narrated from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq that when Adam came to Earth he was in need of food. He complained to Archangel Gabriel. Archangel Gabriel told him to start cultivation. He asked Archangel Gabriel to teach him some Dua and he taught him the following, Allahumma feni moonatadduniya wa kulla haulin doonal jannate wal besniy al a’afiyata hatta tohneniyal mae’esha.
 The third question is not mentioned in the narration.
 We have already discussed the meaning of Jealousy in the previous section.
 There is no contradiction between these traditions. It is possible that all this might have occurred and all these personalities might have interceded for his repentance.
 There are differences in traditions regarding the site of descent of Adam and Hawwa’. Many reliable traditions shows Adam came down to Safa and Marwa. And some traditions say that they came down to India. Commonly held opinion is that Adam came on one of the mountains of Sarandeep which is called Nood or Navad. And Hawwa’ came down to Jeddah. It is possible that India was mentioned due to Taqiyyah. And it is also possible that initially they came down to India and later went to Makkah and stayed at Safa and Marwa as we shall see in traditions later.
 This tradition is usually quoted from Sunni sources, and the traditions discussed earlier are much more reliable.
 Adam felt the heat of the Sun because he could not take shelter under a tree or cave. His height may have been reduced by 70 hands. That is previously he was 70 hands and tall and subsequently reduced to one unit it might refer to the unit ‘hand’ of that time or the unit that which Adam fixed for measurement of things. Same is regarding Hawwa’. I have explained this tradition in a number of ways in my book Behaarul Anwaar.