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An account of the children of Adam

Hayat Al-Qulub Vol. 1,
By: Allamah Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlisi

According to Zurarah people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq, “How did the lineage of Adam come into being because those who live with us (Sunnis) say that Allah commanded Adam to marry his sons to his daughters.
Thus, humanity has descended from brothers and sisters. Imam said, “Allah is Purified and Highly Elevated from such kind of action. Those who say this have blamed Allah for the unlawful origin of His exalted creation like His friends, Prophets, Mu’mins and Muslims. This implies that Allah was unable to create through lawful ways although He had taken oath from them that they would be lawful, clean and purified. I swear by Allah news reached me of some animal that did not recognize their sisters and had intercourse with them. When later they came to know they bit their own sexual organs and died. In the same way, a person unknowingly committed incest with his mother. When later he realized his mistake, he killed himself. So how could one accept it when one is aware of the reality?
But there is a group, as you know, that has left the knowledge of Prophet and his Ahl al-Bayt, and they learn from those who have not been appointed by Allah, nor do have any divine knowledge. These people are ignorant and have deviated. They have no idea of the initialization of creation and subsequent developments. It is a pity they are ignorant of something regarding which there is no difference of opinion between the scholars of hijaz and Iraq.
Two thousand years before the creation of Adam Allah ordered the Pen (Qalam) to inscribe on al-Lawh al-Mahfu¨ (the protected tablet) all that was going to occur until the Day of Judgment. It included all the divine books. And in the books, Allah has made unlawful the sisters for their brothers. And at present all the four books. We see in Torah, Injeel, Zabur and Qur’an that were revealed by Allah to His Prophets through al-Lawh al-Mahfuz that nowhere has Allah made the sisters lawful for her brother. Whosoever says so supports the arguments of Magians. What is basis of their argument? May Allah destroys them.
Adam had 70 twins. Every twin consisted of a boy and a girl. When Qabil killed Habil, Adam was so much shocked that he cried for five hundred years and did not touch his wife. When he overcame his sorrow he cohabited and Allah gave him a son, Shith who was born a single child. Shith was named Hibtullah. He was the first successor to whom a will was made. After Shith, Yaafith was also born singly. When both grew up and Allah wanted to multiply human beings and as the Qalam had made the sisters unlawful for their brothers Allah on a Thursday after Asr sent a huri, Nazala and ordered Adam to marry Shith to her.
Next day another huri, Mauzela was sent and Allah ordered that Yafith be married to her. Adam did as was told. Shith got a son and Yafith a daughter. When both attained maturity Allah ordered Adam to marry them and Adam obeyed. Thus, the lineage of Prophets and Messengers of Allah began. Allah forbids! It is not so as people say that human beings have descended through brother and sister.”
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam al-Baqir that Allah sent a huri from heaven and Adam married her to one of his sons. He also married a female jinni to another of his son. Therefore beauty in creation due to the huri and ugliness due the Jinn. Imam has emphatically denied that Adam married sons to daughters.
A reliable chain of narrators states that people asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir regarding the evolution of generations. Imam asked what people said regarding the marriage of the sons of Adam. The narrator told him they say that in every delivery, twins (a boy and a girl) were born to Hawwa’. Adam used to marry a boy from one set of twins to a girl from another set. Imam said it was not so. When Haibatullah was born and attained maturity, Adam asked Allah to provide a wife for his son. Allah sent a huri and Adam married her to his son. Through her, four sons were born. Then Adam had another son. When he grew up he was married to a Jinn woman and she gave birth to four girls. Later Shith’s sons were married to the daughters of the Jinn woman. Therefore beauty from the huri and forbearance is from Adam, while every bad quality, ugliness and stupidity is due to the Jinn woman. After giving birth to sons, the huri returned to the heavens.
In another reliable tradition, it is said that Adam had four sons. Allah sent four houries for them. When children were born from them, Allah recalled the houries. Then the same sons were married to jinn women and in this way generations grew. Therefore, forbearance is from Adam and every beauty and perfection is due to four houries. Whereas ugliness, bad behavior and evil is from jinn.
According to reliable chain of narrators Sulayman ibn Khalid said to Ja‘far as-Sadiq, “May I be sacrificed for you, people says that Adam married his sons to his daughters?” Imam said, “Yes people do say that, but O Sulayman, you might not know that Holy Prophet said, ‘If Adam had married his daughters to his sons then certainly would have married Zaynab to Qasim without having left the religion of Adam.’”
Sulayman said, “May I be sacrificed on you, they say that Qabil killed Habil because Habil was ashamed that his sister was being given to Habil. Imam said, “O Sulayman! You also attribute such filthy things to Adam and do not feel ashamed?” He said, “May I be sacrificed on you. What was the reason that Qabil killed Habil?” Imam replied, “Because Adam had appointed Habil as his successor. Allah revealed to Adam to hand over the successorship and the Grand Name to Habil while Qabil was elder. When he knew this, he was angry and said that he was the rightful heir to successorship and bounties. Under divine instructions, Adam asked both of them to present a sacrifice to Allah. Allah accepted Habil’s sacrifice and rejected Qabil’s. So he envied Habil and killed him.”
Sulayman said, “May I be sacrificed on you how did the generations of Adam continue? Was there was a woman other than Hawwa’ and a man other than Adam?”
Imam said, “First Allah created Qabil and then Habil from the womb of Hawwa’. When Qabil attained maturity Allah sent a Jinn woman for him and revealed to Adam to marry both of them. Adam did so and Qabil was satisfied. When Habil attained age Allah sent for him a huri and asked Adam to marry them. Adam obeyed the divine command. When Habil was murdered the huri was pregnant and gave birth to a son. Adam named him Haibatullah. Allah ordered Adam to hand over the Grand Name and successorship to him. Then Hawwa’ gave birth to a son whom Adam named Shith. When he matured, Allah sent a huri and commanded Adam to marry his son Shith to her. A daughter was born to that Hoor and Adam named her Hoora. When she attained maturity Adam married her to Haibatullah the son of Habil. And through them, the generation of Adam continued established.
When Haibatullah died, Allah ordered Adam to transfer the Grand Name and other things, which were taught to him as well as knowledge of Prophets to Shith. O Sulayman this is the reality and the truth.”[29]
According to a reliable tradition of Abu Hamza Thumali, Imam Zayn al-‘abidin said, “When Adam’s repentance was accepted he had desire for Hawwa’. From the time he was created until then, he hadn’t such desire. But since Adam had great respect for Ka‘bah and its surrounding whenever he had sexual desire he used to take Hawwa’ out of the Sanctuary. Then perform Ghusl and return to Ka‘bah.
Adam and Hawwa’ had twenty sons and twenty daughters. In every delivery Hawwa’ gave birth to a set of twins consisting of a boy and a girl. First Habil was born with a girl who was named Aqleemiya. Then Qabil and a girl, Luza were born. Luza was the best child of Adam. When they attained maturity, Adam was worried they might be involved in fornication. So he called them and said to Habil that he wanted him to marry Luza and to Qabil that he wanted him to marry Aqleemiya. Qabil said that he was not satisfied with the arrangement. He said, “You want me to marry the ugly sister of and that my beautiful sister should marry Habil?” Adam I will draw a lot between you two and accordingly marry you. Both of them agreed. Adam drew a lot.
In Habil’s part came Luza and Qabil’s part came Aqleemiya. He married them. After that, marriage between brother and sister became haram. At that time a person from Quraysh was present he asked whether they had any children after that. Imam said, “Yes.” Person said it was an act of fire worshippers. Imam said, “After this the same act was performed by fire worshipper, and Allah made it unlawful.” Then he said, “Do not deny it. Did not Allah create Hawwa’ from the rib of Adam and made her lawful for him? In his shari‘ah it was allowed in the beginning and later prohibited.”
In another tradition it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that Qabil disputed with Habil regarding Luza. Adam ordered them to offer a sacrifice. Habil a shepherd, took out a healthy sheep and some milk for sacrifice. Qabil who was a cultivator took a few ears of grain. Both of them took their offerings and kept them at the mountain peak. A fire appeared and burnt the offering of Habil whereas Qabil’s remained as it was. Adam wasn’t present there. He had gone to visit Ka‘bah under divine instructions. Qabil said, “I couldn’t live in this world with ease because your sacrifice is accepted mine is not. And you want to marry my beautiful sister and your ugly sister to marry me?” Habil replied, as mentioned in Qur’an. Qabil hit a stone on the head of Habil and killed him.
According to narrators people asked Imam al-Ridha how the generations of Adam continued? Imam said, “Hawwa’ became pregnant with Habil and his sister. Next time she bore Qabil and his sister. Both of them got married to each other’s brothers and sisters and after that marriage of one to his sister became unlawful.[30]
It is narrated from ‘Ali that the Holy Prophet said, “When Allah sent down Adam to Earth He sent his wife also. Whereas Satan and the serpent came to Earth and had no one of the opposite to pair with. Therefore, they began to practice sodomy and initiated their generation. The generations of Adam grew through his wife.”
Allah informed Adam and Hawwa’ that both Satan and the serpent were their enemies.

Martyrdom of Habil
Allah says, “And relate to them the story of the two sons of Adam with truth when they both offered an offering, but it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. He said, I would most certainly slay you. (The other) said, Allah only accepts from those who guard (against evil). If you will stretch forth your hand towards me to slay me, I am not one to stretch forth my hand towards you to slay you. Surely I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds: Surely I wish that you should bear the sin committed against me and your own sin, and so you would be of the inmates of the fire, and this is the recompense of the unjust.” (5:27-29)
Thus the soul of Qabil instigated him to kill his brother. Allah sent a crow to dig the earth and show him how to dispose body of his brother. Qabil said, “It’s a pity. Am I so helpless that I cannot bury my brother’s body like this crow?” Thus, he regretted his mistake.
Imam Zayn al-‘abidin says that when the sons of Adam presented their offerings to Allah one of them took a healthy sheep and the second one took a few ears of inferior quality wheat. Habil’s offering was accepted and Qabil’s was not. Qabil became infuriated and told Habil, “I swear by God I will kill you.” Habil said, “Allah accepts the deeds of forbearing people. (ayah quoted above).” Qabil wanted to kill his brother did not know how. Iblis advised him to crush the head of his brother between two stones. When Habil died he did now not know what to do with the corpse. A pair crows appeared and started fighting. One killed another and the surviving crow dug the earth with his claws and buried the dead one. Seeing this Qabil buried Habil and the practice of burying the dead started.
When Qabil returned, Adam did not see Habil with him and asked where he had left his son. Qabil said, “You did not appoint me as his body guard. Adam realized what must have happened and asked Qabil to accompany him to a place where they had made the offering. When Adam reached the place he came to know that Habil was killed so he cursed the soil, which has absorbed the blood of Habil. After that, the Earth lost the ability to absorb blood. Allah ordered him to curse Qabil too. A voice from heavens announced, “You are the accursed one.” Adam returned and wept for forty days in Habil’s sorrow. When his sorrow reached a pitch, he complained to Allah. Allah revealed to him, “I will grant you another son who in lieu of Habil.” Hawwa’ gave birth to a blessed and pure son. On the eighth day Allah said, “O Adam this child is a gift from Me. Name him “Haibatullah.” Adam did as ordered by Allah.
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said that Habil owned a big herd of sheep and Qabil was a farmer. When they attained maturity Adam said, “I want both of you to present an offering to Allah. For the sake of Allah’s desire or the satisfaction of his father, Habil selected a healthy sheep whereas Qabil took out a few ears of wheat that were was lying useless, and even the cattle had refused it. He indented to neither fulfill Allah’s desire nor satisfy his father. Allah accepted the sacrifice of Habil and rejected Qabil’s offering. Satan came to Qabil and said, “When Habil has children they will boast to your sons that their father’s sacrifice was accepted. Therefore, you must kill him to avert such a situation.” Qabil followed this advice and murdered Habil. Allah deputed Archangel Gabriel to bury Habil. At that time Qabil said: He said, Woe me! Do I lack the strength that I should be like this crow and cover the dead body of my brother? So he became of those who regret. (5:31)
Imam (AS) says that Habil meant to say, Hadn’t it been for this crow I wouldn’t have buried my brother as I had no idea how should have buried him. A voice from the heavens told Qabil, “You are accursed because you have killed your brother.” Adam wept for forty days.
According to a good chain of narrator Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said when Adam appointed Habil as his successor Qabil was envious and killed him. Allah granted Adam another son, Haibatullah and asked Adam to appoint him his successor and keep it confidential. Thereafter it became the practice that every Prophet named a successor and kept it confidential. Qabil said to Haibatullah, “I know your father has made you his successor. So if you express it and talk like a Wasi I will kill you as I killed your brother.”
In another reliable tradition it is said that when Qabil intended to kill his brother he did not know how to accomplish it. Satan told him to keep Qabil’s head between two boulders and crush it.
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says that when the sons of Adam presented a sacrifice each, Habil’s was accepted and Qabil became jealous. He used to spy on Habil for a chance to find him alone. One day he saw that Adam was not with him and killed him.
It is narrated from Imam al-Ridha that a Syrian asked ‘Ali regarding the ayah, “The day on which a man shall fly from his brother.” (80:34)
Imam said, “It is Qabil who will fly from his brother Habil.” The Syrian asked about the inauspiciousness of Wednesday. Imam said, “It is the last Wednesday of the month. This day Qabil killed Habil. Again, the Syrian asked about the first person to recite a poem? Imam said, “It was Adam.”
What kind of a poem was it? Imam said, “When he came down to Earth he saw the vast land, and when Qabil killed Habil. Adam recited a couplet poem that meant: ‘Everything in the cities is transformed and the surroundings have become polluted and foul. Every color and taste has changed, the charm and beauty of faces is cheerless.’ Iblis the accursed said, ‘Then go away from the cities and its inhabitants. The vast abode of heaven became straitened for you although you and your wife were safe from worldly problems. At last, you fell to my deceit and lost the bounties by your own actions. And if the Powerful Lord had not bestowed His Mercy you would have got nothing from heaven except air, and no other benefit would have accrued to you.’”
According to a trustworthy tradition from Imam Muhammad, al-Baqir there is a person in India who stands in garments of sack cloth. Ten persons are appointed on him and one of them dies another person from the village is appointed in his place. People die and are replaced, but ten caretakers continue to mind this person. When the Sun rises, they turn the person’s face towards the Sun and keep it facing the Sun until sunset. In winter, they pour cold water on him and in summer hot water. He was in the same condition when a person passed by. He asked, “O creature of Allah, who are you?” He said, “Either you are a stupid person or an intellectual. I am standing here since creation and no one inquired about asked me.” People say that he was Adam’s son Qabil, who had killed his brother.
Another narration states that Imam himself visited the place, questioned the man under punishment and composed couplets on it. The difference in this narration is that fire was lighted around the person in summer and water was poured on him in winter.
In another reliable tradition it is narrated from ‘Ali that a person came to the Holy Prophet and said, “Messenger of Allah, I have seen an amazing thing.” When the Prophet asked him about it he said, “One of my relative was sick and people advised for him water of Ahqaf well that is situated Wadiul Barhoot. I took a bucket and water bag and reached the place. When I tried to draw water I saw a chain like thing coming from sky with a man tied to it. He was saying give me water I am dying of thirst. I raised the bowl towards him but the chain around his neck tightened and took up to the sun. Again I drew out some water and the same scene was enacted. This happened thrice. So I finally tied up the water bag and did not try to give him any water.” The Holy Prophet said, “He was Qabil the son of Adam; who had killed his brother. And the same thing is mentioned in the Qur'an, “…and those whom they pray to besides Allah give them no answer, but (they are) like one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it will not reach it; and the prayer of the unbelievers is only in error.” (13:14)
Through few chains of reporters, it is narrated that one day Imam Muhammad al-Baqir was sitting in Holy Masjid. Tawus al-Yamani suggested to his companion to go and ask Imam a few things and see what he says. They came and Imam Tawus asked, “Do you know the day when one-third of the world population perished?” “Not one-third,” corrected Imam, “You have made a mistake. Actually you meant one-fourth.”
“How is that?” he asked. Imam said, “When the world population consisted of Adam, Hawwa’, Habil and Qabil and Qabil killed Habil, one-fourth of the population perished. Tawus said, “You have spoken truly.”
Imam then asked, “Do you know what was happened to Qabil?” “No,” he replied. Imam said, “He is hanging from the Sun and hot water is sprinkled on him. This will continue until the Resurrection Day.” Tawus asked whether the progenitor of humanity was the murderer or the slain one. Imam said that generations continued from Shith (another) son of Adam.[31]
According to reliable chain of narrators Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said that seven people would get the worst punishment on the day of judgment. First of them being Qabil, the son of Adam who killed his own brother (until the end of hadith).
It is narrated from the Holy Prophet that the following five are the worst of the creatures: Satan, Qabil, the Pharaoh, the man who deviated The Israelites from their religion and a person from this Ummah of to whom the people will pledge allegiance in his Kufr (disbelief) –that is Muawiyah.
In another reliable hadith it is said that when the offering of Habil was burnt and that of Qabil rejected Satan lied that since Habil worshipped fire his sacrifice was accepted. Qabil said, “If it were so then I would also worship fire. But not the one that Habil worshipped. And I will present my offering to it so that it is accepted. Then he made a fire temple presented offerings therein and did not recognize his Creator. He did not leave anything except fire worship as his heirloom.
In another authentic tradition, it is said that during the time of Adam ferocious, birds and beasts all lived in harmony. But when the son of Adam killed his own brother, they began to hate and fear each other. So they segregated according to their genre and habits.
According to Imam al-Baqir the son of Adam, Qabil is strung by his hair to the Sun and he rotates with it whether it is summer or winter. He will do so until the Resurrection Day when Allah would throw him into Hell.
In another tradition, it is narrated that Imam Muhammad al-Baqir was asked regarding the condition of the son of Adam in Hell. Imam said, “Glory be to Allah. Allah is more just to chastise him in the world and hereafter.”[32]
A reliable tradition of ‘Ali says that the son of Adam, who had killed Habil, was born in heaven.[33]
It is narrated in reliable books from Amir al-Mu’minin that the person to rebel against Allah was Enaaq, the daughter of Adam. Allah has created her with twenty fingers and each finger had two spade-like nails. She was so huge she occupied about 60 square yards while sitting. When she rebelled against Allah He sent a lion as big as an elephant, a wolf the size of a camel and a donkey. These animals were like this at that time. These animals overpowered and killed her.
And in some traditions it is mentioned that Ewaj the son of Enaaq was a despot and an enemy of Allah and Islam. He was tall and huge. He used to catch fish for his food and roast them by holding them near the Sun. He lived for 3060 years. When Nuh was about to board his ark, Ewaj came and asked him to take him also. Nuh said he was not permitted. The floodwater did not rise above his thigh. He was alive until the time of Musa and Musa finally killed him. Allah says, “He it is who created you from a single being, and of the same (Kind) did he make his mate, that he might incline to her; so when he covers her she bears a light burden, then moves about with it, but when it grows heavy, they bath call upon Allah their Lord: If Thou givest us a good one, we shall certainly be of the grateful ones. But when He gives them a good one, they set up with Him associates in what He has given them, but high is Allah above what they associate (with Him).” (7:189-190)
According to a good chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that when Hawwa’ was pregnant and the child moved in her womb. She said to Adam that something was moving in her womb. Adam said it was his sperm, which has placed itself there. Allah shall create a creature so that He tests us through him. Satan came to Hawwa’ and asked how she felt. Hawwa’ said, “I have a child of Adam in my womb that moves.” The accursed said, “If you make an intention to name it Abdul Haris it would be a male child and would be born alive. And if you do not do so it will die within six days.” Hawwa’ doubted the words of Satan and informed Adam. Adam said, “The wretched Satan came to deceive you. Do not believe him. I am hopeful of the Grace of Allah that our child shall live against the prediction of Satan.”
But even Adam harbored a little doubt, which was inculcated by Satan. So, a son was born but he died after six days. Hawwa’ said that whatever Satan had said was correct. Both of them fell into doubts. After sometime Hawwa’ conceived another child. Satan came and asked her condition. Hawwa’ told him that previously a child was born who died in six days. Satan said, “If you had made an intention to name him Abdul Haris he wouldn’t have died. Now you shall beget an animal like camel, cow, sheep or goat.” Hawwa’ decided to believe him and she mentioned it to Adam. Adam also thought the same thing. When Hawwa’ was in labor they prayed to Allah that if He grants them a good son they shall be thankful to Him.
Allah bestowed them a courteous son, not an animal. Satan came to Hawwa’ before the delivery and asked about her condition. Hawwa’ said, “I am about to deliver the child.” Satan said, “You shall be terrified when you see an animal come out from your womb. Adam will hate you and your child.” At last he convinced Hawwa’ and said, “If you decide to name him Abdul Haris and dedicate him to me he would be normal and will remain alive.” Hawwa’ said, “I have made an intention that a part of him shall be yours.” Satan insisted that Adam should also say so. So Hawwa’ narrated the conversation to Adam. He was also frightened and somewhat inclined towards it. Hawwa’ said, “If you do not name him Abdul Haris or make an intention to dedicate a part of him to Satan I won’t allow you to come near me, nor would I fulfill your desire. Our relationship would be over.”
Adam said, “First of all you caused me to be expelled from heaven. Now, again you have been deceived by Satan. All the same I agree to name the child as Abdul Haris.” At last, a child was born safe and sound. Adam was happy and less fearful. He thought that the child would survive. So he named him Abdul Haris on the 7th day.
In another tradition it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir regarding the ayah, “But when He gives them a good one, they set up with Him associates in what He has given them.” (7:90)
It refers to Adam and Hawwa’. Their Shirk was of Shirk of obedience when they obeyed Satan. They dedicated to Satan some part of the creature of Allah and named it Abdul Haris. They did not commit Shirk in the worship of Allah nor had they worshipped some other God.[34]
It could also mean that Allah bestowed upon Adam and Hawwa’ a healthy child and later some of his descendants committed Shirk. This explanation is more plausible as mentioned in Bihar al-Anwar. It is also supported by reliable traditions.
Al-Ma’mun asked Imam al-Ridha the tafsir of this ayah. Imam said, “Hawwa’ had five hundred pregnancies and every time a boy and a girl was born. Adam and Hawwa’ vowed to Allah that if He granted them a virtuous son they would be thankful. So Allah gave them good and healthy twins. From their progeny some became polytheist. And they (sons and daughters) did not thank Allah as their parents (Adam and Hawwa’) did.”
Masoodi in his book Muruj-uz-Zahab narrates that when Habil was killed Adam became was devastated with grief. Allah sent revelation that, “From you a light will be born which I would continue in purified descendants to culminate in the best of My creation. I will make him My last messenger and I appoint for him the best successors and Imams in whose reign the tenure of this world will end. I will inhabit the earth with those who obey them. So be alert and prepare yourself. Perform ghusl and remember Allah. Fulfill your desire with your wife she is also purified with ghusl. Because My Trust will be transferred through this son.” Adam was happy to know this. He came to Hawwa’ and she became pregnant. She became more beautiful. A bright light illuminated her whole body. Shith was born. He was handsome, healthy and a dignified child with an aura of authority. The Noor was transferred from Hawwa’ to Shith and shone on his forehead. Adam named him Shith. Some say he was named Haibatullah. He reached the age of maturity and Adam made a bequest to him and made him aware of the dignity of knowledge, which he was going to inherit, and told him that he is going to be the proof of Allah and his successor after him. He willed that he should fulfill the duties of successorship granted by Allah. And that his successorship should continue on others until it reaches the last Messenger and his heir, which will continue. Shith accepted the legacy and kept it secret as was appropriate. On Friday, in the 6th month of the year Adam left this temporal world. His age was around 930 years.
According to a tradition, Adam left 40,000 children, grandchildren and great grandchildren etc. Shith was the successor of Adam and he guided with the Sahifah (divine book), that he had received from his father. From Shith the light was transferred to Anoosh. When he was born, the light was apparent on him. When he reached the last moments of his tenure Shith transferred all the relics to him and made him the Wasi. He inculcated an awareness of the high station of Successorship and also told him to teach his children the importance of this legacy. This continued until the Noor reached Abdul Muttalib and ‘Abdullah.
Anoosh expired on October 3 at the age of 960 years. Qinyan was his legatee and Anoosh took oath of successorship from him. He attained the age of 120 years. People say his death took place in July.
Mahlayel was the successor of Qinyan. He lived for 800 years. From him came Lood and his age was 962 years. He passed away in the month of Azar. He was succeeded by Idris and light of Muhammad and his progeny were transferred to him. People say that Qabil and his sons had invented many kinds of musical instruments.

Revelations on Adam
Sayyid ibn Tawus says that it is mentioned in the Suhuf (book) of Idris that on the 27th of Ramadhan, Thursday afternoon, Allah revealed on Adam a twenty page book in Syriac and it was the first book that Allah sent to the Earth. It contained all the languages and dictionaries. Altogether there were 1000 languages and a person proficient in one could not understand the others languages. It also contained proofs of Allah’s existence, the obligatory acts, practical laws, recommended acts and penal laws.
According to a reliable chain of narrators Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq and Imam Muhammad al-Baqir said that Allah (SWT) revealed to Adam, “I present to you truth and righteousness in four sentences: One concerns Mine, one is for you, One is common between Me and you, and one is common between you and other creatures. Whatever is in it with regard to Me is your worship. You worship Me and do not associate anyone with Me. Whatever is regarding you is the reward of your action will be bestowed when you deserve it. The words common between you and Me is that it is necessary for you to supplicate Me and it is My responsibility to accept it. Whatever is common between you and creatures is that you should like for others what you like for yourself.”

Death of Adam; His age and his bequest to Shith
Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq and Imam Muhammad al-Baqir state that Adam was informed the names of all Prophets and their ages. When he learnt that the age of Dawud was to be only 40 years he said, “O Allah! Why is the age of Dawud so less while I had such a long life? O Allah would you accept if I gift thirty years of my life to Dawud and increases his age?” “Yes,” said Allah. So Adam requested Him to reduce his age by thirty or sixty years and increase the age of Dawud. When the angel of death came to take away his soul Adam said, “I have thirty to sixty years remaining.” “Did you not gift it to Dawud?” the angel of death reminded. “When the names of Prophets and their age were presented to you in the valley of Jenaam?” Adam said he didn’t remember. The angel of death said, “O Adam! Do not refuse it now. Did you not ask Allah that your life should be reduced and given to Dawud? Allah established it in Zabur and decreased your life.” Adam said, “Bring to me Zabur so that I recall it.”
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says, “Adam was speaking the truth that he had forgotten it. Therefore from that day onwards Allah ordered that all transactions must be put in writing so that no one could deny later.”
A tradition of Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that initially Allah had told Archangel Gabriel, Mika’il and the angel of death to write it because Adam will forget. So it was written and the angels sealed it with the Tinat of their arms. When Adam refused the angel of death showed him the document.
Imam as-Sadiq said that is why the loaner gets embarrassed when the promissory note is shown to the debtor.[35]
According to a reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that when Adam became sick, he called Shith and said, “O my Son! I am going to die very soon. Whatever you see has been sent by Allah from His kingdom, and He has taken the oath from me so I make a bequest to you. I make you the legatee for whatever Allah given me. The book of wasiyyah is under my head. It contains the heritage of knowledge and the Grand Names of Allah. After I am dead, you take it in your possession and do not let anyone know of it. Nor should you look at it until the next year. It contains (Suhuf) everything that would need regarding the affairs of this world.”
It was the scroll that Adam had brought from the heaven. Then he said, “I wish to have fruit from heaven. Go to Mt. Hadeed and if you see any Angel convey my regards and say that your father is sick and needs a fruit of heaven.” Shith went to the mountain. He saw Archangel Gabriel with a group of angels. Archangel Gabriel saluted him and asked where he was going?” “Who are you, O servant of Allah?” Shith asked. “I am the trustworthy spirit, Archangel Gabriel.” Archangel Gabriel said. Shith conveyed the salaam of Adam. He said, “O Shith! Salutations upon your father. He has departed from this world and that’s why we have descended to the Earth. May Allah reward you and grant you patience in this great calamity. Now go back to your father.” Shith returned. The Angels brought with them whatever was required for the burial. When Shith reached home he took the will from beneath the head of Adam and tied it to his stomach.
Archangel Gabriel said, “Congratulation O Shith! Who can be compared to you? Allah has honored you with His Generosities and clothed you in the dress of salvation. By my life, Allah has selected you for a very special affair. Then Shith bathed Adam’s body under instruction from Archangel Gabriel. He also taught him to shroud and embalm the body. When he finished Archangel Gabriel taught him to dig the grave. He made him stand before the bier of Adam to recite the prayers of Mayyit (dead). Archangel Gabriel told Shith to recite seventy Takbirs and then taught him the method of Salat al-Mayyit. The Angels stood behind Shith in a row for the prayers. Shith wanted Archangel Gabriel to lead the prayers but he said that as the Angels were made to pay obedience to Adam they could not lead them in prayers. Archangel Gabriel said, “You might not know that when Allah created your father, He made him stand before us and ordered us to prostrate to him. Therefore, Adam became the Imam and this practice continued in his generations. Today he has left this world and now you are his successor and the inheritor of his knowledge. How we we replace you? You are our Imam!”
Shith recited Salat al-Mayyit for Adam as taught by Archangel Gabriel who taught him how to bury his father. After the burial when Archangel Gabriel and other Angels were about to leave Shith started weeping and exclaimed, “O what a terror!” Archangel Gabriel said, “You should not have any fear as Allah is with you. We will visit you by the permission of Allah. Allah is your associate, so do not be sad and have faith in your Lord because He is the Beneficent upon you.” Archangel Gabriel and other Angel returned to the heavens. At that time Qabil who had ran away fearing his father came down from the mountain. He met Shith and said, “I killed my brother Habil because my sacrifice wasn’t accepted and I suspected that he would get the position, which you have now got. I didn’t want him to become the successor and legatee of his father as you are today. So if you narrate even one sentence of whatever father has taught you, I will kill you like I killed Habil.”
A similar tradition has been narrated from Imam Zayn al-‘abidin. It also mentions that Shith recited seventy five takbirs on Adam. Seventy for Adam and five for his children.
It is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that when Adam learnt of the murder of Habil he wept bitterly and complained to Allah regarding his sorrow. Allah revealed, “I will give you another son like Habil.” A child was born and on the 7th day, Allah revealed that since it was a Gift from His side he should be named Hibtullah (Gift of Allah). When time of his death approached Allah revealed on him, “Soon I am going to summon you to the vicinity of My Mercy. Therefore, make a bequest to the best of your sons, who is gifted by Me because I do not like that the world should be devoid of one whom I have given knowledge and one who executes My commands. I want him to be a proof upon My creatures.” Adam gathered his clan and said, “My Children, I am about to depart from this world and Allah has ordered me to appoint Haibatullah as my successor. So listen to him and obey him, as he is my successor and caliph on you.” All of them said, “We have heard you and we will obey him.”
The Ark of covenant trunk was prepared according to the order of Adam and he placed in it the relics, will, and testament and gave it to Haibatullah. He said, “After I am dead give me Ghusl and shroud, recite prayers and bury me. And when your death is near you will know it. At that time, you must also make a bequest to your son who is the best among your children from the aspect of manners and helpfulness. And do not ever leave the Earth devoid of a person from us (Ahl al-Bayt). O Son! Allah has sent me to the Earth and appointed made me His vicegerent and a proof over His creatures. After me, you shall be my proof. You must also not leave the world without appointing your successor. Pass on these relics to your successor as I am handing it to you. Also inform him that a Prophet from my progeny is going to come whose name is Nuh and his nation will be submerged in water. Make a bequest to your legatee to protect whatever is in this Ark of covenant. Emphasize that when he is about to depart he should also appoint his best son as the legatee and this should continue until the time of Nuh. Then he should board the ship and take with him the chest of relics. O Haibatullah! Of all my sons, beware of Qabil the accursed.”
Thus, when the end of Adam was near the angel of death arrived. Adam said, “I witness that Allah is One and has no partner. I witness that I am the servant of Allah and His Caliph on this earth. He favored me by creating me and asking the Angels to prostrate to me. And He taught me all the names. He settled me in heaven although He had created me to inhabit the Earth according to His Plan.” When Archangel Gabriel brought Hanoot and wooden planks with the shroud from heaven, he was accompanied by 70000 Angels. They gave Ghusl, shrouded him and anointed (Hanoot) him. Archangel Gabriel told Haibatullah to go ahead and recite prayers for his departed father with 75 Takbirs. Angels dug a grave and buried Adam. Haibatullah assumed the leadership of Adam’s children as ordered by Allah. When Haibatullah neared his end, he transferred the legacy to his son Qinan and handed over the Ark of covenant to him. Qinan lived among his clan and promoted obedience towards Allah. At his death bed he appointed his son, Barra as the successor (wasi) and handed over the Ark of covenant to him and also reminded him about the Prophethood of Nuh. At the time of his death Barra made bequest in favor of his son, Akhnu‘ (Idris) and handed over the Ark of covenant to him. Idris completed his tenure. When he was about to die Allah revealed to him, “I am going to raise you to the heavens, so bequeath all the things to Khargaeel.” Khargaeel stood thus became the wasi Idris. When Khargaeel’s death approached he nominated his son Nuh and handed over the Ark of covenant. It was always with him and he took it abroad the ship. When his death was near, he gave the Ark of covenant to his son, Sam and did formally appointed him the legatee.[36]
It is mentioned from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that Adam sent his son to Archangel Gabriel and said, “Ask Archangel Gabriel to get me some food from near that particular tree of heaven.” When the son met Archangel Gabriel he was informed that Adam has already expired.” We have been commanded to meet him at his last moments and recite prayers for him,” said Archangel Gabriel. After the Ghusl Archangel Gabriel asked Haibatullah to lead the prayer of his father. Haibatullah stood up at the front recited 75 takbirs. 70 takbirs for the excellence of Adam and five takbirs to establish the Sunnah.
Imam says that Adam used to be engrossed in the worship of Allah at Makkah. When Allah wanted to take his soul, He sent Angels from heaven, with wooden plank, a shroud and anointments. When Hawwa’ saw the Angels she tried to intervene but Adam told her to leave them alone. The Angels captured his soul and bathed with lote-tree water. They made a grave for him and said this practice shall continue in the generations of Adam. Adam was 936 years old and was buried in Makkah. There was a gap of 1500 years between Adam and Nuh.
According to reliable chain of narrators from Imam, as-Sadiq when it was time for the funeral prayers Haibatullah told Archangel Gabriel, “O Messenger! Go ahead and recite prayers for the Prophet of Allah.” Archangel Gabriel said, “Allah has ordered us to prostrate to your father. So we cannot lead their children in prayers. And you are the best of his children.”
Thus Haibatullah led the funeral prayers of his father with five takbirs as prescribed by Allah for the followers of Muhammad. This practice was to continue among the children of Adam until the Resurrection Day.
Another reliable tradition from the same Imam states that Adam requested for a fruit. Haibatullah went out to bring him the fruit. Archangel Gabriel met him and asked where he was going. He told him Adam wanted a fruit as he was unwell. Archangel Gabriel said, “Go back as Allah has taken away his soul.” When he returned, he saw that Adam was no more. Angels gave him the Ghusl and asked to Haibatullah to recite the prayers. Allah revealed upon him to recite five takbirs. Then he was laid in his grave. Haibatullah was told to perform funeral rites in the same way.
In another reliable tradition it is said that thirty takbirs were recited for Adam. Twenty five were dropped later on and five remained. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says that the grave of Adam is in the Holy Sanctuary and according to Prophet Muhammad Adam expired on Friday.
Some great scholars have mentioned in mursal (without chains of narrators) that when Allah sent Adam to Earth he was terrified due his separation from heaven. He prayed to Allah to send him a tree of heaven. Allah sent for him a date palm, which remained with him all his life. When death was near, he told his sons, “This tree has been with all my life and I hope after my death it will remain so. Therefore, you split a branch of it and keep it in my shroud.” The sons did as bidden. After him, other Prophets also followed the same way. It was discontinued in the Jahiliyya (pre-Islamic period) but Prophet Muhammad restarted the practice.
According to reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq when Adam died, Qabil and Satan rejoiced and played musical instruments vain sports. Thus all the musical instruments and vain past times of the world are derived from the invention of Satan.
Sunni and Shi‘ah scholars have narrated from Wahab ibn Munabbah that Shith buried Adam in a cave of Mt. Abu Qubays known as Ghaarul Kabeer (the big cave). He remained buried until the deluge of Nuh. During the deluge Nuh exhumed him and placed him in a coffin abroad his ship.
Reliable chains of narrators narrate from Imam as-Sadiq that when Nuh (as.) was abroad the Ark, Allah revealed him to perform the circumambulation of the Holy Ka‘bah seven times. When he completed the circumambulation and came down from the ship the water was up to his thighs. He dug out a coffin from the earth containing the bones of Adam and placed it on the ship and again did circumambulation of Ka‘bah. The Ark reached al-Kufah and Allah ordered the Earth to absorb the water as it has gushed out from the mosque. Nuh buried Adam at Najaf.[37]
It is narrated from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq that the Holy Prophet said, “Adam was nine hundred and thirty years old.”
Sayyid ibn Tawus quotes from the book of Idris that Adam was ill for ten days. He died on Friday the fifteenth of Muharram and was buried in a cave of Mt. Abu Qubays facing Kiblah. And his age from the day the soul entered his body and until the time it was taken out was 1030 years. After one year and fifteen days Hawwa’ also fell sick and died. She was buried next to Adam.
Sayyid says, “I have seen in Torah in 3rd Chapter that Adam’s age was 930 years and the same is narrated by Muhammad ibn Khalid Barqi in his book ‘Beda’ from Ja‘far as-Sadiq.”[38]
According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam Al-Hasan that the successor of Adam was Shith. He lived for one thousand years. In a tradition narrated by Abu-Dharr, as mentioned before, the language of Shith was Syrian. Fifty scriptures were revealed on him. Most of the historians have mentioned that Shith was born when Adam was 235 years old. Shith lived for 912 years. He is buried in Mt. Abu Qubays next to his parents.
Sayyid ibn Tawus mentions, “I have seen in the Sahifah of Idris that Allah revealed fifty books on Shith containing the proof of the existence of Allah, Laws and practices and the prescribed penalties. Shith lived in Makkah and preached the scriptures to the children of Adam. He worshipped Allah at the Ka‘bah and performed hajj and Umrah until was 912 years. When he fell sick, he appointed his son Ewas as his Legatee and warned him to fear Allah and be humble and pious. When Shith died, Ewas along with his son Qinan and grand son Mahkael (son of Qinan) performed Ghusl and Ewas recited the prayers and buried Shith at the right of his father in the cave of Mt. Abu Qubays.
Notes:
[29] It is very difficult to establish unanimity in these traditions. It is possible all this occurred and generations continued.
[30] As these traditions are in accordance with the view of Sunni they have appeared due to taqiyyah. The traditions mentioned previously are more reliable.
[31] It is possible that the sisters who were born with him died before and Qabil hadn’t seen their burial, or the report of the birth of twin brother-sisters is based on taqiyyah. It is narrated in another tradition that according to Tawus the first blood to be shed was of Habil and same day one-fourth of the people were killed. Imam Zayn al-‘abidin said, “It is not so, first blood was the menstrual blood of Hawwa’. When Qabil killed Habil it was one-sixth of humanity because they were six: Adam, Hawwa’, Habil, Qabil and two sisters. Then he said, “Allah has appointed two guards over Qabil. When the Sun rises they bring him out. And they take him back at Sunset. They sprinkle hot water on him and he will be punished like this until the day of judgment.
[32] This hadith contradicts other traditions. It might be referring to the fact that the chastisement of world is less than the chastisement of hereafter or that the punishment of killing Habil shall not be meted out in the hereafter, rather he would go to hell due to his disbelief.
[33] This hadith is accepted by the Sunni but according to Shi‘ahs Adam didn’t have any children in heaven.
[34] This hadith is against the Shi‘ahs belief but accepted by some Sunni scholars. It might have entered hadith books due to taqiyyah.
[35] This tradition is against the Shi‘ah belief that Prophets are infallible. According to most Ulama this has come in hadith books due to taqiyyah.
[36] All these traditions shall be discussed in the volume of Imamate.
[37] This proves that Adam and Nuh are buried in Najaf. So the tradition which say that Adam is buried in Makkah mean that initially he was buried there but later his remains were exhumed by Nuh and buried at al-Kufah.
[38] Commentators and narrators differ regarding age of Adam. Some say it was a thousand years and he gave 60 years to Dawud but later he denied so again it became 1000 years. Other maintain it was 936 years. Some others claim it to be 930 years. The last two traditions show that it was probably 936 years and it is usual to mention the figure in tens (i.e. 930 instead of 936).

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