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Description of Hajj and Umrah rituals by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) during the Farewell Hajj

Hayat Al-Qulub Vol. 1,
By: Allamah Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlisi

Kulaini has narrated through correct and good chains from Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that the Holy Prophet (S) after his flight to Medina remained there for ten years, during which period he had not performed the Hajj, till the Almighty Allah revealed the following verse:

ٰ ﴿٢٧﴾ ٰ ۖ

And proclaim among men the Pilgrimage: they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel, coming from every remote path, that they may witness advantages for them and mention the name of Allah during stated days over what He has given them of the cattle quadrupeds, then eat of them and feed the distressed one, the needy.[480]
After the revelation of this verse, the Messenger of Allah (S) ordered the callers to proclaim that the Holy Prophet (S) was going to perform the Hajj that year, so those who were in Medina were informed about it as did the people who lived around Medina. Then the Prophet wrote to all those who had accepted Islam, that all those who had the capacity for Hajj should join the Prophet for Hajj.
Multitudes assembled at Medina, diligently observing and following the example of the Prophet in respect to the method of Hajj. He started four days before the end of Zilqad. When they arrived at Zil Halifa, it was noon. Here the Holy Prophet (S) commanded the people to remove unwanted hair and to take bath, leave off all sewn garments, and put on unsewn cloths. After that the Holy Prophet (S) performed the ritual bath of Ihram and entered Masjid Shajra and performed the Noon Prayer and only made an intention of Hajj in which Umrah was not included, as the command for Hajj Tammato had not arrived.
Then he put on the Ihram and set out from the Masjid. When he reached near the first Meel at Bayda, the people formed two columns occupying each side of the road, and the Prophet alone shouted: Labbaik! O You who has no associate, Yours are praise and thanks. He pronounced Labbaik many times on particular occasions. Or when seeing a mounted man, or ascending or descending a hillock, at the end of night, and after prayers.
The number of camels he took with him for sacrifice is differently stated at sixty-four, sixty-six, and a hundred according to another correct report. He entered Mecca on 4th Zilhajj. When he reached the gate of the Sacred Mosque, he entered through the gate of Bani Shaibah. Standing at the gate of the Mosque he praised and glorified the Almighty and invoked blessings of his noble ancestor, Ibrahim (a.s.).
Then he came to the Black Stone, drew his hand over it and kissed it and he went around the holy Kaaba seven times. He prayed two units of Tawaf prayer behind the Place of Ibrahim. Then he went to the Zamzam well and tasted the water and said: O Lord, verily, I have asked of thee that wisdom which profits and that healing which is sufficient for all ills. He recited this prayer facing the Kaaba, and came again to the black stone, over which he drew his hand and kissed it, and then started for Safa, reciting this passage of the Quran:
ۖ ۚ

Surely the Safa and the Marwah are among the signs appointed by Allah; so whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on him if he goes round them both; and whoever does good spontaneously, then surely Allah is Grateful, Knowing.[481]
Then he ascended Mount Safa, and turning to Rukn-e-Yamani, rendered praise and thanksgiving to the Allah, the Most High, and prayed as long as one would read Surah Baqarah. He then descended from this hill and ascended mount Marwah, where he continued as long as he had done on Safa. After this, he went again to the latter mountain and prayed and returned to Marwah, and thus continued to pass from one to the other till he had visited each seven times (Sayy).
When this task was performed, and was yet standing on Marwah, he turned to the people and recited praise and thanksgiving to Allah. He then made a sign behind himself and said, This is Jibraeel, and he commands me to order all who have not brought sacrifices with them, to withdraw by themselves and change their Hajj to an Umrah, which if I had known before, I would not have brought a sacrifice myself.
But I have brought sacrifices and I cannot back out from Hajj. Umar asked, How is it possible for us to quit Hajj when the water of Ghusl Janabat is dripping from our heads? The Prophet answered, You will never believe in Hajj Tamatto.
Sarafa bin Malik bin Jathan Kalani arose and said, O Messenger of Allah, we understand the rules of our religion but as if we had been this day created; tell us, then if what you have ordered is peculiar to this year, or pertains to every Hajj? The Prophet replied, This order is forever. He then closed his hands by intersecting his fingers together, and said, The Umrah has entered the Hajj, to be united with it till the Judgment Day.
At this juncture, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) returned from Yemen as the Prophet had called him in Mecca, and going directly to his house found his wife, Fatima had completed the Hajj and dressed in colored garments was smelling of perfume. In astonishment he inquired the cause of this premature joy, to which she replied that the Prophet had so commanded.
Imam Ali (a.s.) came to the Prophet to know the facts. He said: O Messenger of Allah (S), I saw Fatima free from restrictions of Hajj. The Prophet said: I have thus commanded the people. On what have you tied up the Ihram? He replied: Like you. The Holy Prophet (S) said: Remain with Ihram, like me and share in the animals of sacrifice.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: The Prophet and his companions in coming to Mecca encamped at Abtah (and not in anyones house) near noon on the eighth of the month Zilhajj. He there gave orders for the people to perform the ritual bath and dress in Ihram according to the directions of the Almighty Allah:

Say: Allah has spoken the truth, therefore follow the religion of Ibrahim, the upright one; and he was not one of the polytheists.[482]
It implies Hajj Tamatto. He then advanced with his companions and cried, Labbaik! till he reached Mina, where the prayers for noon, evening, night, sleep and dawn, were performed. On the morning of the ninth day, the Prophet and his companions advanced to Mount Arafat. One of the many innovations of Quraish was that they refused to advance further than Mashar-ul-Haram, saying they belonged to the sacred place and would not leave it.
The rest of the people advanced to Arafat, and on their return to Mashar, the Quraish joined them and proceeded with them back to Mina. The Quraish had hoped that the Prophet would be influenced to keep with them, but they were disappointed, for the Allah, the Most High revealed the following verse:

Then hasten on from the Place from which the people hasten on and ask the forgiveness of Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.[483]
The Messenger of Allah (S) said that those referred implied Ibrahim, Ismail and Ishaq (a.s.) and those prophets who succeeded them, all of whom visited Arafat. When Quraish saw that the canopy of Messenger of Allah (S) had passed from Mashrul Haram to Arafat, they began to feel regret as they had expected the Prophet to halt with them.
But he went upto Numrah and pitched his tent there opposite the piloo trees,[484] and the people pitched their tents around his. When the sun began to decline from the meridian, the Holy Prophet (S) performed the ritual bath and came to Arafat with Quraish and other people, where he ceased to cry Labbaik. He advanced to the place which is called the Prophets mosque, where he addressed the people who assembled around him, enjoining them what to do and prohibiting what they should not.
Noon and afternoon prayers were performed there with one Azan and two Iqamah. He then went to the place of Wuqoof and waited there as the people crowded to approach him, so he took his camel forward and they followed. The Holy Prophet (S) reproved them saying the proper standing ground of Arafat was extensive. So the people dispersed around him. The same method was followed in Masharul Haram.
Thus people remained at Arafat till after sunset. Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) said that infidels started back before sunset but the Holy Prophet (S) observed that the Hajj was not performed by racing horses, nor running camels. Fear ye God, and perform the rites properly: Do not run over poor people on foot. He held his own camel so strongly, that the camels head was drawn back to the saddle. In this way he entered Mashar-ul-Haram.
The Maghrib and Isha prayers were performed with one Azan and two Iqamah and the night was spent there. The Morning Prayer was performed at that place. The elders of Bani Hashim were sent to Mina at night. According to another narration, the ladies were sent at night accompanied with Usamah bin Zaid, ordering them not to throw stones at the pillar of Satan in Aqabah till sunrise, at which hour he left Mashar-ul-Haram and proceeded to Mina, and then threw seven stones at the pillar. And the animals of sacrifice numbering sixty-four or sixty-six and those brought by Amirul Momineen (a.s.) numbering thirty four or thirty-six.
Some traditions say that Imam Ali had brought no camels for sacrifice, only the Prophet was having a hundred camels and he made Imam Ali (a.s.) share in his sacrifice. He gave him thirty seven camels and then sacrificed sixty six camels and Imam Ali (a.s.) slaughtered thirty-four camels. By the order of the Prophet, a piece of flesh was taken from all camels and cooked in a stone pot. The soup prepared from these pieces was shared by the Prophet and Amirul Momineen (a.s.), thus tasting of the hundred camels.
The rest of the meat was fed to others. The skins, blankets, and ornaments of the camels were not given to the butchers, but all were bestowed in charity on the poor. After that the Prophet shorn his head, went the same day and performed the circuits of the Kaaba, and performed the Sayy between Marwah and Safa, after which he moved to Mina, where he remained till the thirteenth of the month, which are called as Ayyam Tashriq. On the same day, he three times repeated the ceremony of throwing seven stones at the pillar in Aqabah and then packed up and returned to Mecca.
When they reached Abtah, Ayesha said: O Messenger of Allah (S), all your wives perform Hajj and Umrah together, but I only perform the Hajj. The Holy Prophet (S) stayed at Abtah and sent her brother Abdur Rahman with her who took her to Taneem where she put on the Ihram of Umrah and made circuit around Kaaba, prayed at the place of Ibrahim and performed Sayy between Safa and Marwah. After that she returned to the Holy Prophet (S). They set out the same day. At the time of departure they entered the elevated part of Aqbah Madinain and entered from Zee Tawa on the lower side of Mecca.
Through reliable chains of narrators, it is narrated from Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.) that on the day of sacrifice a group of Muslims came to the Holy Prophet (S) and said that they had made the sacrifice before stoning the Satans. Then they said: We had our heads shorn before slaughter. Some of them performed earlier acts that should have been performed later and some did vice versa. The Holy Prophet (S) said: Since you did this unknowingly, there is no problem.
It is mentioned in Khisal that during the Farewell Hajj, the Surah Nasr was revealed on second day the Prophet was at Mina which made the Prophet think that it was his last pilgrimage. He considered that chapter a proof that the faith was established, and that he was now released from human work and that Allah has now commanded him to offer praise and seek forgiveness.
He then mounted his she-camel, Ghazba and after praise and glorification of Allah said: O people, all the blood you shed in the period of Ignorance is pardoned. There is no blood money for it. And first of all I pardon the blood of Harith bin Rabia bin Harith, who was nursed in Bani Huzail tribe and was killed by Bani Laith or vice versa. That is why there had been perpetual enmity between the two tribes.
Then he said: Every usury that was applied during the period of Ignorance is now invalid. The first usury that I pardon is that of Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib that is outstanding with the people. O people, verily this day is like the one on which God created the heavens and the earth, and established years and months, of which the number of the months was fixed as twelve since the day the Almighty Allah created the heavens and the earth.
Of these, four are sacred; and their observance is obligatory and there must be no hostilities during these months. Namely: the month of Rajab, formerly called Mazar, and which falls between Jamadi II and Shaban, and the three months of Zilqad, Zilhajj, and Mohurrum. So do not oppress yourself during these months and refrain from Nasih which was practiced by Arabs.
It is injustice and infidelity. And they used to follow that which the Almighty Allah had prohibited. That is they used to consider Mohurrum as Haraam and the next year considered Safar as Haraam and Mohurrum was regarded as lawful. So much so that during the Farewell Hajj this practice was stopped and the Prophet specified the sacred months.
The Prophet continued: O people, Satan has despaired of being followed in your land in the form of idolatry, but he is satisfied to be served in other ways of polytheism. So if anyone of you is having something held in trust, he or she must restore it to the owner. See that your women are prisoners taken as divine trusts, and made lawful to you by religious rites, of their obligations are these: that they defile not your conjugal bed, nor disobey you respecting good deeds.
If they act so, it is obligatory for you to arrange according to their need, food and clothing, and you must not beat them. O people, I leave among you the two important things, if you remain attached to them, you will never go astray; they are the Book of Allah and my progeny, so hold fast unto them. O people, what is this day? They replied: It is an honorable day.
What is this month? They replied: It is an honorable month. What city is this? They replied: It is an honorable city. The Prophet said: Indeed the Lord has made your own blood sacred, and likewise your property, neither of which must you take from each other. Let those present report to those who are absent. Verily, after me there will be no Prophet, and no nation.
Then the Holy Prophet (S) raised up his hands in such a way that the whiteness of the armpits became visible. Then he prayed: O Lord, be witness that I have imparted to them what was necessary. It is narrated from Ibn Abbas in Khasail that the Prophet performed four Umrahs: Umrah Hudaibiyah, Umrah Qadha, Umrah Jarana and Umrah with Hajj.
In Ilalush Sharai it is narrated through reliable chains from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that the Holy Prophet (S) made the Hajj twenty times secretly, and one each occasion dismounted to urinate at the pass of Mashar-ul-Haram. The narrator asked why he did that? The Imam replied: Because that was the place where idols were first worshipped.
From that same place a stone was taken to cut it into a great idol of Quraish, called Hubal, and which Amirul Momineen (a.s.) at last threw down from the Kaaba, after having mounted the shoulders of the Messenger of Allah (S). After that the Prophet ordered it to be buried at the gate of Bani Shaibah, for which reason it became meritorious to enter that gate trampling over Hubal.
Ibn Idris has narrated through correct chains from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) and Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (S) had performed twenty Hajjs, concealing them from Quraish. Ten or seven of which he performed before the start of his ministry. He commenced performance of prayer when he was four years old, on a journey with his uncle, Abu Talib to Busray in Shaam where Quraish of Mecca used to travel for business.
It is narrated by Kulaini and Shaykh Tusi that after coming to Medina the Messenger of Allah (S) had performed only one Hajj and he had performed all other Hajj pilgrimages before Hijrat. It is narrated from Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (S) had performed ten secret Hajjs and in all of them he used to dismount and pass urine at the beginning as explained above. It is narrated from many other chains that the Holy Prophet (S) had performed twenty Hajjs and in each of them he used to dismount at a small spot of Mashar and urinate there.[485]
Kulaini has through correct chains of narrators narrated from Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that during the Farewell Hajj the caretaker of the camels of the Prophet was Nahiya Ibn Jundab Khuzai and the person who shorn the Prophets head was Muammar bin Abdullah, a son of Ubayy bin Kaab. When he was shaving the Prophets head the Quraish said: Muhammad is in your hand and you are holding the scalpel.
Muammar said: I consider it a great divine honor for myself. Muammar used to serve as the litter maker of the Prophet. One night the Holy Prophet (S) said that the litter was loose. Muammar said: May my parents be sacrificed on you, I had tied it securely as usual but some people who are jealous of me because of being in your service, they have loosened the litter so that you may fire me and appoint someone else. The Prophet said: I will never do that. I will not replace you by someone else.
Through correct chains of narrators it is narrated from Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that the Prophet had performed three Umrah: In one he put the Ihram from Asfan and it was Umrah of Hudaibiyah. The second whose Ihram was put on from Johfa, was the Umrah of Qadha of Hudaibiyah. The third Umrah was that whose Ihram was taken up from Jarana, while he was on his return from the Battle of Hunain.
In another trustworthy traditional report it is mentioned that all three Umrahs occurred in the month of Zilqad. In another report it is said that the Holy Prophet (S) put on the Ihram in Yemenite cottons, one of which was from Eer and the other from Zafar and the Prophet was also buried in the same garments.
In another trustworthy traditional report it is mentioned from Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that the Holy Prophet (S) passed from Kaab bin Ajra and lice was dropping from his hair and he had tied up the Ihram. The Holy Prophet (S) asked him if the lice were troubling him? He replied: Yes. At that juncture, the following verse was revealed:

But whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of the head, he (should effect) a compensation by fasting or alms or sacrificing[486]
The Messenger of Allah (S) ordered him to shave his head and fast for three days and give alms to six poor persons to the extent two mudd and sacrifice a sheep.
Through good chains it is narrated from the same Imam that the Messenger of Allah (S) at the time of making circuits of the Kaaba the Holy Prophet (S) was astride his she-camel, Ghazba, and was driving her with a crooked stick and he used to kiss the Black Stone with the stick.

Birth of Muhammad bin Abi Bakr
Through good and correct chains of narrators, it is narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) and Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s.) that Asma binte Umais had post natal discharge; that is Muhammad bin Abi Bakr was born in Baidha when the Prophet was going for the Farewell Hajj. When Asma wanted to put on Ihram from Zil Halifa, the Messenger of Allah (S) commanded her to put cotton at her genitals and tie a cloth over it to soak the bleeding, and then wear the Ihram for Hajj.
When they came to Mecca and performed the rituals, Muhammad bin Abi Bakr was eighteen days old. The Prophet told Asma to perform the ritual bath, complete the circuits and pray the Tawaf prayer. But as yet her post natal bleeding had not stopped.
Among the miracles of the Prophet during the Farewell Hajj, a miracle is mentioned in reliable books of traditional reports as follows that in Mecca, a newborn infant was brought to the Prophet on the day it was born. The Prophet asked the child: Who am I? The child miraculously replied: You are the messenger of Allah. You are right, may God bless you, said the Prophet. After that occasion, the child did not speak till he came of age. The effect of the Prophets power was that he was named Mubaraka Yamama.

Imam Ali (a.s.) reaches Mecca before his troops and meets the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
Shaykh Mufeed and Shaykh Tabarsi have narrated from through Shia and Sunni channels that when the Messenger of Allah (S) decided to undertake the Hajj, he had it announced in all Islamic territories, as a result of which multitudes gathered to participate in the Hajj with the Messenger of Allah (S). The Prophet departed from Medina on the 26th of Zilqad. Since Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was in Yemen, he wrote to the Prophet that he would directly go from there to Mecca and join the pilgrimage. But he did not mention what type of Hajj he has intended.
Thus the Holy Prophet (S) had set out with the intention of Hajj of Quran, driving the camels of sacrifice and put on Ihram from Zil Halifah. He began to chant the slogan of Labbaik from a distance of one mile. People also followed his example and between Medina and Mecca the sound of Labbaik echoed and reached upto the place called Kara al-Yaqeen. Some people were astride camels or horses and some were on foot.
The pedestrians were finding it difficult to walk and they were extremely exhausted and worried. They complained about their discomfort to the Prophet and requested for beasts of burden. The Prophet told them that since no such facility was available, they must be determined and continue to walk. When they followed this advice, it became easy for them.
On the other hand, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and his troops set out for Mecca carrying with them the robes they had collected from Najran tribute. When the Prophet neared Mecca, he was met by Imam Ali (a.s.) before his troop in order to meet the Messenger of Allah (S) leaving the troops under the command of his representative. So as soon as the Holy Prophet (S) reached Mecca, he was met by Imam Ali (a.s.) who greeted him and informed him about their activities in Yemen.
Also told him about the Jizya collected from the people of Najran. Ali (a.s.) said that he came ahead of his troops in order to meet the Prophet as soon as possible. The Messenger of Allah (S) was elated to meet him and he asked: O Ali, what type of Hajj have you intended at the time of putting on the Ihram? Imam Ali (a.s.) said: Since I didnt know which Hajj was intended by the Prophet I made an intention of the same Hajj that was intended by the Prophet, and I have brought thirty-four camels.
The Prophet said: Allahu Akbar, I have brought sixty-six and you brought thirty-four and you share my hajj, rituals and sacrifice. So continue to donn the Ihram and do not become free from Ihram. Go to your troops and bring them here soon so that we may gather in Mecca by the will of the Almighty Allah. Imam Ali (a.s.) departed for his troops and he had not traveled a long distance when he met the troops. He saw that they were wearing the robes that were kept in their charge.
He was extremely angry at this and asked his representative to explain why they were given the garments before being presented to the Prophet. He said that they wanted to dress up in those robes and then put on the Ihram, after which they would return them. Ali (a.s.) took back the robes from them and packed them up. Due to this they developed malice for Ali (a.s.). Upon reaching Mecca they complained to the Holy Prophet (S) about Imam Ali (a.s.). The Messenger of Allah (S) had it announced among them that they must restrain themselves from complaining about Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) because he is very strict about the obedience of God, and he did not give any concession to anyone with regard to religion of Allah.
So they stopped complaining and understood the position of Ali (a.s.) in the view of the Prophet that he is angry at one who complains about Imam Ali (a.s.). Imitating the Prophet, Imam Ali (a.s.) continued to wear the Ihram. There were many among the Muslims who had not come with animals of sacrifice, so the Almighty Allah revealed the following verse:

And accomplish the pilgrimage and the visit for Allah.[487]
The Holy Prophet (S) said that Umrah has entered Hajj till Judgment Day and interlaced his fingers and said: If I knew it would be so, I would not have brought animals of sacrifice. Then he had it announced that those of you have not brought sacrificial animals should come out of Ihram. And he must change the intention of his Ihram for Hajj into Ihram for Umrah. And one who has brought sacrificial animals should remain in his Ihram.
So people obeyed these instructions and some did not and there was much difference of opinion among the people in this regard. Some used to say that the hair of the Holy Prophet (S) is smeared in dust of worry so how can we wear stitched clothes? And how we can mingle with our women and apply fragrant oil to our bodies?
Some said: Are you not ashamed that you are going from Mecca to Arafat while the water of Ghusl is dripping from your heads while the Holy Prophet (S) is in Ihram? After hearing these disputes, the Prophet again counseled those who were opposing this matter. And he said: If I had not brought sacrificial animals, I would have also removed the Ihram of Hajj and changed it to Umrah. Therefore those who have not brought sacrificial animals should come out of the Ihram.
After this advice, some obeyed the Prophet and some remained firm on their stance and one who remained firm on his stance was Umar bin Khattab. The Holy Prophet (S) summoned him and asked why he had not removed the Ihram. Perhaps you have brought sacrificial animals? He replied: No.
The Prophet asked: Then why have you not removed the Ihram when I commanded it? He said: O Prophet of Allah, as long as you are in Ihram, I will also not remove mine. The Prophet said: You will not believe in Hajj Tamatto as long as you are alive.
And as the Prophet had predicted he remained a denier of Hajj Tamatto till during his Caliphate one day he went to the pulpit and stopped people from Hajj Tamatto. And he issued strict orders that no one must perform it. So Shia and Sunni scholars have widely narrated that Umar said: Two Mutahs were allowed during the time of the Holy Prophet (S). I prohibit both. And I will punish severely one who performs them: one is the Mutah of women and one is the Mutah of Hajj.

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