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Description of the Holy City of Mashhad by Europeans

The European scholars, politicians orientalists and travellers had described the Holy City of Mashhad in their sources.
The Europeans who fully described the holy city of Mashhad were Fraser (1822); Conolly and Burnes. Valuable notes on the town are given by Conolly, Ferrier, Khanikoff, Eastwick, MacGregor, Bassett, O'Donovan, Curzon, Massy, E.Diez, and especially by C.E.Yate and Sykes, each of whom spent several years (1893-1897 and 1905-1912 respectivley) in Mashhad as British Consul-General for Khurasan.
Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo (1404), Embassy to the Court of Timur, ed., C.R. Markham (Hakluyt Society, vol XXVI., London 1859), p.109-110;
Truilhier (1807), in Bulletin de la Societe de Geogr, vol 9, Paris 1838, p. 272-282;
J.B. Fraser (1822), Narrative of a Journey into Khorasan in the years 1821-1822, London 1825, p. 436-548;
A. Conolly (1830), Journey to the North of India, London 1834, p. 255-289, 296-368;
A. Burnes (1832), Travels into Bokhara, London 1834, p. 76-87;
J.B. Fraser (1833), A Winter's Journey from Constantinople to Teheran, London 1838, p. 213-255;
J.P. Ferrier (1845), Caravan Journeys and Wanderings in Persia, London 1857, P. 111-133;
N. de Khanikoff (1858), Memoire sur la partie meridionale de l'Asie centrale, Paris 1861, p. 95-111;
N. de Khanikoff, Meched, la ville sainte et son territoire, in Le Tour du Monde, Paris 1861, No. 95-96;
Eastwick (1862), Journal of a diplomat's three years residence in Persia, London 1864, p. 190-194;
H. Vambery (1863), Reise in Mittelasien, Leipzig 1865 (1873), p. 248-258, identical with H.Vambery, Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien, Pesth 1867, p. 313-327;
H.W. Bellew (1872), From the Indus to the Tigris, London 1874, p. 358-368;
Fr. John Goldsmid (and Evan Smith, 1872), Eastern Persia, London 1876. p 356-366.
C.M. MacGregor (1875), Narrative of a Journey through the province of Khorasan, London 1879, p. 277-309;
J. Bassett (1878), Persia, the Land of the Imams, London 1887, p. 219-247;
E. O'Donovan (1880), The Merw Oasis, London 1882, P 478-502;
G. Curzon (1889), Persia and the Persian Question, London 1892, p. 148-176;
H.St.Massy (1893), An Englishman in the Shrine of Imam Reza in Mashad, in The Nineteenth Century and after, London 1913, p. 990-1007;
C.E. Yate (1885, 1893-1897), Khurasan and Sistan, Edinburgh 1900;
P. Sykes (1893, 1902, 1905-1912), Ten Thousand Miles in Persia, London 1902: Historical notes on Khurasan in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1910; (and Khan Bahadur Ahmad Din Khan), The Glory of the Shia World, London 1910, p. 227-269 (with pictures);
Ella.C.Sykes, Persia and its people, London 1910, p. 88-105;
H. R. Allemagne (1907), Du Khorassan au pays des Bakhtiaris, Paris 1911, (with very fine illustrations);
W. Jackson (1907), From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam, New York 1911;
O. von Niedermayer, Unter der Glutsonne Irans, Dachau 1925, p. 207;
D. M. Donaldson, The Shi'ite Religion London 1933, p. 170.
For the importance of the Mashhad sanctuary for the history of art cf. E. Diez, Churasanische Baudenkmaler, vol, i. Berlin 1918;
Persien: Islamische Baukunst in Churasan, Hagen i.w. 1923;
A.U.Pope, A Survey of Persian Art, London and New York (1939).

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