Hadiths on “Aulu al–Amr” in Shi’ite and Sunnite Sources
Another proof that Aulu al–Amr is applicable to Ali (as) and his eleven infallible progeny (the twelve Imamiyyah Shi’ite Imams), are the reports recorded in Shi’ite and Sunni sources, where Aulu al–Amr is interpreted as Ali, peace be on him and the eleven infallible Imams who came after him.
The First Narration
In his Fara’id al–Simtayn32 Ibrahim ibn Mohammad ibn Mo’ayd Jowayani33 relates on the authority of a number of narrators, and Sheikh Saduq ibn Babwayah Qommi in his Kamal al–Deen34 have (both) reported that Saleem ibn Qays has said: During the period of the caliphate of Uthman Ali (as), was in the mosque of the Messenger of God (saws), where a group of people were talking about the merits and past records of Quraysh, and what the Prophet (saws) had said about Quraysh, and Ansars’ merits, their illustrious deeds and feat, and God’s praise of them in the Qur’an. Each group mentioned their own merits.
Over two hundred men were gathering including Ali (as) Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Abdul Rahman ibn Owf, Talhe, Zubayr, Miqdad, Abudhar, Imam al–Hasan and Imam al–Husain (as) and ibn Abbas. Ali (as) remained silent throughout the session that lasted until noon.
When he was asked to speak, he said, “You have each given a detailed account of your merits and left nothing unsaid. O Quraysh and Ansar I want you, to tell me why God, the Mighty and High has given you such superiority? Was it because of your own particularities, your tribal characteristics or your family attributes? Or was there other reasons?”
They said, “It is for the Prophet’s (saws) sake that we have been given such a favour”.
“You have said the truth, O you, the assembly of Quraysh and Ansar!” Ali (as) said. “Don’t you know that it is because of us, Household of the Prophet (Ahl al–Bayt) that you have attained good in this world the next?”
Ali (as) then mentioned some of the outstanding merits of Ahl al–Bayt and his own and had the audience affirm it, which they did.
He then asked them, “Do you know when these Qur’anic verses were revealed: ‘O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you’ (4:59)
“Only Allah is your wali and His apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow” (5:55)
‘What! Do you think that you will be left alone while Allah has not yet known those of you who have struggled and have not taken any one as an adherent besides Allah and His Apostle and the believers. (9:16)
Then people asked the Prophet, ‘O Messenger of Allah, do these verses allude only to particular believers or to all of them?’ So, God the Most High had the Prophet make it known who “those in authority” from among them are, give them a clear idea about wilayah just as he had (already) informed them about prayers, zakat, and going to Mecca for hajj, and to appoint me as a guardian over people.
Therefore, he (the Prophet, God bless him and his family,) said to the people, ‘Surely Allah had sent me a message (because of which) I felt my breast became straitened, and thought that people would distrust me.
Then, Allah the Mighty and High ordered me to deliver the message or I would be punished. The Prophet (saws) ordered people to gather together for payer. (When they did), he God blesses him and his family, delivered a sermon and said, “O people! Do you know that Allah is my Master and I am the master of believers, and I have authority over you more than you have over yourselves?”
“Yes, we do, O Messenger of God”. They said.
“The Prophet then said to Ali (as), ‘Stand up, Ali (as).’, and I did. The Prophet, God bless him and his family, said, “For whomever I am mawla (master), Ali (as) is also his master. O God, be friendly with whoever is friendly with Ali (as) and enemy to whoever shows hostility to him”.
Then Salman stood up and said, “O Messenger of God, What is this wilayah like?”
The Prophet (saws) answered, “It is of the type of authority that I have (over the people). On whomever I have more authority than one’s self Ali (as) also has more authority”. It is on this occasion that God the Mighty and High, revealed the verse: ‘This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favour on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion’
“God is greater!” cried the Prophet (saws) “Ali’s becoming my successor is the perfection of my prophet hood and the perfection of the Religion of Allah”.
Then Abu Bakr and Umar got up and asked, ‘O Messenger of God! Do these verses mean only Ali (as)?’
The Prophet said, “yes, they mean only Ali (as) and my executors (awsiya’) until the Day of Judgment.’ They said, ‘O Messenger of God, tell us who they are.’ The Prophet (saws) said, ‘They are Ali (as), my brother, my aide, my inheritor, my executor, my vicegerent over my community, and the guardian over every believer after me.
Then comes my sons Al–Hasan (as) and Al–Husain (as) followed by nine descendants from al–Husain (as), one after the other. They are with the Qur’an and the Qur’an is with them. They will never separate from the Qur’an, nor will the Qur’an separate from them until they return to me at the pond (of Kawthar)”.
Ali (as) asked those who had been present at Ghadir Khumm and remembered what the Prophet (saws) had said to stand up and bear witness that it was true. Zayd ibn Arqam, Bara ibn ‘Azib, Salman, Abudhar and Miqdad stood up and said, ‘We bear witness and we remember what the Prophet (saws) had said on a pulpit, and confess that you were beside him.
He said, ‘O People! God the Mighty and High has ordered me to appoint as your Imam, the one who will rise up among you after me to be my executor and successor. He is the one, the obeying of whom God, the Mighty and High, has made obligatory as it is stated in His book, the obeying of whom God has made equal to obeying me.’ (This is an allusion to the verse of Aulu al–Amr.
‘O people! God, the Mighty and High, has commanded you to perform prayers and do your Hajj pilgrimage and I have explained that to you. He, the Mighty and High, has also ordered you to (believe) in wilayah, (an authority God has given to Imams) and I call you to witness that this wilayah belongs to this (person). (At this point, the Prophet pointed to Ali) and to his two sons (al–Hasan and al–Husain), who are his successors.
The above report is very detailed, but we will focus on things related to the verse of Aulu al–Amr. Those interested can refer to the details of this report in the abovementioned sources.
The Second Narration
Late Saduq mentions this narration in his Kamal al–Deen35, on the authority of Jabir ibn Yazid Jo’fi. It is as follows: “I heard Jabir ibn Abdallah Ansari say ‘When Allah, the Mighty and High, revealed the Qur’anic verse ‘O, you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you’, I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we know who God and His Messenger are. Would you tell us who ‘those in authority’ whose obedience God, the Mighty and High, has made equal to obeying you are?’
The Prophet (saws) said, ‘Jabir, (you must know that) they are my successors and Imams of the Muslims after me, the first of whom is Ali ibn Abi Talib (as), followed by Al–Hasan (as), Al–Husain (as), Ali ibn al–Husain (as), Mohammad ibn Ali (as), known in Torah as Baqir, whom you will see.
When you do, convey my greetings to him. After him, there will come Sadiq (as), Jaffar ibn Mohammad (as), then Musa ibn Ja’far (as), followed by Ali ibn Musa (as), Mohammad ibn Ali (as), Ali ibn Mohammad (as), al–Hasan ibn Ali (as), and finally the one whose kuniya (name), is the same as mine he is the hujja (argument), of God on the earth, the one whom God has prolonged his life, the son of al–Hasan ibn Ali Al–Askari (as).
He is the one through whom God will conquer the East and the West of the world. He is the one who according to the Shi’ah and his friends has gone into occultation, a period during which no one will remain steadfast in one’s belief concerning his Imamat except those whose hearts God has tested.
The Third Narration
Usool al–Kafi36 quotes Bareed Ejli to have said: “Imam al–Baqir (as) has said, ‘In the verse: O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you, God refers to us; He has ordered all the believers from now until the Day of Judgment to obey us (the infallible Imams).’
Besides the aforementioned narrations the books of hadith of Shi’ites and Sunnites include other narrations that interpret “those in authority” as the Infallible Imams. Researchers may refer to such books as Fara’id al–Simtayn, Yanabi al–Mawadeh, (from among the Sunni sources) and Usool al–Kafi, Ghayat al–Maram, and Muntekhab al–Athar (from among the Shi’i sources).
32. – Fara’id al-Simtayn, p. 312, vol. 1, the institute of al-Mahmoodi lil–Tiba’a wa al-Nashr, Beirut. Ismail Pasha in his Izah al-Maknoon, p. 182, vol. 4, Dar al-Fikr says, “Fara’id al-Simtayn which deals with the outstanding merits of al-Murtida (Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.), al-Batool, (Hazarat Fatimah Zahra (S.A.), Imam al-Hasan and Imam al-Husain, peace be on them by Abdillah ibn Ibrahim ibn Sa’d al-Deen Mohammad ibn Abi Bark ibn Mohammad ibn Hamoyeh al-Jowayani; He finished it in 716.
33. – On page 65 of his al-Mo’jam al-Mukhtas bil Mohaddtheen, Moktabat al-Sideeq, Ta’if, Dhahabi says, “Ibrahim ibn Mohammad …is a great imam, traditionist, Sheikh of Sheikhs, who was born in 644 A.H. and died in Khorasan in 722 A.H.”.
On page 67, volume 1 of al-Durar al-Kamineh Ibn Hajar says: He attended hadith lectures of (certain) professors in Hilla and Tabriz, and specially favoured it. He was a religious, dignified and good–looking man who recited the Qur’an well.
34. – Kamal al-Deen, p. 274.
35. – Kamal al-Deen, p.253.
36. – Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 217.