Imam al-Mahdi in Sunni Hadith Resources
Author: Ayatullah al-Uzma Nasir Makarim Shirazi
Initially, it is necessary to notice to two matters:
1) Some ask that what is the necessary of ahadith and narratives, when Qur’an is available.
And by considering that expression of anything is available in Qur’an (Ýíå ÊÈíÇä ˜á ÔíÁ), what prevents us to follow those who said: “ÍÓÈäÇ ˜ÊÇÈ Çááå” (Qur’an, the book of God, suffices us)?
Especially, when we hear that there are fake and incorrect ahadith among beside ahadith and this causes all of them to be invalidated.
But by considering that we are Muslims, a Muslim who is obliged to Qur’an cannot act according to Islamic ahadith which have reached us in correct ways, because: Firstly, in fact, those who deny tradition and correct ahadith are considered as denier of Qur’an itself, because Qur’an has explicitly introduced the expressions of Prophet (S) as a reliable and binding resource and says: Accept whatever prophet has brought to you and orders you to do and act according to that, and abstain from whatever he prohibits you from (Surah Hashr 59:7)
No believer man and woman have the right to disobey the order of God and his messenger! (Surah Ahzab 33:36)
Anyone who obeys the prophet has obeyed God and those who ignore, you are not responsible for them (and their punishment is by god (Surah Nisa 4: 80)
And other verses which all of them consider order of prophet binding as the order of God.
Secondly, Qur’an contains general orders and essential laws of Islam; and if we ignore the tradition then it loses its practical aspect and remains as intellectual generalities which is not executable; because all the details and practical and executable regulations of those general laws have entirely expressed in the tradition.
Although, some unknown people insisted that nobody writes the ahadith of Prophet (S), after his demise, lest it disturbs Qur’an! But after a while, everyone understood the weakness of this though that if more time passes and ahadith of Prophet (S) are forgotten then Islam loses its executable and practical aspect; therefore, that the leave that old-fashioned, fanatical and short-sighted theory and began collecting hadith books.
Thirdly, it is true that forgers entered into Islamic ahadith and began disordering ahadith with different motives, but it is not in the way that there is no regulation for correct, fake and doubtful ahadith, and they are not differentiable; but this act is completely possible by considering the sciences of Rijal, hadith and Dirayah.
2) He is a revolutionary man not a materialist politician!
None of the reasons which have been mentioned through wisdom or innate and genuine human nature for realization of an expanded reformist revolution in the entire world - like the verses which can be seen in Qur’an about this matter - talks about a specific person; and they only follow a general discussion, but undoubtedly, such revolution needs a leader like other revolutions; a powerful, knowledgeable, resistant leader having expanded and global sight.
Is it possible for this leader to rise from materialist societies like today’s leaders of the world?
It means like the leader whom their first goal is keeping their positions, and then whatever helps them to keep their positions; and their obedience from different political and economical schools is as much as the effect which they have in keeping their positions; and in the next level their highest goal and ambition is to make steps toward the benefits of their nation, although they take other nations to “slaughterhouse”!
Twenty years of war in Vietnam with millions of casualties and millions of destroyed houses, and millions of handicaps, and billions of lost capitals, proved that today’s capitalism is ready to fight for keeping its benefits, and even sometimes for nothing - not nothing, but a bunch of hallucinations called prestige and nothing else; and during this time some great leaders were replaced, but all of them followed their predecessors in this way and proved that this act was not personal opinion of an individual or individuals but it is an expression that they are all expressing and in this the characteristic of the countries which is being governed with those principles.
They demand freedom as the greatest goal, but only for themselves; sometimes, they talk about freedom for others but when it interferes with their benefits then it is immediately removed, like a snowball in summer!
They all gather and cooperate for providing their material interests and their only sacred and acceptable principle is this; maybe they have made a permanent and eternal contract about this matter.
And tools like “human rights” and principle of “freedom of humans in choosing their destiny” are mostly for defeating the opponents; accordingly, when their friends are in the field, these tools are useless and they are exempt of execution of these principles because of that friendship and commonness of interest!
Is it possible for these social systems and these superpowers to flutter the flag of freedom and justice in the world and is there any difference between superpowers!
The condition of “capitalist superpowers” and their oppression, injustice and imperialism is clear without any expression and it doesn’t need any discussion.
But left superpowers: they have destroyed all powers and reduced to some persons - that means the leaders of their only party - for generalization of justice among the working class and building a non-stratified society.
They melt down thousands of big and small feudalists in the furnace of revolution “proletariat”, and made some giant feudalists by them who hold the strings of all political and economical movements of the region.
They have enforced so much censorship that people don’t have even the right of thinking against what these leaders want or think!
They have made the principles, which are produced by the mind of changed revolutionized human in the way of evolution, into the series of forever dogmatic principles, maybe they want to stop the history in the previous century and stop their wheels forever.
Sometimes, one of the leaders, who have defeated other opponents, becomes so much of a dictator that it reminds us of legendary dictators like Mongolian leader and for instance like Mr. Stalin who consider killing one million and two hundred thousand people permitted!
But after the death, even they move their body from this grave to another and remove their name from anywhere, maybe he has never existed, while he was the only shelter of freedom for the working class and the only friend and supporter of exploited people of the world until yesterday!
Sometimes, they fight very hard with their associates for keeping their interests and become friend with their strong enemies and make “peaceful coexistence” and forget their eternal principles!
Is it possible for them to flutter the flag of justice in the world and call the nations beneath that?
What should we expect from a materialistic school other than this? Certainly not! Whether it is Materialism Capitalism, Materialism Socialism or Materialism Marxism.4
Only a human and beyond-material school can execute such humanly program in the entire world: A school, which its leader doesn’t think of his position, doesn’t belong only to his nation.
Don’t look at the world only from the limited point of view of materialism.
Have divine, high and deep thoughts, and is pure of lowliness and flounders.
He is the one who can save the humanity from this dangerous passage of history and take to the land of safety, under the light of the principles, which its alphabets are different with the alphabets of the principles of materialism.
Who is he? And who will it be? General belief of Muslims is that he is a man called Mahdi with the following characteristics.
Who is the Mahdi?
We saw in the discussion of the effects of waiting that all Islamic sects, without any exception, are waiting for the rise of a great revolutionary man from the dynasty of prophet, called “Mahdi” (a leader who is guided to his expanded revolutionary goal and program and accordingly, he is capable of leading and guiding others).
The acceptance of this issue is in the way that even the most of extremist sects - which means Wahhabis - has also accepted the issue, not even they have accepted but they defend it seriously and consider it as certain and indisputable Islamic beliefs.
Anyway, it is necessary to mention the statement of “Muslim World League” (ÌÇãÚÉ ÇáÚÇáã ÇáÇÓáÇãí) (one of the largest religious centers of Wahhabis in Mecca) as living evidence, before reminding the testimonials of a group of great Sunni scholars about this issue.5
According to our opinion, necessary documents and evidences have been collected in this brief treatise in the way there no one is capable of ignoring that and if rigorous Wahhabis have surrendered to that is because of that.
First, we mention the translation of the important part of this treatise, and then the whole Arabic text for being recorded in history and for those who want to study more.
A Living Evidence
About two years ago6 a person called Abu Muhammad from Kenya asked “Muslim World League”, which is one of the most effective religious centers of Mecca and Hejaz a question about the advent of the promised Mahdi.
Secretary General of the league, Muhammad Salih al-Qazzaz, sent a brief treatise which was written by five presently famous scholars of Hejaz about this matter for him, in answering his question adding to affirming that “Ibn Taymiyyah”, the founder of Wahhabism, has also accepted the ahadith of the advent of Mahdi.
We read in this treatise, after mentioning the name of his holiness Mahdi and the place of his appearance, which is Mecca, that: … at the time of dominance of corruption in the world and distribution of infidelity and oppression, God fills the world with justice by him (Mahdi) as it is filled with oppression and injustice.
He is the last one of twelve Rashidun Caliphs whom Prophet (S) has informed us about them is authentic (ÕÍíÍ) books.
Ahadith related to the Mahdi have been quoted by many of companions of Prophet (S), including: Uthman Ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Abdullah ibn Abbas, Ammar ibn Yasir, Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, Thawban, Qarat ibn Asas Mazani, Abdullah ibn Harith, Abu Hurairah, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, Jabir ibn Abdullah, Abu Umama, Jabir ibn Majed, Abdullah ibn Umar, Anas ibn Malik, Umar ibn Haseen and Umm Salama.
These are twenty people of those who have quoted the narratives about Mahdi and there are also many others beside them.
Also, companions have said many expressions about the advent of Mahdi which is possible to consider them in the category of narratives of Prophet (S); because this issue is not among the issue which are possible to be discussed in ijtihad (therefore, they have also heard the matter from the prophet).
Then he adds: Both the above ahadith which are quoted from Prophet (S) and testimonials of companions which are considered here as hadith, have been quoted in many famous Islamic books and main hadith texts of Prophet (S) including traditions (Óää), Ma’ajim (ãÚÇÌã) (pl. of Mu’jam) and supported books (Musnads), including: Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, ibn Maja, ibn Amr al-Dani, Musnad Ahmad and ibn Ya’li and Bazzaz. And Sahih al-Hakim and Ma’ajim al-Tabarani (Kabeer and Awsat) and Ruyani and al-Daraqutni and Abu Na’eem in Akhbar al-Mahdi and Khatib in History of Baghdad and ibn Asakir in History of Damascus and other than them.
Then he adds that: Some of Islamic scholars have written special books in this subject, including: Abu Na’eem in “Akhbar al- Mahdi”, Ibn Hajar al-Haythami in “Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar”, Shawkani in “al-Tawdhih fi Tawatur ma Ja\'a fi al-Muntazar wa al-Dajjal wa al-Masih”, Idris al-Iraqi al-Maghribi in “al-Mahdi”, Abu al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Mu’min al-Maghribi in the book “al-Wahm al-Maknoon fi Radd Ala ibn Khaldun”.
And the latest person who has written an explained discussion in this subject is the dean of Medina Islamic University who has discussed in some issues of the magazine published by the university.
Some of great scholars of Islam including past and present ones have also confirmed in their writings that ahadith about Mahdi are in the limit of Tawatur (and are not deniable) including: Al-Sakhawi in the book “Fath al-Mugeeth”, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Safawini in “Sharh al-Aqida”, Suyuti in “al-Hawi”, Idris Iraqi in the book that he has written about “Mahdi”, Shawkani in the book “al-Tawdhih fi Tawatur ma Ja\'a fi al-Muntazar …”, Muhammad Ja’far al-Kattani in “Nazm al-Mutanathir”, Abu al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Mu’min in “al-Wahm al-Maknoon …”.
He says at the end of the discussion: (Only) it is Ibn Khaldun who has tried to oppose ahadith about Mahdi with a baseless fake hadith that says “áÇ ãåÏí ÇáÇ ÚíÓí” (Mahdi in nobody but Jesus
, but great leaders and scholars of Islam has denied his expression; especially “Ibn Abd al-Mu’min” who has written a special book in denying his expression which has been published in the East and the West from 30 years ago.
Memorizers of ahadith and superior scholars have also affirmed that ahadith of Mahdi contain “authentic” (ÕÍíÍ
) and “acceptable” (ÍÓä
) ahadith which are totally Mutawatir (reach the source).
Therefore, believing the advent of Mahdi is obligatory to (any Muslim) and it is considered as the beliefs of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah and nobody ignores that except the ignorant persons and the heretics.
According to my opinion, the above discussion is so much clear that it needs no extra explanation; accordingly, aren’t people who say that believing the advent of Mahdi is an imported thought making a big mistake!
Now the Main Text of the Letter….
Here, we mention the main test of the letter which had been sent by a man from Kenya to “Muslim World League” which is an official Islamic center in Mecca about “the promised Mahdi” and the text of the answer which has been sent for him by the Secretary General of the league under supervision of five famous scholars of Hejaz.
And this is the same letter, which we mentioned the translation of its important part without the wane before.
The only point which is necessary to be reminded here is that the “important difference” of this writing which the beliefs of Shiites is that the name of the father of his holiness Mahdi (as) is mentioned “Abdullah”, while in Shiite books the name of his respected father is certainly “Imam Hassan al-Askari” and the source of this disagreement is that in some of the narratives of Ahl Sunnah this sentence has been mentioned that “ÇÓã ÇÈíå ÇÓã ÇÈí” (His father’s name is the name of my father) while evidences show that this sentence was originally “ÇÓã ÇÈíå ÇÓã ÇÈäí” (His father’s name is the name of my son”, and this change has happened because of a mistake in punctuation. (This possibility has been also affirmed by al-Kanji al-Shafei in the book “al-Bayan fi Akhbar Sahib al-Zaman”). And anyhow, that sentence is not reliable because
: Firstly, this sentence is not available in most of Sunni narratives.
Secondly, we read in the famous narrative of Ibn Abi Layli
Thirdly, Mutawatir narratives through Ahl al-Bayt (pbut) testify that his father’s name is “Hassan”.
Fourthly, it is also affirmed in some of Sunni narratives that he is the son of Imam Hassan Askari.
(For more explanation about this matter, refer to the book “Muntakhab al-Athar” pages 231 to 236, chapter 11, and the book “Noor al-Absar”).
Here, it is necessary to add some other expressions of some of famous Sunni scholars about what has been said
1) Famous scholar, Sheikh Mansour Ali Nasif, the writer of the book “at-Taj”7 writes in his book
: And he continues: It means, it is famous among all past and present scholars that finally a man from the dynasty of the Prophet (S) appears who dominates over all Islamic countries, and Muslims follow him; and he establishes the justice among them, and strengthens the religion … ahadith of Mahdi have been quoted but many of superiors of companions and hadith tellers … and a person like Ibn Khaldun, who has considered them as weak sources, has made a mistake.8
2) Ibn Khaldun himself, who is famous of opposing ahadith of Mahdi, hasn’t denied the famousness of ahadith of Mahdi among all Islamic scholars, and he says
: It was famous among all Muslims in all centuries and still is that a man from Ahl al-Bayt will appear in End of Days who stresses the religion of Islam and shows the justice and Muslims follow him.9
3) Muhammad Shablanji, famous Egyptian scholar, writes in the book “Noor al-Absar”
: (Mutawatir news has reached from Prophet (S) that Mahdi is from his dynasty; he will fill the earth with justice.10
4) Sheikh Muhammad Sabban3 writes in the book “As’aaf ar-Raghibeen”
: Mutawatir (reaches the source) news has been quoted from holy Prophet (S) that testifies that Mahdi will (finally) rise and he is from prophet’s dynasty and will fill the earth with justice.
5) “Ibn Hajar” quotes from Abul Hassan Amri in the book “Sawa’iq al-Muhragha”
: Mutawatir and several news has been quoted from Prophet (S) that finally Mahdi appears and he is from Ahl al-Bayt of Prophet (S) … and will fill the earth with justice.11
6) Author of the book “at-Taj” says after pointing to the book of “Shawkani”, famous Sunni scholar, which is all about Tawatur of ahadith of Mahdi and appearance of Dajjal and return of messiah and an explained discussion about Tawatur of ahadith Mahdi (as)
: (What has been said seems to be enough for those who has a bit of faith and little fairness
For more explanation about ahadith of the rise of this great revolutionary man of the world, which has been quoted through Ahl Sunnah, refer to the book “al-Mahdi” and “Muntakhab al-Athar fi Ahwal al-Imam al-Thani Ashar”.
Logic of Oppositions of Ahadith of Mahdi
In the previous discussion, we understood that only few Sunnis didn’t have accepted ahadith of Mahdi that Ibn Khaldun, famous historian, and Ahmad Amin, Egyptian scholar is among them, although certain majority of Islamic scholars has denied their opinion.
But, it is necessary to listen to their logic about this matter.
It is possible to summarize the objections of this group into five categories:
1) Documents of news about Mahdi are not reliable!
2) The foresaid news is not acceptable by wisdom!
3) This news has been abused by those who claim for Mahdaviat!
4) This news causes the society to become inactive!
5) This news is in benefit of Shiites and their beliefs!
Weakness of the Logic of Oppositions
It is understood from these objections that opposing against ahadith of Mahdi has an appearance which is weakness of documents of narratives which have been quoted about this matter or weakness of their implication, and it has a real feature behind that appearance and its motive is sectarian fanaticism and some of reasonless policies and anyway, the logic of the oppositions is weak in any part, because: Firstly, as it has been mentioned before, ahadith of Mahdi have been also quoted by a group of famous Sunni hadith tellers in book which are considered as their most famous and reliable books adding to Shiites and many scholars has confirm their Tawatur (reaching the source); therefore, there is no place for beginning a discussion about the document of each hadith because their famousness and Tawatur make us needless of studying the documents; which means these ahadith are completely correct according to the criterions of hadith evaluation.
Furthermore, there are authentic and reliable ahadith among them that Sunni hadith tellers have also confirm their reliability.
It is interesting that Ibn Khaldun himself confesses to this truth; because after dedicating some pages of his book to mentioning ahadith of Mahdi and doubting in their documents, he says: These are the entire ahadith of Mahdi, which have been quoted by the leaders of hadith about him and his rise in End of Days, and as you saw they were not safe from criticism but some
And in this way, he confesses that very few of them are correct and cannot be criticized.
Moreover, ahadith are not restricted to these ahadith which Ibn Khaldun has mentioned in his book; and therefore, some of Sunni scholars have written some books for answering Ibn Khaldun and proving the Tawatur of ahadith of Mahdi and showing that ahadith are not restricted to those which have been mentioned by him in his book, that have been expressed before.
Therefore, denying ahadith in this way, which is weakening the document, is completely baseless.
Secondly, nothing can be seen in the foresaid ahadith against wisdom that causes them to be ignored, and if their contents seem to be extraordinary they are not beyond the miracles of the past prophets, and exclusion cannot prevent them to be accepted.
Moreover, ahadith of Mahdi is not an integrated unit that to be accepted or denied together; in other words, the certain matter of the foresaid ahadith, which is the rise of a person from the dynasty of Prophet (S) and from the sons of Fatima (sa) and establishment of a universal reformist revolution, and filling the earth with justice, is not a matter that can be objected by wisdom, but we previously proved that this issue is according to a series rational reasons; but, if a part of ahadith about the signs of the advent and like them seem not to be able to be accepted, and are not reliable and clear about the document then we can deny that, but unacceptance of them has no relation with the other ones!
Briefly, we don’t know that why some people have ignored the method of studying and criticism of each of ahadith one by one and have made such mistakes!
These ahadith say that material civilization doesn’t correct the human; 25 years of war in Vietnam was a wonderful examination furnace; all thinkers are examining their opinions in this furnace; but I, as a religious scholar, say that it is a reason for incapability of materialistic schools, and that all material tools are the tools for making the conditions more critical, as we can see that in other parts of the world.
Thirdly, if these ahadith is in benefit of Shi’a then is it the fault of Shiites or the fault of ahadith?!
What is the problem of clearing a truth in this way?! Moreover, although the foresaid ahadith confirms the opinion of Shi’a but meanwhile, they don’t necessitate accepting Shi’a by accepting them. There are lots of people who have accepted the rise of Mahdi but they are not Shiite because of any reason. And anyhow, bias shouldn’t prevent the truth to be understood; it is exactly like that a person says that a physician was my enemy and gave me a healing medicine but I don’t use that, because if I use that and become healthy then it is in benefit of that physician and people that he is a good physician!
Fourthly, it is true that these ahadith have been abused but which truth didn’t have been abused in the world?!
Were the false claimants of prophecy or divinity or other spiritual dignities few in the world?! Are factitious and false religions few in the world?!
Should we deny all these truths because of abuses of aberrant ones?!
And absolutely deny god and prophecy of the messenger of god?!
Haven’t material powers of the world been abused many times?!
Should we remove them all! What logic is this!
In the nineteenth century, about ten persons of “liar messiahs” appeared - and made many people to follow them - this matter had caused war and riot and many people had become the victims of the swords.13 Are these the causes of ignoring the messiah completely, because his name has been abused!
Fifthly, as it was explained completely in the discussion of waiting, believing the rise of Mahdi for those who understand its truth is not the cause of inaction and idleness, but it is the cause of hope and courage against hard problems and accidents of the life; as believing God and his eternal power gives the person strength against the problem, and builds a safe and secure shelter against the factors of disappointment, believing the advent of Mahdi has also such effect and essentially, waiting for the rise of Mahdi is a powerful motive for correction and movement of society.
Now, some people didn’t have understand the meaning of this rise and have gone toward idleness and escaping from responsibilities; it is their own fault for not understanding the matter as in the issue of believing in God and the influence of his eternal power in the universe of existence, some uninformed people have also made the same mistake.
Briefly, it is not possible to leave a certain truth because of these weak excuses.
Mahdi in Shiites’ Hadith Resources
Believing the existence of a universal peacemaker called “Mahdi” is more common and expanded among Imamiyyah Shiites; because if Sunnis accept that as a certain side issue, Shiites consider it as one of the main principles, because the dynasty of twelve Imams ends to him and he is the last successor.
Some of Islamic researchers have estimated the number of narratives about this subject, which have been quoted by Sunnis to 200 ahadith, while narratives about this subject, which have been quoted by Shiites, are maybe more than one thousand.
If narratives, which talk about the great universal peacemaker, are considered as Mutawatir (reaches the source) narratives among Sunnis, they are considered as “necessities of religion” among Shiites.
Accordingly, Shiite scholars have written books in this field more than Sunni scholars; although, they have tried only to collect the narratives and didn’t have analyze them except some cases, maybe they didn’t consider it necessary in that time.
But anyway, much effort has been made in collecting these narratives.
Among books, which have been written about this subject by the method that has been explained, maybe the three following books, which contemporary scholars have written them, are more comprehensive.
1) The book “al-Mahdi”14 written by great faqih, Sayyid Sadr al-Sin Sadr.
2) The book “al-Burhan ala Wujud Sahib al-Zaman”, written by the late scholar, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin.
3) The book “Muntakhab al-Athar fi Ahwal al-Imam al-Thani Ashar”, written by the great scholar, Lotfollah Safi that has been performed by the encouragement and guidance of the late ayatollah Borujerdi and an abstract version of that called “Promise of Peace and Security” has been published in Persian.
The resources of these books are several books from previous Shiite and Sunni scholars, which have been written independently about this subject or have been expressed among other subjects.
According to the fact that mentioning all the narratives, which have been quoted, about this subject is not possible to be performed in this book, we only mention some chapters of the last book as a list and in the next chapters we will point some of them when it is necessary:
1) in the first chapter, it is pointed to ahadith which have been quoted from Prophet (S) and Imams (pbut) about the twelve leaders from, and 271 ahadith from famous Sunni and Shiite resources have been collected in his chapter that some of them contain the term “Imam”, some of them “Caliph” and some others “Amir” or other expressions like these.
These ahadith have been mentioned in the most important hadith resources of Ahl Sunnah and the most important resources of Ahl al-Bayt.
Justification of these kinds of narratives is clear for Shiites, but Ahl Sunnah have great difficulty in justification of these ahadith because on the one hand, they don’t deny the existence of these ahadith in their genuine resources and on the other hand, they didn’t have accepted the belief of Shiites about “the twelve Imams”; sometimes, they consider the first four caliphs as the main issue and add the next 8 caliphs to them!
While, if they want to consider the caliphs one by one as those who have been promised by prophet as truthful successors then it is not possible to accept persons like “Yazid” and his successors from the rulers of Umayyad Caliphate among them, with as much condemnation; and if want to select some of them who were less aberrant then we have no criterion for that according to the unity of the goals of Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate; moreover, cutting the chain of these twelve successors by time makes problem itself.
Sometimes, they say that four of these 12 caliphs are those first caliphs and 8 of them will come in future times and the last one of them is Mahdi! And in this way, as much we perform fanaticism, it is a big gap among the chain of truthful successors of prophet that is not according to the foresaid narratives anyway.
2) In the next chapter, narratives have been mentioned, which show that the number of the leaders after Prophet (S) is the number of superiors and grandchildren of Bani Israel that holy Qur’an has counted them as twelve persons; and 40 ahadith have been collected in this subject from the books of both groups, which in fact complete the previous discussion.
3) In the third chapter, narratives have been collected, which affirm that they are 12 persons and their first one is Ali (as) and the number of the narratives of this discussion is 133.
4) In the next chapter, 91 narratives have been collected from the resources of both groups, which say the fist caliph is Ali (as) and the last one if Mahdi (as).
5) In the next chapter, it talks about ahadith, which affirm that Imams are 12 persons, and 9 of them are from the sons of Hussein ibn Ali (as); 139 ahadith have been mentioned in this chapter.
6) In another chapter the discussion is about narratives in which this sentence is mentioned that “ÊÇÓÚã ÞÇÆãåã” (the ninth of them will be the one who arises) adding to confirming the number 12 and the matter that 9 of them are from the sons of Hussein (as). There are 107 ahadith in this chapter.
7) In another chapter, ahadith have been mentioned that have specified them with names; some of these ahadith have been collected from Sunni resources but most of them have been collected from Shiite resources and 50 ahadith have been mentioned in this chapter.
Also, several narratives about physical and spiritual characteristics of Mahdi and the signs of his advent and the conditions of his government and universal revolution and other issues related to this great rise.
It is cleared from these ahadith that the great universal peacemaker, the promised Mahdi, has the following characteristics:
A) Is from the dynasty of prophet of Islam and his children.
B) Is from the sons of Imam Hussein (as).
C) Is the twelfth leader after the prophet.
D) Is the son of Hassan ibn Ali al-Askari.
E) Will fill the world with justice.
F) He will have the universal government.
G) Deprived and exploited ones will become free in his time and wars will end and peace and construction will take their place.
As we said before, the number of these narratives is so many that it needs a separated books and we abstain from mentioning all of narratives, except those which are necessary to be mentioned in the next discussions for explaining and completing the discussion, because different books have been written about this subject that some of them have been mentioned above.
The problem is that usually, scholars have only quoted the narratives and didn’t have analyzed them enough; our goal in this book is to work more on rational reasons, also to analyze the reasons in quotations and narratives.
1. Majma’ al-Bayan, beneath the verse 9, interpretation of sura as-Saff (61).
2. Interpretation Burhan, vol. 2, page 121.
3. Majma’ al-Bayan, beneath the verse 33, sura at-Tawbah (9).
4. It should be considered that the master has written this text before the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the book “End of the Age of Marxism” is published from him ten years before the Collapse of the Soviet Unions. “Publisher”.
5. A group of great scholars of al-Azhar and Egypt have written important commentaries on this book, as it is written in its preface, it has been written for collecting a reliable collection of “quintet hadith books” which is one of the most important hadith books of Sunnis.
6. Consider the time of writing the book.
7. at-Taj, vol. 5, page 310.
8. Ibn Khaldun, printed in Beirut, page 311 (according to the quotation of Mahmoud Aburiya in the book “Azwa’ ala al-Sunnah al-Muhammadiya”).
9. Noor al-Absar, page 157.
10. Risalah of Sabban, commentary on Noor al-Absar, printed in Egypt, page 138.
11. Sawa’iq, page 99.
12. at-Taj, vol. 5, page 327.
13. Bible Dictionary, page 818.
14. This book has been also translated to Persian.