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A brief biography of Hisham al-Jawaliqi

By: Muhammad Rida Ja‘fari
Hisham ibn Salim is the second of the two Hishams to whom they attributed the doctrine of pure corporealism and anthropomorphism; we shall review what has been cited in both Imami and non-Imami hadith.
1. A Tradition from Muhammad ibn Hakim, who said: I described for Abu 'l-Hasan, peace be upon him, the belief of Hisham al-Jawaliqi, and what he says about the long- haired young man (ash-shabu 'l-muwaffar) . . .6
A Tradition from Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Khazzaz and Muhammad ibn al-Husayn who said: We called upon Abu 'l-Hasan ar-Rida, peace be upon him, and we related to him that Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family and [grant them salvation], saw his Lord in the form of a long-haired young man, of the age of boys of thirty years. We said: 'Hisham ibn Salim and his renowned companion at-Taq7 and al-Maythami8 stated that He is hollow in the centre but the rest is firm.'9
A Tradition from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr al- Bazanti from ar-Rida, peace be upon him. He said: He said to me: 'O Ahmad! What is the difference between you and the followers of Hisham ibn al-Hakam with respect to Unicity?' I said: 'May I be made your ransom! We believe in the form because of the hadith which narrates: "The Prophet of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family [and grant them salvation], saw his Lord in the form of a young man", and Hisham ibn al-Hakam believes in denying [that God has a] body.'10
This indicates that Hisham denied the form, because its assertion would require that Allah has a body.
2. al-Kishshi relates from ‘Abdu 'l-Malik ibn Hisham al-Hannat that he said to Abu 'l-Hasan ar-Rida, peace be upon him: May I be made your ransom! Hisham ibn Salim claims that Allah, the Great, the Exalted, is a form, and that Adam was created in the image of the Lord, and he describes this and that – and I indicated my flank and the hair on my head11 – and Yunus12 a client of the Al Yaqtin and Hisham ibn al- Hakam claim that God is a thing unlike [other] things, that things are distinct from Him and He from things.
They claim that the substantiation of a thing is a body, that He is a body unlike [other] bodies, a thing unlike things, substantiated and existent, not absent or non-existent, excepted from two restrictions: the restriction of invalidity,13 and the restriction of anthropomorphism; and which of these two beliefs should I believe?
He, peace be upon him, said: [Hisham ibn al-Hakam] meant substantiation, and [Hisham ibn Salim] compared his Lord with a created thing, may Allah – Who has no likeness, no equal, no model, no parallel, and is not included in the attribute of created beings – be raised above this. Do not believe the like of what Hisham ibn Salim believed; believe what was stated by the client of the clan of Yaqtin [Yunus] and his companion [Hisham ibn al-Hakam].14
3. Hisham ibn Salim al-Jawaliqi and his followers used to say: "God is in human form, the uppermost part of Him is hollow, and the lowest part is solid; He is a radiant light shining with a white light, He has five senses like humans, a hand, a leg, a nose, an ear, and a mouth, and He has abundant black hair which is a black light [since all of Him is light, and His body is white light, His abundant hair is black light], but he has no flesh nor blood,15 and they affirm that he has every human limb except private parts and a beard",16 and they deny, despite that, that He is a body,17and they relate that this was a view of Mu’minu t-Taq and ‘Ali ibn Maytham.18
But ash-Shahristani and as-Safadi relate on the authority of Mu’minu 't-Taq that he, stated: "Allah is a light in the form of a divine human" and refuted that He was a body, but he said: "It has been related in a Tradition: 'Allah created Adam in His image' and 'in the image of the Merciful', and the Tradition must be said to be true."19 ash-Shahristani adds: "What is related on his authority with regard to anthropomorphism is without truth."20
Nevertheless, they relate that he believed in determinism and anthropomorphism, he and his followers, the 'Shaytaniyyah'21 and that 'truly Allah is a limited and finite body.'22
They mention 'ash-Shaytaniyyah' and 'al-Mushabbihah,' and say: "They are affiliated to Shaytanu 't-Taq, and it is narrated from him that he believes in many of the anthropomorphic statements of the Rawafid [?],"23
From another stand-point, they cite in the biography of Mu’minu 't-Taq: 'He was a Mu‘tazili',24 and 'he shared the innovation of both the Mu‘tazilah and the Rafidah.'25
4. They add to these Yunus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahman al-Yaqtini, al- Baghdadi (c 125/742–208/823-4), the well-known Imami Traditionist and theologian, a student of Hisham ibn al-Hakam. They say about him: 'He was one of the Shi‘i anthropomorphists',26 and: 'Yunus went too far in the matter of anthropomorphism',27 'and he claimed that the angels who bear the throne also carry the Creator',28 'and he concludes that He is predicated by His words: and eight will hold the throne of your Lord above them on that day [al-Haqqah 69:17]',29 'since it has been narrated in the Tradition: the angels are sometimes weighed down from the pressure of the greatness of Allah on the throne.'30

Views on corporeality and anthropomorphism attributed to Al-Jawaliqi
It is clear that these views, whether correctly attributed or not, are reactions to the following hadith which these people heard, which they believed to be correct, which they understood in their ostensive meaning. These are the hadith, which are indi- cated in the doctrines themselves.
1. A Tradition from Ummu 't-Tufayl, the wife of Ubayy ibn Ka‘b, the well known companion of the prophet, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, mention that he saw his Lord in a dream in the form of a long-haired young man (shab muwaffar), in green, on a carpet of gold, and that on his feet there were two golden slippers.
By muwaffar he means 'having wafrah',31 and by 'green' he means 'in green clothing'.32It is stated in the biography of Abu 'l-Hasan, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Bashshar al-Baghdadi, al-Hanbali (d. 313/ 925), the ascetic Traditionist, who they say had the power of miracles and that whoever loved him was a follower of the sunnah, and whose tomb, many centuries after his death, was apparantly famous in Baghdad and visited by the people:33 Ahmad al-Barmaki said: 'I asked Abu 'l-Hasan ibn Bashshar about the hadith of Ummu 't-Tufayl and the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas [to follow] concerning ocular vision [of God], and he said: "Both of them are correct." A man then objected, and said: "These hadiths should not be cited at a time like this!" Then Ibn Bashshar said: "Islam is being extinguished".'34
The hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas, who stated: The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, said: 'I saw my Lord in the form of a young man with long hair.'35
The hadith of Mu‘adh ibn ‘Afra’: The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, related that he saw the Lord of the Worlds, the Exalted, the Glorious, in Paradise, wearing a crown which dazzled the vision.36
The hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, who said: I saw my Lord in the form of a beardless young man, on whom there was a red garment.37And another hadith from him, May Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, in which he said: I saw my Lord, the Exalted, the Glorious, a young man, beardless, with short, curly hair, on whom there was a red garment.38
And many other hadiths.
2. As for the Prophet's seeing his Lord during his night journey to Paradise (al-isra’), there is nothing more than that which is related by the non-Imami sects about it: Ibn ‘Abbas said, and he swore by this: '[The Prophet] saw his Lord with his eyes twice.'39Al-Hasan al-Basri used to swear by Allah: 'Indeed Muhammad saw his Lord.'40 ‘Ikrimah used to say: 'Yes, he saw Him, then he saw Him, and then he saw Him', until his life ended.41
And an-Nawawi said: "A group of commentators hold the view that he saw Him with his eyes; it is the belief of Anas, ‘Ikrimah, al-Hasan, and ar-Rabi‘. . ."42
Ahmad ibn Hanbal was asked about this, and he said: 'I shall say, with the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas: "With his eyes he saw his Lord, he saw Him, he saw Him", until the life of Ahmad comes to an end.'43An-Nawawi said: What is quoted by most of the scholars is: 'Truly the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, saw his Lord with the two eyes of his head on the night of al-Isra’ . . . He, the Exalted, the Glorious in stature, will be visible on the Day of Reckoning to the whole of creation: men and jinn, male and female, believer or unbeliever, and the angels, Gabriel and others.'44
As for the greater part of the hadith themselves, I shall only mention one of them, which was narrated by Muhammad ibn Ishaq, the renowned Traditionist and biographer, with its chain of authority from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Salamah, who said: ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab queried ‘Abdullah ibn‘Abbas, asking him: 'did Muhammad, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, see his Lord?' Ibn ‘Abbas replied to him: 'Yes.' ‘Abdullah ibn‘Umar retorted: 'Then how did he see Him?' And he answered: 'Truly, he saw Him.' – Yunus [one of the nar- rators from Ibn Ishaq] elaborated in his narration: ' . . . in the form of an adolescent, in a green meadow, beneath Him a carpet of gold, on a golden chair, held by four angels: one in the form of a man, one in the form of a bull, one in the form of an eagle, and one in the form of a lion.'45

The opinions of Hisham Al-Jawaliqi taken from Non-Imami hadith
3. As for what has been said in which mention is made of limbs and extremities (which are either figurative, like that which is narrated in the Holy Qur’an and many hadith of the sunnah, which are given a literal sensory meaning either through inattention or in advertence, or that which is extensively literal and only permits interpretation with difficulty, of which there are also many in the sunnah) there are many examples, some of which have been previously indicated in the examples we cited from the doctrines of non-Imami Traditionists. In what has been reported which we have not cited is the statement of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family and grant them salvation, about what they would see of Him: [On the Day of Judgement] our Lord shall reveal His leg, and all male and female believers shall fall prostrate before it.46
And that which has been related in numerous hadith with various wordings: It is said unto Hell: 'Are you full?' And it replies. 'Are there any more?' [Qaf, 50:30], and it is not full until the Lord/Lord of the Worlds/the Merciful puts His foot into it and compresses some of it against the rest (yuzwi ba‘da-ha ila ba‘d, and there is a variant reading: yuzwa ba‘da-ha ila ba‘d) and it says: 'Enough (qati, qati, qati/qadi, qadi, qadi/qadi, qadi, qadi/qadni, qadni, qadni)! Your Power!'47
4. The hadith of Abu Hurayrah: Allah created Adam in His image, His height being sixty cubits.48
The hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar: Do not distort the meaning, for truly the son of Adam was created in the image of the Merciful.49And the hadith concerning the Day of Judgement (al- qiyamah):Allah will come to them [the believers on the Day of Judgement] in His form, which they know [after He has come to them in a form which they did not recognize, and they rejected Him], and He will say: 'I am your Lord!' And they will say: 'You are our Lord.'50
5. Regarding place, the most curious thing said about it is what was said about 'the Throne (al-‘Arsh)' and 'the Chair (al-Kursi)' in His words: His chair encompasses the heavens and the earth [al-Baqarah, 2:255] in the statement of Ibn ‘Abbas: The chair/His chair is the place of His foot/two feet, and the throne – only Allah decrees its destiny.51 There is a hadith with the same meaning related by ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, Abu Musa al-Ash‘ari, Abu Dharr, and Ibn Mas‘ud.52
Concerning the sitting of Allah above the throne: Truly Allah is above His throne; and truly it gives the sound of a newly loaded saddle, as the one who rides it weighs it down.53
And He sits upon it, and only a distance of four fingers breadth remains.54Allah has prepared and set aside this excess space of four fingers breadth for Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family and grant them salvation, in order that he may sit upon it on the Day of Judgement;55 that is the explanation of His statement: It may be that your Lord will raise you to a praised position [al-Isra’, 17:79].56
at-Tabari gave a blistering defense of the soundness of this explanation and of the sitting of Allah,57 and al-Qurtubi said: "at-Tabari stood up for its admissibility with a plethora of words."58
Abu Bakr an-Naqqash narrated from Abu Dawud as- Sijistani, Sulayman ibn al-Ash‘ath (202/817–275/889), the famous author of the Sunan that he said: "Whoever denies this hadith [the hadith about the sitting of Allah] stands accused [of apostasy and being outside the religion] by us; knowledgeable people shall continue to believe in it."59
Ibnu 'l-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, the well-known student of Ibn Taymiyyah, related from the Qadi Abu Ya‘la al-Hanbali that he stated: al-Marwazi composed a book on the virtue of the Prophet, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, in which he mentions his being seated on the throne.The Qadi mentions that it is a belief [of a group of twenty- seven, whose names he cites], and Ibnu 'l-Qayyim adds: It is a belief of Ibn Jarir at-Tabari and of al-Mujahid [ibn Jabr] the imam of all of them in tafsir; and it is a belief of Abu 'l-Hasan ad-Dar Qutni [too] . . .60
Al-Marwazi is Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hajjaj, AbuBakr al-Marwazi (al-Marwarudhi) al-Baghdadi (c 200/816275/888), one of the greatest followers of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and the foremost among them for his piety and merit. Ahmad was on intimate terms with him, and was at ease in his company; it was he who took charge of Ahmad's body after he died and washed it. He narrated many matters on his authority, and substantiated authentic hadith on his authority, as is stated in his biography.61
Because of this belief, and al-Marwazi's book about it, a bloody public disturbance took place in Baghdad, as Ibnu 'l- Athir and others mention concerning the events of the year317/929: A great public altercation took place in Baghdad during this year between the followers of Abu Bakr al-Marwazi al-Hanbali and others from among the general populace, and many soldiers became involved in it. The cause of it was that the followers of al-Marwazi said, in a commentary on His words: It may be that your Lord will raise you to a praised position, that Allah will seat the Prophet, may Allah bless him [and his family] and grant him [them] salvation, with Him on the throne, while the other side said: 'On the contrary, it is mediation (shafa‘ah).'62
A public altercation ensued, and the parties did battle with each other, and there were many casualties among them.63
6. I have found no reasonable explanation for what has been attributed to al-Jawaliqi regarding his statement: 'Truly He is hollow at the centre, and the rest is samad', except that he glossed samad as 'solid', an interpretation that will be discussed subsequently, and that he found something which proved that Allah's having limbs and extremities was contradictory with His being solid from head to foot. He went on to establish that He, praise be to Him, had every limb except pudendum and beard', and was compelled to divide Him into two parts: the higher one being hollow, and the lower one eternally solid, with no pudendum.
6. al-Kafi, vol.1, p.106, no.289; at-Tawhid, p.97; al-Bihar, vol.3, p.300.
7. Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn ‘Ali an-Nu‘mani al-Bajali, Mu’minu 't-Taq, al- Kufi (d. c 160/777) the trustworthy and famous theologian.
8. ‘Ali ibn Isma‘il ibn Shu‘ayb ibn Maytham, Abu 'l-Hasan al-Maythami.
9. al-Kafi, vol.1, pp.100-2, no.272; at-Tawhid, pp.113-4; al-Bihar, vol.4, pp.39-41.
10. ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim, at-Tafsir, vol.1, p.20; al-Bihar, vol.3, p.307; Tafsiru 'l- burhan, vol.1, p.38; Nuru 'th-thaqalayn, vol.5, p.155.
11. i.e., Hisham ibn Salim believes that God has hair and limbs like a hand and a leg, and ‘Abdu 'l-Malik mentions this by way of allusion, dreading the direct expression of such things about God, especially in front of the Imam, peace be upon him.
12. Yunus ibn ‘Abdi 'r-Rahman, a student of Hisham ibn al-Hakam.
13. Haddu 'l-ibtal, i.e., the invalidity of the divine adjectives like Living, Powerful, Knowing, Hearing, and Seeing, signifying their meanings, because the affirmation of signification entails corporealism and anthro- pomorphism, and this judgement, i.e., that it is invalid, comes in many of the Imami hadith, and this is what is meant by the agnosticism (ta‘til) of such as the Jahmiyyah.
14. al-Kishshi, pp.284-5; Majma‘u 'r-rijal, vol.6, p.237.
15. Maqalatu 'l-Islamiyyin, vol.1, pp.105, 259; ash-Shahristani, vol.1, p.185; al-Farq bayna 'l-firaq, pp.51, 320-1; al-Ansab, f. 590b; al-Lubab, vol.3, p.389; Minhaju 's-sunnah, vol.1, pp.203, 259; and other sources.
16. al-Maqrizi, al-Khitat, vol.2, p.348-9.
17. Ibn Abi 'l-Hadid, vol.3, p.224.
18. Ibid., vol.3, p.224; al-Huru 'l-‘in, p.149.
19. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal, vol.1, p.187; al-Wafi bi 'l-wafayat, vol.4, p.104.
20. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal, vol.1, p.186.
21. al-Bad’ wa 't-tarikh, vol.5, p.132.
22. Ibid., vol.1, p.85.
23. al-Ansab, vol.8, pp.238-9; al-Lubab, vol.2, p.225.
24. al-Wafi bi 'l-wafayat, vol.4, p.104.
25. a1-Maqrizi, al-Khitat, vol.2, pp.348, 353.
26. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal, vol.1, p.188; al-Khitat, vol.2, p.353.
27. al-Farq bayna 'l-firaq, p.53; al-Ansab, f. 603b; al-Lubab, vol.3, p.421.
28. Maqalatu 'l-Islamiyyin, vol.1, p.106; Minhaju 's-sunnah, vol.1, p.207; al- Farq, p.216; at-Tabsir fi 'd-din, p.43.
29. al-Farq, p.53; al-Ansab, f. 603b; al-Lubab, vol.3, p.421.
30. al-Milal wa 'n-nihal, vol.l, p.188.
31. Wafrah: the hair massed on the head, especially that which falls onto the ears: al-Qamus, vol.2, p.155; Taju 'l-‘arus, vol.3, p.605; Lisanu 'l-‘Arab, vol.5, pp.288-9; al-Mu‘jamu 'l-wasit, vol.2, p.1046.
32. al-Bayhaqi, al-Asma’ wa 's-sifat, pp.446-7; Tarikh Baghdad, vol.13, p.311;Usdu 'l-ghabah, vol.7, p.356; and many other sources. For adh-Dhahabi's opinion on the hadith see: Siyar a‘lami 'n-nubala’, vol.10, pp.602-4; as- Suyuti defended its veracity (al-La’ali al-masnu‘ah, vol.1, pp.28-29.
33. Tarikh Baghdad, vol.12, pp.66-67; al-Muntazam, vol.6, pp.198-9;Shadharatu 'dh-dhahab, vol.2, p.267; Tabaqatu 'l-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp.57-63; al-Minhaju 'l-Ahmad, vol.2, pp.7-11.
34. Tabaqatu 'l-Hanabilah, vol.2, p.59; al-Minhaju 'l-Ahmad, vol.2, p.8.
35. at-Tabarani narrates it in as-Sunnah from Abu Zur‘ah ar-Razi, ‘Ubaydul- lah ibn ‘Abdi 'l-Karim (200/815–264/878), one of the imams of hadith, who stated: "It is a correct hadith, which only the Mu‘tazilah deny"; Kanzu 'l-‘ummal, vol.1, p.204; Muntakhab [Gloss to Ibn Hanbal's Musnad] vol.1, p.113; al-La’ali al-masnu‘ah, vol.1, pp.29-30).
36. Kanzu 'l-‘ummal, vol.1, p.204; Muntakhab, vol.l, p.113; al-La’ali al- masnu‘ah, vol.1, p.30; from at-Tabarani in as-Sunnah, and al-Baghawi took it from him, as in al-Isabah, vol.6, p.140.
37. Tarikh Baghdad, vol.11, p.214; al-La’ali al-masnu‘ah, vol.1, p.30.
38. Tabaqatu 'l-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp.45-46, where its veracity is defended.
39. at-Tirmidhi, vol.5, p.395; al-Mustadrak ‘ala 's-Sahihayn, vol.1, p.65; at- Tawhid wa ithbat sifati 'r-rabb, pp.200, 205; Ibn Kathir, at-Tafsir, vol.3, p.304; vol.7, p.424; Fathu 'l-bari, vol.10, p.230; ad-Durru 'l-manthur, vol.6, p.124; Fathu 'l-qadir, vol.5, p.110; and many other sources.
40. at-Tawhid, pp.199-200; an-Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol.3, p.5; Fathu 'l-bari, vol.10, p.231; ‘Umdatu 'l-qari, vol.19, p.198; etc.
41. at-Tabari, at-Tafsir, vol.27, p.28; ash-Shari‘ah, p.496; Ibn Kathir, at- Tafsir, vol.7, p.425; ad-Durru 'l-manthur, vol.6, p.124.
42. Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol.3, p.6; al-Mirqat sharhu 'l-mishkat, vol.5, p.306.
43. sh-Shifa, vol.1, p.260; al-Khafaji, Sharhu 'sh-Shifa, vol.2, p.292; al-Qari,Sharhu 'sh-Shifa, vol.1, p.422; ar-Rawdu 'l-unuf, vol.3, p.445; Sharhu 'l- mawahibi 'l-laddunniyyah, vol.6, p.120.
44. Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol.3, p.5; al-Mirqat, vol.5, p.308; as-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, vol.1, p.410; refer in particular to al-Qadi ‘Ayyad, ash-Shifa, vol.1, pp.257-60; al-Khafaji, Sharhu 'sh-Shifa, vol.2, pp.285-92; al-Qari, Sharhu 'sh-Shifa, vol.1, pp.416-23.
45. al-Asma’ wa 's-sifat, p.443; at-Tawhid wa ithbat sifati 'r-rabb, p.198; ash- Shari‘ah, pp.494-5; ash-Shifa, vol.1, p.258; al-Khafaji, Sharhu 'sh-Shifa, vol.2, p.287; al-Qari, Sharhu sh-Shifa, vol.1, p.418; ad-Durru 'l-manthur, vol.6, p.124; etc.
46. al-Bukhari, vol.6, p.198; vol.9, p.159; ad-Darimi, as-Sunan, vol.2, pp.326-7.
47. al-Bukhari, vol.6, p.173; vol.8, p.168; vol.9, pp.143, 164; Muslim, vol.8, pp.151-2; at-Tirmidhi, vol.4, pp.691-2; vol.5, p.390; Ahmad, vol.2, pp.276,314, 369, 507; vol.3, pp.13, 78, 134, 141, 234; ad-Darimi, vol.2, pp.340-1;at-Tabari, at-Tafsir, Bulaq ed., vol.26, pp.105-7; etc.
48. al-Bukhari, vol.8, p.62; Muslim, vol.8, p.149; Ahmad, vol.2, pp.315, 323;at-Tawhid wa ithbat sifati 'r-rabb, pp.39-41; ash-Shari‘ah, p.314.
49. at-Tawhid, p.38; ash-Shari‘ah, p.315; see the defence of the soundness of this hadith by Ibn Rahwayh, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and adh-Dhahabi, Mizanu'l-i‘tidal, vol.2, pp.419-20.
50. al-Bukhari, vol.9, p.156; Muslim, vol.1, p.113.
51. al-Mustadrak ‘ala 's-Sahihayn, vol.2, p.282; al-Hakim and adh-Dhahabi authenticated it, at-Tawhid wa ithbat sifati 'r-rabb, pp.107, 108; Tarikh Baghdad, vol.9, pp.251-2; al-Asma’ wa 's-sifat, p.354; Ibn Kathir, at-Tafsir, vol.1, p.457; ad-Durru 'l-manthur, vol.1, p.327; Fathu 'l-qadir, vol.l, p.273; Ruhu 'l-ma‘ani, vol.3, p.10, vol.16, p.154.
52. at-Tabari, at-Tafsir, Bulaq ed., vol.3, p.7; al-Asma’ wa 's-sifat, pp.353-4;ad-Darimi, as-Sunan, vol.2, p.325; al-Mustadrak ‘ala 's-Sahihayn, vol.2, pp.364-5; ad-Durru 'l-manthur, vol.3, p.298; Tabaqatu 'l-Hanabilah, vol.1, p.134. Many of the ancient commentators also explain it in this way; see at- Tabari, at-Tafsir, vol.3, p.7.
53. Abu Dawud, as-Sunan, vol.4, p.232; at-Tawhid wa ithbat sifati 'r-rabb,pp.103-4; ash-Shari‘ah, p.293; at-Tabari, at-Tafsir, vol.3, p.8; al-Asma’wa 's-sifat, pp.417-9.
54. ad-Darimi, refutation of Bishr al-Marisi, ‘Aqaidu 's-salaf, p.432; at-Tabari,at-Tafsir, vol.3, p.8; ‘Awnu 'l-ma‘bud, vol.13, pp.32-33.
55. Tarikh Baghdad, vol.8, p.52; Tabaqatu 'l-Hanabilah, vol.2, p.67.
56. ad-Darimi, vol.2, p.233; ash-Shifa, vol.1, p.291; Ibnu 'l-Jawzi, Zadu 'l- masir, vol.5, p.76; ad-Durru 'l-manthur, vol.l, p.328; vo1.4, p.198; Sharhu'l-Mawahibi 'l-laddunniyyah, vol.8, pp.367-8.
57. at-Tafsir, Bulaq ed., vol.15, pp.99-100.
58. Ahkamu 'l-Qur’an, vol.10, p.311.
59. al-Qurtubi, Ahkamu 'l-Qur’an, vol.10, p.311; Abu Hayyan, al-Bahru 'l- muhit, vol.6, p.72; al-Qastalani, al-Mawahibu 'l-laddunniyyah, vol.2, p.411; az-Zurqani, Sharhu 'l-Mawahib, vol.8, p.368; ash-Shawkani, Fathu 'l-qadir, vol.3, p.252; al-Alusi, Ruhu 'l-ma‘ani, vol.15, p.142.
60. Ibnu 'l-Qayyim, Badai‘u 'l-fawaid, vol.4, pp.39-40.
61. Tarikh Baghdad, vol.4, pp.424-5; al-Muntazam, vol.5, pt.2, pp.94-95;Tabaqatu 'l-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.56-63; al-Minhaju 'l-Ahmad, vol.1, pp.172-4; al-‘Ibar, vol.2, p.54; Ibn Kathir, vol.11, p.54; Shadharatu 'dh- dhahab, vol.2, p.166; Ibnu 'l-Athir, vol.7, p.435.
62. This is the explanation, which is agreed upon between the Shi‘ah and many Sunni scholars.
63. Ibnu 'l-Athir, vol.8, p.213; Ibn Kathir, vol.11, p.162; Abu 'l-Fida’, vol.2, pp.74-75; Ibnu 'l-Wardi, vol.1, p.390; Tarikhu 'l-khulafa’, p.384.

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