What is related from the two Hishams is also related from Non-Imamis
By: Muhammad Rida Ja‘fari
It is appropriate to mention that what is attributed to Hisham ibn al-Hakam and Hisham al-Jawaliqi is attributed to others who pre-dated both of them or were their contemporaries.
1. Abu 'l-Hasan Muqatil ibn Sulayman al-Azdi, al-Balkhi, al- Marwazi (c 70/689–150/767), who both heard and reported a great deal, and was particularly dedicated to commentary. He travelled throughout the Islamic lands (Marw, then Iraq, the Hijaz, Damascus) reporting and commenting on hadith in Mecca, Baghdad and Beirut, and finally settled in Basrah, where he died. He became so famous for his commentary on the Holy Qur’an that ash-Shafi‘i said of him: "People are entirely dependent on Muqatil for commentary."
He was one of those who were given as an example of those who believed in pure corporealism and anthropomorphism, and of falseness in hadith. He was an adversary of his compatriot, Jahm ibn Safwan, religiously and politically. Ibn Hibban stated: He took from Jews and Christians knowledge of the Qur’an, which corresponded with their Books, and he was an anthropomorphist, comparing the Lord with created beings.64
He and his followers stated: Allah is a body, and has jummah65 and is in human form, flesh and blood, hair and bone, having extremities and limbs, hands, legs, a head, eyes, and is solid; yet despite all this He does not resemble anything else, and nothing else resembles Him.66
Al-Maqdisi and Nashwan al-Himyari added: "He is seven spans of His own span."67 By 'followers of al-Muqatil' is meant all those followers of hadith who were influenced by him and who held beliefs similar to his. Among these were:
a) His confederate (rabib) Nuh ibn Abi Maryam (Yazid), Abu‘Ismah al-Marwazi, al-Hanafi, the qadi of Marw (c 100/719–173/789), who heard and narrated a great amount, and studied jurisprudence with Abu Hanifah; at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah excerpted his hadith concerning tafsir. Muqatil married his mother and reared him, and Abu ‘Ismah learned his ideas from him; they say about him what they say about his shaykh Muqatil.68
b) Abu ‘Abdillah, Nu‘aym ibn Hammad ibn Mu‘awiyah al- A‘war al-Khuza‘i, al-Marwazi, then al-Misri (c 148/765–228/843), a distinguished Traditionist, was an imam of the sunnah.al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah excerpted his hadith; Muslim did the same in the preface to his Sahih. He was brought from Egypt to Iraq during the caliphate of the ‘Abbasid al-Mu‘tasim due to his denial of the doctrine of the createdness of the Qur’an. He was imprisoned there until he died, and was buried in his chains, unshrouded, and without prayers being said for him.
He was a scribe for Abu ‘Ismah, who raised and educated him, and he composed many books refuting the Jahmiyyah. They said about him what they said about his shaykh, although the only ones who explicitly denied him were ad-Dulabi and al- Azdi because they considered him one of the martyrs of their Mihnah, or Inquisition.69
2. Abu Muthannah, Mu‘adh ibn Mu‘adh al-‘Anbari, al-Basri, qadi of Basrah (119/737–196/812), one of the distinguished Traditionists whose reliability and explication of hadith they trusted, among them the followers of the sunnah books and others.70
One narrator said: I questioned Mu‘adh al-‘Anbari, saying: 'Does He have a face?' And he replied: 'Yes.' So I brought up all the limbs, nose, mouth, chest, belly, but left off mentioning the genitals, gesturing towards my own with my hands, and questioning. He said: 'Yes.' So I asked: 'Male or female?' And he replied: 'Male!'71
One feast day, a man paid a call on Mu‘adh ibn Mu‘adh, the qadi of Basrah. He was holding some meat cooked in vinegar in his hands and the visitor asked him all there was to ask about the Creator. He said: 'He, by Allah, is like that which is between my hands, flesh and blood!'72
3. Dawud al-Jawaribi. Nothing is mentioned about him, not even the name of his father, except for what is related on the authority of Yazid ibn Harun al-Wasiti (118/736–206/821), one of the distinguished Traditionists, there is consensus about, that he said: "al-Jawaribi and al-Marrisi [Bishr ibn Ghiyath] are unbelievers." He said that Dawud al-Jawaribi was crossing Wasit bridge and the bridge broke, and all who were on it drowned [except Dawud, who survived]. Yazid used to say: "He who expelled a devil and he said: 'I am Dawud al- Jawaribi.' 73 From this it is apparent that he was an ‘Iraqi, and that he and Bishr were contemporaries.
Al-Ash‘ari counts Dawud and his followers among the Murjiah, and ash-Shahristani counts him and Nu‘aym ibn Hammad among the anthropomorphists of the Hashwiyyah followers of hadith who were in agreement with Muqatil ibn Sulayman. ‘Abdu 'l-Qahir al-Baghdadi, Abu 'l-Muzaffar al- Isfarayini and others concluded the same, counting him among 'the anthropomorphists,' and not 'the Rafidah' or 'the Rafidi anthropomorphists.'
It is related from him that he said that what he worshipped is a body, flesh and blood, having extremities and limbs, with hands, feet, a head, a tongue, eyes, and ears; despite that, it is a body unlike bodies, a flesh unlike other flesh, blood unlike blood, and so on for the rest of the attributes, that He does not resemble any created thing, and nothing resembles Him; that He is hollow from His highest point to His chest, and solid elsewhere, and He has an abundance of short, black hair. Dawud al-Jawaribi said: "I was excused from [mentioning] the private parts and the beard, and I were questioned about what the evidence for this was. What substantiates it is in the Traditions."74
But Ibn Hazm numbered him among the Shi‘ah75 and said: Dawud al-Jawaribi76 was one of their greatest theolo- gians, who claimed that his Lord is flesh and blood, in the manner of human beings.77
As-Sam‘ani said: From [Hisham al-Jawaliqi] Dawud al-Jawaribi took his statement that his God has all the limbs, except private parts and beard.78 adh-Dhahabi said, and Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani confirms it as being his word. Dawud al-Jawaribi, head of the ar-Rafidah and corporealism, one to be flung into Hell.79
The Imami sources do not mention a thing about him, and moreover, his name does not appear in any one of them, old or new.
64. Ibn Hibban, Kitabu 'l-Majruhin (ad-Du‘afa’), vol.3, pp.14-16; Tarikh Baghdad, vol.13, pp.160-9; Mizanu 'l-i‘tidal, vol.4, pp.172-5; Tahdhibu 't- tahdhib, vol.10, pp.279-85; and many sources.
65. wafrah, see above note no.174 (al-Mu‘jamu 'l-wasit, vol.1, p.137).
66. Maqalatu 'l-Islamiyyin, vol.l, pp.213, 214, 258-9; al-Fisal, vol.4, p.205; al- Bad’ wa 't-tarikh, vol. 5, p. 141; Ibn Abi 'l-Hadid, vol.3, p.224.
67. al-Bad’ wa 't-tarfkh, vol.1, p.85; vol.5, p.141; al-Huru 'l-‘iyn, p.149.
68. Ibn Hibban, ad-Du‘afa’, vol.3, pp.48-49; Mizanu 'l-i‘tidal, vol.4, pp.279-80; Tahdhibu 't-tahdhib, vol.10, pp.486-9; etc.
69. Tarikh Baghdad, vol.13, pp.306-14; Mizanu 'l-i‘tidal, vol.4, pp.267-70; Tahdhibu 't-tahdhib, vol.10, pp.458-63; etc. Refer to the text stating that they followed Muqatil in anthropomorphism and corporealism, they and Dawud al-Jawaribi (to follow): al-Milal wa 'n-nihal, vol.1, p.187; Talbis iblis, p.86; Ibn Abi 'l-Hadid, vol.3, p.224. See also Watt, W. M., The Formative Period of Islamic Thought, p. 178.
70. Tahdhibu 't-tahdhib, vol.10, pp.194-5; Taqribu 't-tahdhib, vol.2, p.275;Tarikh Baghdad, vol.13, pp.131-4.
71. Ibn Abi 'l-Hadid, vol.3, pp.224-5.
72. Ibnu 'l-Murtada, al-Munyah wa 'l-amal, p.116; Ibn Abi 'l-Hadid, vol.3, p.225.
73. Mizanu 'l-i‘tidal, vol.2, p.23; Lisanu 'l-mizan, vol.2, p.427.
74. Maqalatu 'l-Islamiyyin, vol.1, pp.214, 258-9; al-Milal wa 'n-nihal, vol.1, pp.105, 187; al-Bad’ wa 't-tarikh, vol.5, p.140; al-Farq bayna 'l-firaq, pp.216, 320; Usulu 'd-din, pp.74, 337; at-Tabsir fi 'd-din, p.107; Talbis iblis, pp.86, 87).
75. al-Fisal, vol.2, p.112; vol.4, p.93.
76. 219 In the manuscript: al-Jawazi, and in al-Lisan: al-Jawari.
77. al-Fisal, vol.4, p.182; Siyar a‘lami 'n-nubala’, vol.10, p.544; Lisanu 'l- mizan, vol.2, p.427.
78. al-Ansab, f. 590b; al-Lubab, vol.3, p.389.
79. Mizanu 'l-i‘tidal, vol.2, p.23; Lisanu 'l-mizan, vol.2, p.427.