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Al-Ma'mun

Before we speak about the affairs of Ima`m al-Rida`, peace be on him, during the time of al-Ma'mu`n, it is necessary to give a brief account of al-Ma'mu`n as follows:

His Mother
As for al-Ma'mu`n's mother, she was a female slave; she was one of the servants in al-Rash´~d's palace; al-Rash´d had entrusted her with cooking food. The historians said that she was the ugliest and dirtiest female
slave in al-Rash´d's kitchen. Some sources said: "Mrs. Zubayda played chess with Ha`ru`n al-Rash´~d and beat him, so she asked him to have a sexual intercourse with the ugliest slave-wife in the kitchen, who was Mara`jil.
Ha`ru`n al-Rash´d refused that and gave her the land tax of Egypt and Iraq in order to exempt him from that, but she refused and did not accept it. Then he yielded to her decision and had a sexual intercourse with Mara`jil, and she born him al-Ma'mu`n. "
Al-Ma'mu`n was born in the year 170 A. H. when al-Rash´d became a caliph. When al-Rash´d was given good news of him, he named him al-Ma'mun as a sign of good omen. Al-Ma'mu`n's mother died during her confinement, so al-Fadl b. Sahl took care of bringing him up.
Those who harbored malice against al-Ma'mu`n used his mother and his incapability of undertaking the caliphate as means to satirize and slander him. His brother al-Am´~n said to him:
If men vie with each other for their excellence, then you stop, for you cannot vie (with them).
Your Lord has given to you what you desired, but you meet that which is contrary to your caprice with Mara`jil.
You ascend the pulpits every day hoping for that which you cannot attain after me.
During the days of the discord he reviled him because of his mother and wrote to him:
O son of her who was sold by auction for the smallest price among the people at the market.
Every place of the stitch of a needle in you has a sperm from someone else.
So al-Ma'mu`n answered him, saying:
The mothers of men are mere containers and depositories, and the female-slaves have qualified ones.
Many an Arab woman does not beget, and non-Arab one often begets in the female-slave's quarters.
Praising al-Am´n and dispraising al-Ma'mu`n's mother, al-Raqqa`shi says: "He was not born by a slave-wife well-known at the market of the traders. "
Al-Ma'mu`n had no defect on the side of his mother, for Islam has demolished all these fanatical, pre-Islamic instincts and regarded all human races as equal; therefore none has an excellence over the others except through reverential fear.

Al-Ma'mun's Qualities
As for al-Ma'mu`n's psychological qualities and trends, they are as follows:

Treachery
As for treachery, it was among al-Ma'mu`n's characteristics and one of his elements. For example, he appointed Ima`m al-Rida`, peace be on him, as his successor, but when his political ambitions terminated, he betrayed him through giving him fatal poison to drink; we will explain that in the chapters that follow. Similarly, he betrayed a group of the eminent figures of his time of whom he was cautious; who are as follows:

1. 'Abd Allah Bin Musa al-Hadi
He criticized al-Ma'mu`n and shouted at him when he had a drink with him. Al-Mamun was displeased with 'Abd Allah, so he imprisoned him in his house and ordered some guards to sit at his door. Then he pardoned him and ordered the guards to leave his door.
'Abd Allah was fond of hunting, so al-Ma'mu`n put poison in a francolin and gave it to a servant of his in order to give it to him to eat. That was when 'Abd Allah was at Mu`sa` Abad. When he felt poison, he said to his companions: "This is the last thing which he (al-Ma'mu`n) gave me to eat.

2. Ishaq Bin Musa al-Hadi
When al-Ma'mu`n was in Khurasa`n, Isha`q headed some units of the army and occupied some areas of it, so al-Ma'mu`n secretly sent his son and one of his servants, and they killed him; then his son took the servant and whipped him to death.

3. Ham´d Bin 'Abd al-Ham´d al-Tusi
Al-Ma'mu`n invited him (Ham´d) to have a meal. Ahmed b. Abu` Kha`lid al-Ahwal was with him; he was one of those who harbored malice against Ham´d and among his enemies. When it was time (for them) to have the meal, al-Ma'mu`n sat Ahmed beside him. Ham´d was displeased with that, and he said to al-Ma'mu`n: "O Commander of the faithful, may Allah not make me die until he make me see that the world is easy to you, that you may see which of us is more useful to you."
Ahmed seized the opportunity and said to al-Ma'mu`n: "O Commander of the faithful, he hopes that corruption and discord will dominate your kingdom."
As for al-Ma'mu`n, he became angry, left the food and did not finish it, and concealed that in his heart. When he wanted to marry Boura`n, he said to Ham´~d: "O Abu` Gha`nim, I have permitted you to make a pilgrimage."
Ham´~d happily departed and ordered his baggage to be prepared. As he was fond of having sexual intercourse, Gabriel b. Bakhtishu`' went in to him and said to him: "O Abu` Gha`nim, be in a hurry. I hope that you will bring with you some slave-wives while they are pregnant."
Then he gave him (poison) to drink. 'Abd Allah al-Tayfu`ri was at the meeting; he had knowledge of medicine. When he saw the drink, he understood the matter and said to Gabriel: "Abu` Gha`nim has become weak because of this (drink)."
Al-Tayfu`ri meant that he understood the assassination which had been schemed against Abu` Gha`nim. Abu` Gha`nim had the drink (of poison) and it immediately acted on him. Al-Tayfu`ri began treating him and he got well a little bit, but he (al-Ma'mu`n) gave him poison to drink again and put an end to him.

4. Al-Fadl Bin Sahl
Al-Fadl b. Sahl was the minister and adviser of al-Ma'mu`n. As al-Ma'mu`n was afraid of him, he secretly sent someone to assassinate him in the bath-house. We will explain this matter in the researches that follow.
These are some persons whom al-Ma'mu`n assassinated; therefore, he followed the example of Mu'a`wiya, who was the first king to open the door to assassination and treachery in the time of Islam.

Cruelty
Another example of al-Ma'mu`n's qualities is that he was cruel and merciless, for he ordered his brother to be killed and his head to be brought to him. If he had had a tendency of mercy, he would have pardoned his brother, who asked him for pardon and security and was ready to hand over the authority to him. Yet another example of his cruelty is that when he had assassinated Ima`m al-Rida`, peace be on him, he treated the 'Alawides with cruelty and severity. That was when he ordered his executioners to kill and punish them severely everywhere.

Slyness
The Islamic diplomacy in the 'Abba`sid time did not witness any person slyer than al-Ma'mu`n or more knowledgeable than him in political affairs. He was a first-class politician, for he, through his deception, was able to overcome most terrible events which befell him and were about to fold his life and authority. Through an excellent skill he was able to put an end to his brother al-Am´n, who was strongly supported by the 'Abba`sid family and the high military commanders.
He was also able to suppress the great revolt of Abu` al-Sara`ya`, the inspired leader. It is worth mentioning that this revolt widely spread and included most Islamic regions when the revolutionists dominated them. The motto of the revolt was 'the summons to al-Rida` from the family of Mohammed, may Allah bless him and his family.' Al-Ma'mun forced Imam al-Rida peace be on him, who was the only leader of the 'Alawide family and high authority of Islamic world to leave Medina` for Khurasa`n.
Then he forced him to accept regency and ordered all the organs of his government to announce the outstanding merits of Ima`m 'Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and of the rest of the pure Ima`ms. Moreover he ordered the currency to be minted in the name of Ima`m al-Rida`, peace be on him.
In this manner he made the revolutionists and the military forces who adopted the authority of the ahl al-Bayt, peace be on him believe that he had 'Alawide beliefs, and that he was earnest in handing over the caliphate to the 'Alawides, to the extent that they thought that there was no need to continue the revolt and to shed blood.
Meanwhile he was able to discover the Sh´'ite elements whom his fathers were unable to discover. In this manner he suppressed those revolts. I (i.e. the author) think that this is one of the most marvelous, political schemes which the world has ever known throughout the stages of history.
Inclination to Amusement
Al-Ma'mu`n extremely inclined to amusement. The following are examples of his inclination to amusement:

A. His Playing Chess
Chess was the most lovable game to al-Ma'mu`n. He was fond of it, so he described it through the following poetry lines:
A square, red ground (made) from skin between two thousand (persons) described by generosity.
They discuss war, so they occupy (places) like it without striving therein to shed blood.
This attacks this, and that attacks this, and the eye of war does not sleep.
So look at the horses which have surged at a battle between two armies without a drum nor a flag.
This poetry contains an exact description of chess. I (i.e. the author) think that al-Ma'mu`n was the first to describe it in detail, and that he took this game from his father Harun al-Rash´d, who was the most skillful person in chess. It is worth mentioning that Harun gave chess pieces to the King of France, and that the pieces are still available in the Museums of France.

B. His Fondness of Music
Al-Ma'mu`n was fond of singing and music. The historians said that al-Ma'mu`n extremely admired Abu` Isha`q al-Mousli, who was the greatest musician and singer in Arab world, and concerning whom he said: "When he sings, my increasing Satanic temptations go away from me."
Al-Ma'mun enlivened his nights through singing, dancing, and playing on the lute. He imitated his father Harun al-Rash´d, who did not mention the name of Allah in his palace; rather his nights were red.

C. His Drinking Wine
Al-Ma'mu`n was alcoholic; he drank wine by day and night, paying no attention to the sin which resulted from this unlawful thing.
With this quality we will end our speech about al-Ma'mu`n's qualities and tendencies.

Al-Ma'mu`n receives valuable Gifts
The chiefs and the noble sent valuable gifts to al-Ma'mu`n in order to seek nearness to him. The following are some of them:
1. Ahmed b. Yusuf: He sent him a basket made of gold and there was in it an Indian lute equal to is its length and width, and he wrote on it: "This is the day on which the slaves have habituated themselves to sending valuable gifts to their masters; and I have said:
There is a right against the slave and he, without doubt, does it, even if the master is great and his favors are grand.
Do you not see that we give as gift to Allah His property, and He accepts it though He is in no need of it.
If (things) were given as gift to the great one according to his rank, then the sea and its coast would someday fall short of him.
However, we give as gift to him whom we magnify though we do not have that which is similar to him."
2. Abu` Dalaf al-Qasim b. 'Isa al-'Ijjli: He sent him on the day of a festival a hundred loads of saffron in silk bags. Wild, gray she-asses carried them. The gifts came while al-Ma'mun was along with his wife. He was told about the gifts, and he hurried to look at them. When he saw them, he admired them.
Then he asked whether the asses were males or females. It was said to him that they were females, so he became pleased with that and said: "I know that the man is so sane that he sends (gifts) on nothing except on she-asses. "
The King of India: He sent him a group of gifts; among them were a cup (made of) ruby and a letter in which he mentioned: "We ask you, O brother, to show favor (toward us) through accepting them and to apologize us for negligence. "
These are some persons who sent gifts to al-Ma'mu`n in order to seek nearness to him and to crave for some jobs from him.

His affecting Shiism
Some historians and researchers believed that al-Ma'mu`n adopted the Sh´~'ite doctrine; they depended on the following:

1. Who taught him Shiism?
Before his retinues and companions, al-Mamun declared that he embraced the Sh´'ite creed; this has been mentioned in the following tradition: Sufyan b. Nazar narrated, saying: [On day I was with al-Ma'mu`n and he asked his companions:]
"Did you know him who taught me Shiism?"
"No, by Allah, we did not know him," they all replied.
"Al-Rash´d did," he retorted.
"How did that occur whilst al-Rash´d killed the ahl al-Bayt?" they asked.
"He killed them for the kingdom," he answered, "for the kingdom is barren. One year I made a pilgrimage along with him. When he arrived in Medina, he walked toward his visitors and said to them:
"'If those from Mecca, Medina, the Muhajireen (migrants), the Ansar (supporters), the Hashimites, and the rest of the tribes of Quraysh visit me, they should mention their ancestry.' The chamberlains obeyed that. When a man wanted to visit him, he introduced himself to the chamberlains.
When the man visited him (al-Rash´d), he gave him as a gift according to his rank and lineage; his gift ranging from two hundred to five thousand dinars."
Al-Ma'mun said: "While I was standing, al-Fadl b. al-Rab´' came in and said: 'O Commander of the faithful, there is a man who claims that he is Musa b. Ja'far b. Mohammed b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib.'
"So al-Rash´d walked toward his sons and the rest of his commanders and said to them: 'Keep your own souls.' Then he said to al-Fadl: 'Give him permission to enter and do not (let him stop at any place) except at my own carpet.'"
Al-Ma'mu`n said: "Then an old man with a yellow face came; worship exhausted him; he was like an old (water) skin; prostration wounded his face and his nose. When al-Rash´d saw him dismounting, he shouted:
'No, by Allah, (he will not dismount) except on my own carpet.' So the chamberlains prevented him from dismounting; and all the people looked at him with honor, admiration, and magnification.
The Ima`m arrived at the carpet; he was surrounded by the chamberlains and the commanders. He dismounted, and al-Rash´d rose for him, received him, accompanied him to the end of the carpet, kissed his face and his eyes, took him by the hand, accompanied him to the beginning of the assembly, sat with him, talked with him, asked him about his conditions, and then he asked him:
"'O Abu` al-Hasan, what about your family? Are all of them boys?' 'No, most of them are followers and retainers,' answered the Ima`m, 'As for my children, they are more than thirty.'" Then he mentioned the number of the males and of the females.
Then Ha`ru`n (al-Rash´d) turned to him and asked him: "Why do you not marry your womenfolk to their cousins and their qualified ones?"
"The hand falls short of that," replied the Ima`m.
"What about your land?" asked Ha`ru`n.
"It sometimes produces and sometimes does not produce," answer the Imam.
"Are you in debt?" asked Harun.
"Yes," replied the Imam.
"How much is it?" asked Harun.
"Ten thousand dinars," answered the Imam.
"O cousin," retorted Harun, "I will give you a sum of money in order to marry the males to the females, pay your debt, and reform your lands."
The Imam thanked him for that and said to him: "You have tightened the bonds of kin, O cousin, and Allah has thanked this beautiful intention; the blood relationship is contiguous; kinship is close; the ancestry is one; al-'Abba`s is the uncle of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and full brother of his father, the uncle of 'Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib, peace be on him, and full brother of his father; may Allah not make you far from doing that; for He has made you open-handed, made your element honorable, and made your origin high."
"I will do that with pleasure," promised Harun.
Then the Ima`m advised him to show kindness to the poor in general, saying:
"O Commander of the faithful, surely Allah has made it incumbent on the rulers to refresh the poor of the community, to pay (the debts ) on behalf of the debtors, to settle (the debts) on behalf of the over burdened, to clothe the naked, and to treat the worried with kindness, for you are appropriate for doing that."
"I will do that, Abu` al-Hasan," promised Ha`ru`n.
Then the Ima`m, peace be on him, rose and Ha`ru`n al-Rash´d rose for him, kissed his eyes and his face, and then he turned to his sons and said to them:
" 'Abd Allah, Mohammed, and Ibra`him, go before your uncle and master; take hold of the stirrup (of his mount); set right his garments on him; and accompany him to his house."
The Ima`m departed; on the same road, he delighted al-Ma'mu`n and gave him good news of the succession, saying to him: "If you undertake this authority, then treat my children with kindness."
The Ima`m went to his house escorted by Ha`ru`n's sons. Then al-Ma'mu`n returned to his house. When the sitting-place became void of the people, he turned to his father and asked him:
"O Commander of the faithful, who was the man whom you honored, magnified, for whom you rose from your sitting-place and received, whom you sat in front of the sitting-place and you sat beside, and whose stirrup you ordered us to set right?"
"This is the Imam of the people, the proof of Allah over His creatures, and His vicegerent over His servants," replied Harun.
Al-Ma'mu`n admired this statement, so he asked his father: "O Commander of the faithful, are not all these qualities yours and fulfilled in your person?"
"I am the Ima`m of the masses by force and through oppression," answered Ha`ru`n, "as for Mu`sa` b. Ja'far, he is the Ima`m in truth. By Allah, my little son, his more worthy of being the successor of Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, as the caliph than I am and anyone else among the people. By Allah, if you yourself attempt to take such caliphate from me, I shall take it away from you even if that means gouging your eyes, for power is blind!"
When Harun al-Rash´d intended to leave Medina for Baghdad, he ordered a parcel of two hundred dinars (to be prepared), and then he said to al-Fadl b. al-Rab´': "Take it and go to Mu`sa` b. Ja'far and say to him: The Commander of the faithful say to you: 'We are in financial straits; and our gifts will come to you in the near future.'"
Al-Ma'mun stood up and said to his father: "You give five thousand dinars or less than it to the children of the Muhajireen (migrants), of the Ansar (supporters), and those whose ancestry you do not know; however you give two hundred dinars to Mu`sa` b. Ja'far, whom you honored and magnified. This is the least gift you have given to any of the people."
Harun scold al-Ma'mun and said to him: "Keep silent! May you have no mother! If I gave this (i.e. Musa b. Ja'far) what I had guaranteed, I would not be safe from him, for he will tomorrow strike my face with one hundred thousand swords from among his Sh´~'ites and followers; the poverty of this (man) and his household is more useful to me and you than lending a helping hand to them."
Harun expressed his fear of the Ima`m, peace be on him, so he decided to wage an economic warfare against him lest he should be able to revolt against him. Makha`riq, the singer, was in the session. He felt pain, so he opposed Ha`ru`n and said to him:
"O Commander of the faithful, when I enter Medina, its inhabitants ask me for something. If I leave it and do not divide anything among them, they do not realize the favor of the Commander of the faithful toward me, and my rank with him."
So Harun order ten thousand dinars to be given to Makha`riq, but he said to him: "O Commander of the faithful, this (sum of money) is for the people of Medina. I am in debt, and I want to pay it."
So Harun ordered ten thousand dinars to be given to him. Then he said to him: "I want to join my daughters in marriage." So he ordered ten thousand dinars to be given to him. Then he said to him: "There is no escape from giving me a land producing for me, my family, and my daughters." So he gave him a productive land whose revenues amounted ten thousand dinars a year, and he ordered it to be given to him quickly.
Makha`riq quickly went to the house of Ima`m (Musa) al-Kazim, peace be on him. When he arrived at it, he asked for permission to visit the Ima`m. He was given permission, and he said to him:
"I have understood why this tyrannical (i.e. Harun al-Rash´d) treated you in such a manner and what he ordered to be given to you. I tricked him for you, and I took from him three gifts amounting thirty thousand dinars, and a land producing ten thousand dinars a year. By Allah, master, I am in no need of any of that. I did not take it but for you; I bear witness that this productive land belongs to you; and I have brought you the money."
The Ima`m, peace be on him, thanked Makha`riq for that and said to him: "May Allah bless you concerning your property and reward you well. I will never take even a dirham of it or a thing of the land. I have accepted your gift and kindness, so depart on the right path and do not consult me concerning that. "
This narration gives an account of the following:
1. Harun al-Rash´d honored Ima`m Mu`sa` al-Ka`zim, peace be on him, whilst he had never honored anyone before him, for he (Harun) dominated most regions of the earth and his name spread in the east and the west.
2. He admitted that Imam al-Kazim, peace be on him, was the proof of Allah over His creatures, that he was the Ima`m of the community, leader of its temporal and spiritual authority, and that Harun was the leader of the community by force and through oppression, not through merit.
3. He gave an enormous amount of money to Makha`riq, the singer, whilst he deprived the children of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, of their legal rights.

Returning Fadak to the 'Alawides
Among the matters depended by those who believed that al-Ma'mu`n was a Sh´~'ite is returning to the 'Alawides Fadak, which the previous government confiscated in order to spread poverty and deprivation among them, and to impose an economic siege on them lest they should oppose those rulers.
As a result al-Ma'mu`n returned Fadak to them and raised the economic straits from them. Accordingly, Di'bil al-Khaza`'i, the poet of the ahl al-Bayt, praised him for this noble deed, which he offered to the 'Alawides, saying:
The face of the time has become smiling when al-Ma'mu`n returned Fadak to the Hashimites.
Many researches have regarded this step as a proof of that al-Ma'mu`n was a Sh´'ite.

His Praising Imam 'Ali, the Commander of the Faithful
Al-Ma'mun lauded Imam 'Ali, the Commander of the faithful, the pioneer of fairness and justice in Islam. He wrote to all regions that 'Ali b. Abu Talib, peace be on him, was the best of the creatures after Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. Al-Sawli has reported his poetry lines concerning the excellence of Imam 'Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. The following are some of them:
Repentance is not accepted from a repenter but through love for Ibn Abu` Ta`lib,
The brother of Allah's Messenger, successor of the rightly guided one; brother is superior to bosom friend and companion.
If they someday gather together regarding excellence, brother surpasses the desire of the desirous.
Advance the guide (al-hadi) in his excellence so that you will be safe from blamer and captious criticizer.
Another example of his poetry lines through which he refuted those who criticized him for his being close to the children of the Prophet is the following:
Many a seducer bites (the tips of his fingers) in rage against me when I bring near the children of the testamentary trustee.
So I have said: Have you not given knowledge, distinguished the misguided from the guided, come to know of my argumentation through the seven oft-repeated verses, intellectual concepts, and firm traditions?
Through which quality and meaning do you prefer unbelievers to 'Ali?
'Ali is the greatest and best of the thaqalayn (men and jinn) in right except the right of the Prophet.
The following lines are another example of his poetry which he composed regarding the ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them:
If the opponent turns aside (from the Sh´'ite), then I stand by the Sh´'ite.
I am among the family of the Prophet of guidance, the best Prophet from among the children of Gha`lib.
Love for them is an obligatory religious duty which we should perform just as we perform an obligatory pilgrimage.
This poetry clearly shows that he was a follower of the ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, and that he preferred them to others.
Al-Sawli has narrated the following poetry lines al-Ma'mu`n composed concerning Ima`m 'Ali, peace be on him:
Mother shows love for the testamentary trustee Abu al-Hasan, and that is with me among the wonders of this time.
The successor of the best of men, and the first to help Allah's Messenger secretly and openly.
Had it not been for him, the Ha`shimites would not have seized an authority, and they would in the course of time have perished and been despised.
So he has appointed the 'Abba`sids as governors and has not singled out other than them (for authority).
So 'Abd Allah made clear guidance in Basrah, and 'Ubayd Allah bestowed lavishly on Yemen.
And he divided the works of the caliphate among them, so he is still connected to this thankfulness and hostage to (it).
This poetry gives an account of that Ima`m 'Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, rendered a service to the 'Abba`sid family when he appointed 'Abd Allah b. al-'Abba`s as a governor over Basrah, and he was his minister and special adviser.
Similarly he appointed 'Ubay Allah b. al-'Abba`s as a ruler over Yemen; however the 'Abba`sid family renounced this favor and treated the children of the Ima`m with murder and severe punishment and committed toward them crimes which even the Umayyad family had not committed. In this book we have given many examples of their persecuting the 'Alawides.
It goes without saying that the 'Abba`sids did not regard them as the children of the Prophet and his trust among his family, on the contrary they killed them everywhere.
The following two poetry lines has been ascribed to al-Ma'mu`n: If you want the Muraji'i to die before the time of his death, then mention before him the name of 'Ali and call down blessing upon the Prophet and his Household. Ibrah´m b. al-Mahdi, better known as b. Shakkla, answered him, saying:
If the Sh´'ite maunders regarding an statement and you want him to reveal what is in himself, then call down blessing upon the Prophet and his two companions, his two helpers and his two neighbors by his grave.
Al-Sawli has mentioned that it was written on one of the columns of the mosque of Basrah: "May Allah have mercy on 'Ali; surely he was pious(taqiya)."
Hafs Abu` 'Amr al-Khatta`bi, who was one-eyed, would sit beside that column. He erased the writing, and one of the neighbors of the mosque wrote to al-Ma'mu`n and told him about al-Khatta`bi's erasing the writing, so he was displeased with him and ordered him to be brought before him. When al-Khatta`bi was brought before al-Ma'mu`n, he asked him:
"Why have you removed the name of the Commander of the faithful from the column?"
"What was on it?" asked al-Khatta`bi.
"'May Allah have mercy on 'Ali; surely he was pious (taqiya),' was on it." replied al-Ma'mu`n.
"It was written on it," retorted al-Khatta`bi, "'May Allah have mercy on 'Ali; surely he was a prophet (nabiya)'"
"You have told a lie," said al-Ma'mun, "rather the qaf was sounder than your sound eye. Had it not been for that I increase your hypocrisy before the general populace ('a`mma), I would punish you." Then he ordered him to be driven out.

His Disparaging Mu'awiya
Those who thought that al-Ma'mu`n was a Sh´~'ite indicated that he ordered Mu'a`wiya b. Hind to be cursed and disparaged all over Islamic world, for he ordered the caller to call: "There shall be no pardon for anyone guilty of praising Mu'a`wiya or preferring him to any companion of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family."
This cannot be as a proof of that al-Mu'mu`n was a Sh´~'ite, for Mu'a`wiya was discovered; his realty appeared; all circles have agreed on dispraising him; he was the mortal enemy of Islam; he was the leader of the events and committed grave sins.

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