The Aggression against Hazrat Fatimah Zahra (S.A.)
Another certain fact is that Abu Bakr’s men aggressed against Fatimah (s.a.) because she stood firmly against them. She tried her best to refute their plots and take the right back to its people. She had self immunity for she was the daughter of the messenger of Allah (S) and the principal of the women of the world. However, those men did pay no attention to all that and they insisted on carrying out their policy whatever the cost might be. They turned their backs to the truth.
In consequence of that flagrant aggression against the daughter of the messenger of Allah (S), she miscarried her child that the Prophet (S) had named al-Muhsin. Here, we quote some historic texts without commenting on them:
Ash-Shahristani narrated from Ibrahim bin Sayyar that Umar beat Fatimah until she aborted her fetus. He was shouting, ‘Set fire to her house with whomever in it!’33
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said in the biography of Ahmed bin Muhammad bin as-Sariy bin Yahya bin Darim Abu Bakr al-Kufi, ‘Muhammad bin Ahmed al-Kufi was reliable most of his life. Once I visited him while there was a man narrating to him: ‘Umar kicked Fatimah until she aborted (her fetus) Muhsin.’34
He said, ‘They pressed the principal of women against the door until she miscarried Muhsin.’35
He mentioned a tradition narrated from Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Hammad al-Kufi…that he said, ‘One day, I visited him while there was some man narrating to him that Umar kicked Fatimah until she miscarried Muhsin.’36
Ibn Qutayba said, ‘Muhsin was aborted after the pressure of Qunfudh al-Adawi.’37
He said that Umar beat Fatimah’s abdomen on the day of the homage until she miscarried al-Muhsin.38
He said, ‘The cause of her (Fatimah) death was that Qunfudh, the mawla of the man (Abu Bakr), thrust her with the iron part of the sheath of his sword by his (Umar) order and she miscarried Muhsin, and because of that she became badly ill.’39
He mentioned the protest of Imam al-Hasan (a.s.) against a group of the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) among whom there was al-Mugheera bin Shu’ba to whom Imam al-Hasan (a.s.) said, ‘As for you O Mugheera, you are an enemy to Allah, a deserter to His Book, and unbelieving in His prophet. You are an adulterer and you must be stoned. It is you who hit Fatimah the daughter of the messenger of Allah (S) and made her bleed and she miscarried what there was in her abdomen out of your belittling the messenger of Allah, opposing his orders, and violating his honor. The messenger of Allah (S) had said to her, ‘O Fatimah, you are the principal of the women of the Paradise.” 40
Sheikh al-Majlisi quoted from Irshad al-Qulub that Fatimah (s.a.) said, ‘Umar took the whip from Qunfudh’s hand and stroke with it my upper arm and the whip wound on my arm and it was like a ring. Then he kicked the door with his foot against me and I was pregnant. I fell on my face to the ground. He hit me with his hand and my earring scattered. And then, I miscarried Muhsin that was killed with no guilt.’41
These were some of the sources that have mentioned the event of the aggression against Fatimah (s.a.). All the Shia believe in this fact as true, and there are many traditions transmitted from the Infallible Imams (a.s.) about this event. However, these events show that those people were ready to commit anything for the sake of rule and authority.
Abrogating the Khums
One of the oppressive procedures that Abu Bakr took against the Prophet’s progeny was that he abrogated the khums42 which had been determined by Allah for the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) as mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, “And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, if you believe in Allah.” 8:41
Muslims have agreed on that the Prophet (S) took a share from the khums for himself and gave another share to his relatives. He kept on doing so until he left to the better world. When Abu Bakr assumed the caliphate, he abrogated the Prophet’s share and the share of his relatives. He prevented the Hashemites from khums and treated them like others.43
Fatimah (s.a.) sent to Abu Bakr asking him to pay her what had remained from the khums of Khaybar, but he refused to pay her anything.44
Poverty attacked the house of the Hashemites after they had been prevented from their rights that Allah had determined for them. The reason behind that was to make Imam Ali (a.s.) weak and unable to stand against Abu Bakr. This was a kind of blockade that nowadays some countries impose on their opponents.
Confiscation of Fadak
And from the severe procedures that Abu Bakr followed against Fatimah (s.a.) was his confiscating of Fadak to the public treasury.
Fadak was a village in Hijaz about two or three days (of travel) from Medina.45 It belonged to the Jews and was near to Khaybar.46
As for its boundaries to the Infallible Imams, Fadak comprehended all the regions of the Muslim world. Historians have mentioned that once Harun ar-Rasheed (the Abbasid caliph) said to Imam Musa bin Ja’far al-Kadhim (a.s.), ‘I like to give Fadak back to you.’
Imam Musa al-Kadhim (a.s.) said, ‘I do not take it except with all its limits.’
The caliph said, ‘What are its limits?’
The Imam said, ‘If I define it, you may not give it back.’
The caliph said, ‘I adjure you by your grandfather to do.’
The Imam said, ‘Its first limit is Aden.’ The caliph changed color.
The Imam added, ‘The second limit is Samarqand.’ The caliph was astonished.
The Imam added, ‘The third limit is Africa, and the fourth is after the islands and Armenia.’
Harun ar-Rasheed lost his mind and he said, ‘He did not leave anything for us.’47
The Muslim state that had covered most of the world was for the imams of the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) but it was taken from them by force and the Umayyad and the Abbasid kings overcame it with no right.
Fadak was not conquered by the Muslim armies, but it was from that which Allah had granted to His prophet by peacemaking in the seventh year of hijra; therefore, it was completely the Prophet’s property.
When the Muslims conquered the forts of Khaybar, Allah threw fear and terror into the Jews’ hearts and they hurried to make peace with the messenger of Allah on condition that they would give him the half of their lands. Thus Fadak became the Prophet’s property.
When Fadak was in the Prophet’s possession, this verse was revealed to him, “And give to the near of kin his due.” 17:26
Many recurrent, true traditions were transmitted confirming that the Prophet (S) had sent for Fatimah (s.a.) and donated her with Fadak and al-Awali saying to her, ‘This is a share that Allah has determined for you and for your progeny.’48
Fatimah (s.a.) acted in Fadak as an owner to her property. The Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) had no source of income except Fadak as Ameerul Mo'minin said, ‘Only Fadak was in our hands from all what the sky shaded.’ After the Prophet’s death, Abu Bakr confiscated Fadak to the public treasury. The reason behind that was to weaken Imam Ali (a.s.) economically and paralyze the oppositionist movement against Abu Bakr.
Ibn Abil Hadeed says, ‘One day, I asked Ali bin al-Fariqi, the teacher of the western school in Baghdad: Was Fatimah true?
He said: Yes.
I said: Then why did he (Abu Bakr) not give her Fadak whereas she was true near to him?
He smiled and said some pleasant words: If he gave her Fadak today just for her claim, she would come to him tomorrow claiming the caliphate for her husband and would move him from his place and he could not apologize or agree about anything because he would confirm that she was true in whatever she claimed without a need for evidences or witnesses”.49
Anyhow, the governments that followed Abu Bakr and Umar did with Fadak due to their fancies. Uthman bin Affan donated Fadak to Marwan bin al-Hakam and that was one of the reasons of the revolt against Uthman as historians say.50 After Marwan’s death, his descendants inherited it one from the other until Umar bin Abdul Aziz assumed the rule and he took it from them and returned it as charity.51
Fatimah Asks for Fadak
After Abu Bakr had confiscated Fadak, Fatimah (s.a.) asked him to give it back to her. Historians say that Abu Bakr asked Fatimah (s.a.) to bring him witnesses that the Prophet (S) had donated Fadak to her and she did. The witnesses were Imam Ali (a.s.) and Umm Aymen about whom the Prophet (S) said she was from the people of the Paradise. Abu Bakr wrote a book to give Fadak back to Fatimah (s.a.), but Umar took the book, spat on it and tore it into pieces.52
It was mentioned that Abu Bakr regarded neither the witness of Imam Ali (a.s.) nor Umm Aymen’s. He said: ‘Ali pulls the fire toward his loaf, and Umm Aymen is a non-Arab woman that she does not speak good Arabic.’
Anyhow, the Shia theologians commented on this event with many points which we mention some of here:
1. Abu Bakr asked Fatimah (s.a.) to prove that the Prophet had donated Fadak to her though Fadak was in her possession, while the one who should have a proof was the claimer (Abu Bakr), and as he had no proof he had to take an oath on his claim according to the famous rule “evidence is required from a claimer and oath from a denier”.
2. Abu Bakr ignored the position of the daughter of the messenger of Allah who was the principal of the women of the nation and the worlds and that Allah would be pleased for her pleasure and displeased for her displeasure as the Prophet (S) often said. She was one of those whom Allah had imposed the love to them on the nation when saying, “Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives.” 42:23
And she was one of those whom Allah had purified and kept uncleanliness away from them when saying, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanliness from you, O people of the House, and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.” 33:33
And she was one of those whom the Prophet (S) disputed by them with the Christians of Najran where Allah had said, “But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and ourselves and yourselves, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.” 3:61
And she was from the righteous whom Allah had said about, “Surely the righteous shall drink of a cup the admixture of which is camphor.” 76:5
All that required Abu Bakr to definitely believe Fatimah’s claim.
However, Abu Bakr seized Fadak and joined it to the properties of the state which made Fatimah (s.a.) lose the only source of living for her and her children. We are Allah’s and to Him we shall return!
Imam Ali (a.s.) asked the (Prophet’s) companions to support him and to take his right back to him. Historians say that Imam Ali (a.s.) took Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husayn (peace be on them) on a mount and went to the companions asking them for help. Fatimah (s.a.) asked the companions to support her husband, but they apologized and said, ‘We have already paid homage to Abu Bakr, and if your cousin (Imam Ali) came to us before him, we would not pay homage to other than him.’53
How flimsy justification it was! They were certainly responsible for that because Imam Ali (a.s.) was busy preparing the Prophet (S) for burial. He could not leave the Prophet (S) laid on the bed of death and go to people who seized the opportunity to appropriate the rule.
33. Al-Milal wen-Nihal, vol. 1 p. 57.
34. Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 1 p. 268.
35. Ithbat al-Wasiyya, p. 143.
36. Mizan al-I’tidal, vol. 1 p. 139.
37. Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 3 p. 133.
38. Al-Wafi bil-Wafiyyaat, vol. 5 p. 347.
39. Dala’il al-Imama, p. 134, and quoted in Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43 p. 170.
40. Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1 p. 401.
41. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 30 p. 348-34-9.
42. Khums is one fifth of one’s gains and income that must be given to the imam or his deputy.
43. Tafsir al-Kashshaf, vol. 2 p. 221 in interpreting the verse of khums.
44. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 3 p. 36, Sahih Muslim, vol. 2 p. 72.
45. Mu’jam al-Buldan, vol. 4 p.238.
46. Majma’ al-Bahrain, vol. 5 p. 283.
47. Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 4 p. 320.
48. Shawahid at-Tanzil, vol. 1 p. 441, ad-Durr al-Manthur, vol. 2 p. 151, Kanzol Ummal, vol. 2 p. 158, Rooh al-Ma’ani, vol. 5 p.58.
49. Sharh Nahjol Balagha by Ibn Abil Hadeed, vol. 1 p. 198.
50. Al-Iqd al-Fareed, vol. 4 p. 283.
51. Tareekh Abul Fida’, vol. 1 p. 168.
52. Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1 p. 122, as-Seera al-Halabiyya, vol. 3 p. 362.
53. Al-Imama wes-Siyasa, vol. 1 p. 16.