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Obligatory prayers

By: Ayatullah Fadhil Milani

This includes: Ablution, ablution with water - wudhu and ghusl, and ablution when water is not available - tayammum.

The Arabic word used in ahadith references - wudhu - cleanliness, en compasses mental as well as physical cleansing. When used as a technical term, it refers to 'preparation for worship'. This, when done in a quiet prayerful manner, is regarded as being a part of the act of worship.

Requirements of wudhu
The following presumes that hands, face, head and feet are physically clean and free from impurity.
Specific intention to achieve closeness with Allah Almighty. Thus, if the actions of wudhu are done for any reason other than this, they are not considered suitable preparation for an act of worship.
To rinse hands and the face, pour a little water into the cupped hands and, with the right-hand palm drawn in a downward movement, clean the face from the hairline to the extremity of the beard. The area required to be cleansed is the distance between the end of the extended thumb and end of the extended middle finger. To ensure that the complete area is covered, it is recommended to overlap on each side. Water should be used sparingly as the requirement is to cleanse - not to drench. Regardless of the number of hand movements that are needed to satisfy this requirement, all are considered to be part of one complete action.
While it is obligatory to 'cleanse' the face and hands once, and recommended to do that twice - it is considered inappropriate to do it three or more times, for Imam Sadiq (a.s.) prohibited this being done.24
The 'cleansing' that follows immediately after an intention to make wudhu is considered the 'first'.
If one intends to perform wudhu subsequent to having a bath, shower or other wash, it is recommended that such 'cleansing' is done only once after the intention to make wudhu.
After 'cleansing' the face, 'cleanse' the right arm and hand from elbow to fingertip, and then the left arm and hand. To ensure that the elbows are adequately cleansed, it is recommended to start this process a little way above the elbows.
With moistened right palm, wipe the hair from the centre of the head to the hairline, and the upper part of each foot starting at the toes and ending at the ankle.
While it is required to moisten any scalp visible through the hair, there is no requirement to moisten any that is not. It is not acceptable, for those with very long hair, to moisten only the tips of their hair - the requirement is to wipe the head.

To have a shower - ghusl - sometimes also called 'the greater ablution', is obligatory prior to prayer and other acts of worship in the following circumstances:

Sexual intercourse and the emission of semen -janabah
After semen is discharged, regardless of whether this occurs during sleep or wakefulness, or when penetration occurs during sexual intercourse, if ejaculation occurs or not, a shower becomes necessary to prepare one for any act of worship.

Menstruation - Hayd
After the menstrual flow has stopped, a shower becomes necessary to prepare a woman for any act of worship.

Non-menstrual bleeding - istihadah
There are three categories of such occurrence:

1. Slight
Requirement: To cleanse - change sanitary towel and make wudu prior to offering each of the five salat.

2. Heavy
Requirement: To perform ghusl before offering Fajr salat. Cleanse - change sanitary towel and make wudu prior to offering Duhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha salat.

3. Very heavy
Requirement: To perform ghusl before Fajr, before Duhr and before Maghrib salat. Cleanse
- change sanitary towel and make wudu prior to offering Asr and Isha' salat.

Childbirth - nifas
After any bleeding occurs while giving birth - nifas - which may be for a few minutes or continue for some ten days, a shower becomes necessary to prepare the mother for any act of worship.

Death - mawt
Before burial, the bodies of Muslims are washed three times: once with water in which the leaves of the 'Lote tree' - sidr - have been soaked, once with water to which camphor has been added,and once with plain water.25

Tayammum is performed in place of wudhu or bathing the whole body - ghusl
- in the following six circumstances:
1. When it is not possible to obtain a sufficient quantity of water to perform wudhu or ghusl.
People are required to resolutely seek water for wudhu and ghusl wherever they may happen to be. In populated areas, this means tayammum may only be performed when all possibility of finding water has been exhausted. In desert areas, people are required to search for water - on their route and in the surrounding area. In areas of rough terrain or dense forests - where movement may be severely hindered - they should, if conditions permit, search north, south, east and west to a distance of 400 steps - if not, to a distance of at least 200 steps. However, they need not look for water in directions in which they are certain no water is to be found.
If there is sufficient time before the next prayer is due - and some certitude that water is to be found a relatively short distance away - they should, if it is not going to be exceedingly difficult, set out to obtain it. However, there is no necessity to set forth on a slim possibility that water may be found. One person may be delegated to bring water for others.
If a person concludes that there is insufficient time to search for water and prays after performing tayammum - but later discovers that they would have had ample time - they should repeat the prayer in question.
2. If - due to age, infirmity, danger, extreme difficulty, or lack of receptacle - a person is not able to obtain water, they should perform tayammum.
3. People should perform tayammum if they have reason to fear that water may endanger their life, or prolong, complicate or aggravate an ophthalmological or other medical condition. However, if warm water for wudhu and ghusl circumvents such danger, it should be used.
4. Those who fear subsequent shortage of drinking water if supplies of water are used for wudhu and ghusl - should perform tayammum. This is specifically applicable if consequential shortages are likely to result in humans and animals - for whom one is responsible - suffering intolerable hardship, dehydration or death.
5. If the only water or receptacle available are .unsuitable - having been appropriated, for example - tayammum should be performed instead of wudhu and ghusl.
6. As it is not appropriate to miss a prayer during its prescribed time - if the performance of wudhu or ghusl would cause this to occur - tayammum has to be performed.

The substances that may be used for tayammum
Tayammum is performed on clean soil, sand, dried clay or, if necessary, stone.

Requirements of tayammum
The primary requirement is the specific intention to perform tayammum - that is, to purify oneself mentally as well as physically in this manner.
For the palms and fingers of both hands to simultaneously touch or pat the substance being used.
With the heel of both hands to wipe the entire forehead - from the hair line to the bridge of the nose.
Then - in one action - to rub the palm of the left hand over the back - from wrist to fingertip - and to do that also with the palm of the right hand over the back of the left hand.

Direction of the Kabah - qiblah
Qiblah is the Arabic word that denotes the direction of the Kabah - the sacred cube-shaped building in Makkah - towards which all Muslims face when they pray. This action is an exemplification of the Islamic principle, that every human action should be focused upon the single objective of seeking the pleasure of our Almighty Creator. Indeed, facing the direction of the qiblah is required for other actions such as circumambulation of the Kabah, burial, the slaughter of beasts and prayers of supplication - duas. It is also highly recommended that those who recite or read the Quran face in the direction of the qiblah.
While standing or sitting in prayer, the frontal aspect of the body - from head to toe - is aligned to face qiblah, the face not being turned away from it. This applies equally to those not able to stand or sit, who should lie, preferably on their right side, but if that too is not possible, on their left side. If neither is possible for them, they should be placed on their back with the soles of their feet aligned to face qiblah.
If a person is required to offer prayer while aboard an aircraft, train or ship they may employ a compass to establish the direction of the qiblah. If they do not have a compass available, it is appropriate for them to pray in the approximate direction of the qiblah. For example, in North America to face NE, in the United Kingdom to face SE, in Paris, and other European cities on the same latitude, to face E.
The direction of qiblah may be determined by compass, the informed guidance of others, or indicatory niches - miharbs - of local mosques. However, when no means by which to determine qiblah is available, prayer may be offered facing any direction. In spite of this, if time permits, it is recommended that such prayers be offered four times - with the alignment of the body being changed 90 to the right between each prayer.
If a person believes that the qiblah is in one of two directions, they should offer the prayer twice, facing first in the one, and then in the other direction.

Timing for obligatory daily prayer
Within each period of 24 hours it is incumbent on every Muslim to offer five prayers - Salat - in their prescribed sequence. Each Salat comprises an intention - niyyat - and a specific number of cycles of standing upright, bowing with deference and prostration - rakaah (pl. rakaat). It is insufficient simply to go through the motions of prayer.
Prayer must inform and motivate all aspects of the believer's existence. It is highly recommended that each prayer be offered at the commencement of the 'preferred time specified in the ahadith' - fadhilat al-waqt.
The time for each prayer is outlined below:
Duhr - four rakaat - at midday.
Asr - four rakaat - in the late afternoon.
Maghrib - three rakaat - at dusk, as the sky darkens before nightfall.
Isha' - four rakaat - after dusk when full darkness has set.
Fajr - two rakaat - at 'true' dawn - Fajr al-Sadiq.
For example, if we assume that on a particular day, the time in London for Dhurr is 12.04 and that sunset is at 4.02: The first ten minutes after 12.04 are designated as being the specified time in which to offer Dhurr - in other words, those ten minutes are exclusively reserved for Dhurr prayers, and no other prayer may be offered during that time.
The last ten minutes prior to 4.02 are designated as being the specified time in which to offer Asr - in other words, those ten minutes are exclusively reserved for Asr prayer, and no other prayer may be offered during that time.
However, both Dhurr and Asr may also be offered at any time between those two specified periods.
In many ahadith to pray as early as possible is highly recommended. The Prophet (S) once described the reward for a prayer offered at the commencement of each Salat time as equivalent to the size of a large camel whilst the reward for prayer offered towards the end of that prayer's time is equivalent to the size of a tiny bird.
Thus, there is a preferred time for each salat to be offered referred to as fadhilah al-waqt explained below:
1. The fadhilah al-waqt for the Dhurr prayer is established in the following manner: A rod placed vertically on level ground casts its shadow towards the West as the sun rises. The length of the shadow cast reduces in size as the sun approaches noon and, in places where it is directly overhead, disappears completely. (In Makkah, for example, this occurs on 28th May and 14th July.) The time to start Dhurr is defined as the moment that the sun passes its highest point and begins to cast its shadow towards the East. The time in which to offer - fadhilah al-waqt - the Dhurr prayer continues until the shadow of the rod reaches four-sevenths of the length of the rod, i.e. just over half its length.
2. The fadhilah al-waqt for the Asr prayer starts when the shadow of the rod reaches two-sevenths of the rod's length, and continues till it is equivalent to six-sevenths of the rod's length.
3. The fadhilah al-waqt for the Maghrib prayer starts when the redness of sunset in the Eastern horizon is at its peak. That is, when the redness of the setting sun has shrunk to cover only the western half of the sky. This fadhilah continues until the redness has disappeared completely from the western sky.
4. The fadhilah al-waqt for the Isha' prayer begins immediately after this, and continues for the first third of the night.
5. The fadhilah al-waqt for the Fajr prayer is 'true' dawn - Fajr al-Sadiq. This appears first as a horizontal white thread on the horizon, and then broadens into a 'river of light' of ever increasing clarity and brilliance.26 True dawn is not to be confused with 'first' or 'false' dawn - Fajr al-Kathib - that appears as a column of light that increases and diminishes until it finally withers away completely. Fajr al-Sadiq is technically defined as the instant in the morning when the upper edge of the sun's disc is 18 degrees below the horizon. At certain times of the year, in cities located on 48 degrees of latitude or above, the sun's disc does not descend 18 degrees below the horizon, and for those times, Fajr al-Sadiq occurs when the upper edge of the sun's disc is 12 degrees below the horizon. This applies in London and similarly located cities between 22 May and 23 July each year.
The details of all these circumstances are explained by Ayatollah Sayyid Fadhel Milani in his Frequently Asked Questions on Islam, pages 57-59 (Islam in English Press, London 2001).
A prayer not offered until after the specified time of its succeeding prayer is considered to be an unfulfilled duty and squandered opportunity. In such circumstance a 'surrogatory prayer' - qada - must be offered. In other words, if a person has time to offer only one prayer of four rakaat before the specified time for Asr ends, they must offer their Asr prayer, and immediately thereafter their qada prayer for Duhr.
In the opinion of all Islamic scholars, a deliberate breach in the sequence in which prayers must be offered renders such prayers invalid.
If, having made the intention - niyyat - and started the Asr prayer, one realizes that duhr has mistakenly been missed, one should instantly transfer one's intention from offering Asr to offering Duhr, and continue the prayer as Duhr. The Asr prayer must be offered afterwards.

Rulings related to deficiencies during prayer -Salat
Deliberate major or minor omissions, additions or changes to the obligatory acts of Salat render such salat invalid.
If one comes to realize, during or after salat, that one's wudhu or ghusl is no longer valid, one must abandon that prayer until wudhu or ghusl is again valid. If that prayer's fadilat al-waqt has passed, the prayer should still be offered unless the specified time for the next prayer has come. If that is the case, the surrogatory prayer - qada - must be offered.
If it is realized, during or after ruku, that a prostration - sujud - of the preceding rakaat has been omitted, then that salat is invalid and must be offered correctly. If this is realized prior to ruku, sujud should immediately be made, followed by all the obligatory actions of salat, from that stage of the prayer onwards. When an error has been corrected during salat it is recommended that two additional sujuds be made immediately after that prayer - Sujud al-sahw - to correct that oversight.
If it is realized before the salutation that a sujud of the final rakaah has been omitted, this should be then made and tashahud repeated before the salutation.
If, before the salam at the end of the prayer, it is realized that something has been omitted, it should be performed prior to the salam.

Conditions to be fulfilled during prayer
Six conditions apply to where prayer may be offered
1. To use a place for prayer it must either be owned, rented, or have the permission of the owner or leaseholder to be used for that purpose. Clearly, mosques and prayer facilities in public places such as universities, hospitals and airports have been provided for people to pray in. One may not knowingly use any thing or place without the legal right to do so.
2. Prayer must be offered in surroundings where it will not be disrupted.
3. There must be sufficient space in which to stand upright, bow and prostrate comfortably.
4. The place must be free of impurities and dry - so that body and clothes are not rendered impure.
5. The point where women place their forehead during prostration should be behind the men. In restricted spaces this may be as far forward as a point just behind the line of the men's knees during prostration.
6. During prostration, the point where the forehead is placed should not be more than the breadth of four fingers above that of the hands, knees and toes.
Islam places great emphasis on salat being offered in mosques. Considered foremost of these are, in the following order:
The Holy Mosque in Makkah
The Holy Mosque in Madinah
The Holy Mosque in Kufa
The Holy Mosque in Jerusalem - Masjid al-Aqsa
These four mosques are followed in preference by the central jami - mosque of the city, the local mosque and the street market or borough mosque.

Six conditions apply to clothes that are wom during salat
1. They should not be contaminated by anything that is 'impure in itself - Najis al-'Ayn.
2. They must be permissible for use during prayer, i.e. not stolen or unlawfully obtained.
3. They must not be made of any material from creatures that have not been slaughtered in accordance with Islamic law. Hence leather belts and jackets that may have been made from such materials are removed prior to prayer.
4. They must not be made of material from creatures whose flesh is unlawful to consume, such as carnivores or reptiles.
5. For males - they must not be made of material that includes any silk.
6. For males - they must not be embroidered with gold thread.

Covering of private parts - awrah
While male pudenda must always remain concealed, this is especially true for salat. It is strongly recommended also to cover the body between navel and knee.
With the exception of faces and hands, women's bodies and limbs are required to be covered during salat. This clearly requires that clothes should not be, or become, 'see through' in varying lighting conditions.

Acts that invalidate prayer
Prayer is invalidated in twelve circumstances:
1. When realization dawns that an essential requirement of prayer has not been satisfied.
2. When, by accident or intention, wudhu is invalidated.
3. If, while standing upright, palms are deliberately removed from the thighs in order to fold the arms. Neither the Prophet(S) nor the Muslims at the time of the first Caliph folded their arms during salat. This innovation of the second Caliph was prohibited by Imam Sadiq (a.s.) when he declared it to be a Magian but not Muslim practice.
4. When Amin' is uttered after Surat al-Fatiha. The Prophet (S) taught Muslims how to pray and ordered them to 'copy' him. He never uttered Amin after Surat al-Fatiha and the only narration that maintains that he did so is not regarded as authentic.
5. When a person voluntarily turns away from the qiblah.
6. While in prayer it is not legitimate to articulate words or phrases not included in the Quran or used for dhikr. If, however, someone greets those in prayer with the words Salamun Alaikum - a greeting that demands an obligatory response - it must be done using the phrase Salamun Alaikum - words included in the Quran in a variety of places.27,
7. When one voluntarily laughs aloud. However, a smile or a small chuckle do not invalidate prayer.
8. The value of any prayer is directly linked to the quality of communication with the Creator. While tears or sobs of fear engendered by Allah's awesome Omnipotence and Omnipresence do not detract attention from Him, tears shed over the affairs of this world clearly indicate that thoughts and actions are no longer focused on Him - a situation that renders such prayer meaningless.
9. When untoward actions alter the prescribed form of the prayer. The form of prayer is clearly altered if a coat is removed, shirtsleeves rolled up or other such action not associated with prayer. However, small gestures which contribute to reducing a disturbance and promote concentration, for example one to silence a child or indicate that someone who is not praying should answer a knock at the door, are acceptable.
10. When one eats or drinks anything - other than during a recommended salat before Fajr - on a day that intention has been made to fast, and the time for fasting is due to commence prior to the prayer ending. In this specific circumstance providing water is within reach and that all acts that invalidate prayer are avoided - water may be drunk.
11. When continuing doubts are entertained regarding the number of rakaat that have been offered during any prayer - because such doubt evidences the absence of concentration.
Doubts regarding the number of rakaat for Fajr and Maghrib prayers invalidate salat. However, doubts over the number of rakaat offered during Duhr, Asr, and Isha' are effaced by the offering of Salat al-Ihtyat - precautionary prayer - after the prayer has been completed.
12. If deliberate omissions/additions are made to any element of prayer.

Prayer itself
Adhan and iqamah
The history of the adhan
Although the adhan was amongst the very first practices of the Muslim community there are contradictory reports in the ahadith over how this custom came into being.
Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi and Nissa'i narrate on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Umar that when Muslims in Madinah were gathering for salat they had no means to announce to others that the prayer was about to commence. Some suggested bells, as used in Christian churches, others a ram or ibex horn - Shofar - as used by the Jews. But Umar suggested that one member of the congregation call the others to prayer. At this point, the Prophet (S) said, O Bilal, go and call them to prayer.28
Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud narrate on the authority that Abdullah ibn Zayd told them: I dreamed about a man with a bell just as the Prophet (S) was ordering a bell be used to call people to prayer. I asked him, "Will you sell me your bell?" He asked why I wanted it and I replied, "To call people to prayer". He then asked if I would like him to teach me a better way to do this. To my positive response he taught me the Adhan and Iqamah. In the morning I told the Prophet about my dream and he, delighted by it, said that it constituted clear guidance on what to do, and promptly ordered Bilal to undertake that task'. When Umar heard this story he too came to the Prophet (S) and said, 'By He who sent the truth with you, I had precisely the same dream as Abdullah ibn Zayd.' The Prophet (S) then praised Allah for such bountiful blessings.29
The Imamiyah and Zaydiyah accept that the first adhan to be called was during the 'Night Journey' where the Prophet (S) learned its detail.
Al-Halabi reports that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah told him that he was incensed by the nonsense spoken of the adhan and iqamah being inspired by anyone's dream. It is, he said, 'sheer fantasy that these could be based upon images, of real or imaginary characters, places or events, that happen to pass through the mind of a sleeping person. The adhan was taught to the Prophet during the Night Journey.'30
Numerous authentic ahadith in the collections of Al-Kafi, Bihar al-Anwar and Wasa'il al-Shiah consistently report that the Prophet (S) learned the adhan and iqamah from Jibra'il during the Night Journey.
Prayer comprises:

Intention - Niyyat
The foremost intention and sole motive must be to fulfill obediently a specific injunction of The Creator, and to remain aware of this throughout the prayer. There is no need to enunciate the intention but if the mind drifts and concentration is lost, the prayer is rendered meaningless.

Announcing that prayer has commenced
The words 'Allahu Akbar' - Takbirat al-Iharam - must be clearly and accurately pronounced in order to announce that prayer has commenced. This specific requirement must be fulfilled while steadily standing upright. Those who are physically unable to articulate these words must try to fulfill the requirement as best they can.
It is recommended when enunciating the words 'Allahu Akbar' - at the commencement of prayer and also when they occur during the prayer - to signify surrender to the will of Allah Almighty by raising both hands parallel to the ears, with palms facing the qiblah.
The three main postures of Salat are: Standing upright, Bowing in deference and Prostration in humility. In profound theological discussion each is considered to reflect a different aspect of Islamic Belief in the Oneness of Allah - There is no Divinity other than Allah. Standing reflects Unity of Actions, Bowing Unity of Attributes and Prostration Unity of Essence.

Standing upright - Qiyam
When Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (a.s.) asked his father "Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.) why he turned pale while standing upright in salat, he replied, 'By Allah, it is because I am conscious of whom I stand before'31. This Hadith reveals the awesome significance of qiyam in submission to the Might and Majesty of Allah. It is only achieved when the things of this world are completely overshadowed by consciousness of Allah. While thus aware and while still in this position to recite Quranic ayat before going into ruku.

Those who are elderly or infirm are exempt from standing and may fulfill this aspect of the prayer while seated. However, if they are able to stand with the aid of a stick or chair they should do so.

Quranic recitation
This comprises the opening surah plus another short surah of the Quran - Qiraah. The first and second rakaah of every prayer must commence with the recitation of Quran 1:1-7 (Surat al-Fatihah also known as Surat al- Hamd) and be followed by the recitation of any other complete surah.32 A few of these are listed.
Al- Fatihah - The Opener - Quran 1

ٰ {1}

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds;
ٰ {3}

Most Gracious, Most Merciful;

Master of the Day of Judgment.

Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.

Show us the straight way,

The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.
Al-Tawhid - Monotheism - Also Called Al-Ikhlas - Sincerity - Quran 112

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the most Merciful

Say: He is Allah, the One and Only;

Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;

He begetteth not, nor is He begotten;

And there is none like unto Him.

Bowing in deference - Ruku
Recitation - qirat - is followed by the intention to bow in deference, i.e. bend directly forwards from the waist, to the extent that fingertips rest upon the knees. When the body is steady in that position, to pronounce three times in Arabic, I glorify Allah - Subhana Allah. If one prefers, this may be extended to, I glorify my Lord, who is Supremely Glorious and I praise Him - Subhana Rabbi al-Azim wa bi hamdih.
Ruku should convey absolute faith and submission to the Lord without regard for how He might treat you.
After completing the above one stands upright and enunciates, Allah hears those who praise Him Sami Allahu Limon Hamidah. When steady in that position, intention is made to prostrate oneself in humility and this is immediately thereafter done.
(Those for whom it is not possible to bend directly forwards from the waist, should indicate their intention with their head. They may find it easier to pray while sitting on a chair.)

Prostration - Sujud
Two prostrations - sajdah - follow ruku in every salat.33
The intention should be to express utter humility with forehead, palms, knees and big toes touching the earth. When stable in that position to enunciate three times, I glorify Allah - Subhana Allah. If one prefers, this may be extended to, I glorify my Lord the Most High and praise Him - Subhana Rabbi al-Ala wa bi Hamdih.
This is done because, when Glorify your Lord who is Supremely Glorious was revealed in Quran 56:74, the Prophet said, include this in dhikr for ruku' and when Glorify your Lord who is Most High was revealed in Quran 87:1 the Prophet(S) said, include this in the dhikr for sujud.'
After the first sajdah one sits upon the legs with feet crossed and, when stable in this position, enunciates Allahu Akbar before going into the prostration of the second sajdah.
After the second sajdah one stands up for the qiyam of a second and identical rakaah.

Offering (the invocation) - qunut
It is recommended that qunut be recited while standing upright - qiyam - just before the ruku of the second rakaah of every salah. To do this, open hands are held before the face, fingers together, palms uppermost, and with eyes focused on them the dhikr of qunut is enunciated (except for congregational prayers, in which this is done by the Imam). Qunut may consist of any invocation such as,


'Rabbana iitina fid dunya Hasanah, wafil Akherati Hasanah, wa Qina athab an Naar'
'O Lord, grant us all that is good in this world and the world to come, and save us from chastisement by fire' (Quran 2:201).34

Bearing witness - tashahud
In the second rakaah of every salah as well as in the last rakaah of every salah
- while sitting on the left thigh with the upper part of the right foot rested on the sole of the left foot and with hands on thighs - one must enunciate:

Phonetic transliteration
Al-hamdu li-Llah, ashadu an la ilaha il-alliih wahdahu la sharika lah Wa ashadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa Rasuluh
Alliihuma salli ala Muhammadin wa ali Muhammad,
Wa taqabbal shafa atahu warfa darajatah

All praise is for Allah and I testify that there is no Divinity other than Allah, the One who is without partner,
And I testify that Muhammad(S) is His Servant and Messenger, O Allah, send Your blessing to Muhammad (S) and his progeny, Accept his intercession, and elevate his rank.

Ending the prayer -Salam
Once the affirmation - tashahud - is completed in the final rakaah of a prayer, the closing act is to enunciate:

Phonetic transliteration
Assalamu alaykaayyuhan Nabi wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh Assalamu alayna wa ala ibadillahi Salihin.
Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

O Prophet, Allah's peace, blessings and grace be upon you, Also Allah's peace be on us and upon all pious servants of Allah. Allah's peace and blessings be on you all.

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