Shaheed Awwal,the Great Mujaddid
Ulama are classified in 3 Categories based on period:-
1)Ulama e Muttaqaddemeen (From the era of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) upto Mohaqaqe Hilli (Maternal Uncle of Allama Hilli)
2)Ulama e Mutakhereen (From Allama Hilli to Shaikh Murtaza Ansari )
3)Ulama e Mutakherul Mutakheren (Shaikh Ansari upto present times)
Shaikh Abbas Qummi also has listed some Ulamas as “ Mujaddideen” (revitalisers ),one for each century.
There were 5 Centres of Knowledge
1)Madinah (Holy Prophet upto 6th Imam)
2)Kufa (6th Imam to 8th Imam
3)Qom (8th Imam )
4)Baghdad (Shaikh Mufeed upto attack by Halku Khan on Baghdad
Shaeheed Awal got this title since he was the first Shaheed from the second category of Ulama
Name : Shamsuddeen Mohammed
Title (Kunniyat): Abu Abdullah
Laqab :Shaheed Awal , Al Amili Al Jizzini
Fathers Name Jamaludeen Makki;
Grandfather :Mohamed ibne Ali al Amali , both Alims
Practically every member of his family was a faqih, including women
Wife: Umm Ali ,also a Mujtahida
Children : 3 sons all Mujtahids Abu Talib Mohammed , Abul Qasim Ali Abu Mansoor Hassan , 2 daughters also Mujtahidas (Fatima –Sibtul Mashaaeq)
Year of Birth 734 AH in Jizzeen at Jabal e A
amil in S Lebanon (20% of Mujtahids hail from here)
Year of martyrdom 786 AH in Damascus at Age of 52
Burial Place Not available since Martyred & Burnt.
One of his teachers was Fakhrul Muhaqqiqeen (682-771AH-Son of Allamah Hilli).
He studied at Hilla which was a center for Islamic study. In order to stay awake at night for studying , he used to keep a heated copper plate & place it on his head.
He became Mujathid at an early age of 35 years.
His Students; Over 1000 Mujtahids obtained their permission for ijtihad from him, which is unique
Travels/ Other Matters
He was the Eight century’s Mujaddid .He revitalized Islam in this century.
Apparently he did not do any Mubah, Makrooh or Haram work in his entire life.
He went to more than 40 Sunni Ulama to learn their Madhab as well .He went to Baghdad , Egypt , Makkah , Madinah ,Khalil ar Rehman and Palestine .He also became a Mujtahid of all the Sunni Fiqh. He then came back to Lebanon his home. He did not reveal his Shia identity and was therefore consulted by all i.e. Shia & Sunni alike.
1)Al Luma’a Ad Dimashqiyyah which contains all fiqh Rules . All Mujtahids even today must study this to become Mujtahid. This book was written miraculously, in a span of one week only, when he was in prison., without having access to any other books (i.e. out of memory)
6)Al Alfiyyah (containing 1000 wajibat of salat)
7)Al Nafaleyah (containing 3000 Mustahabat of Salat)
Since he became very famous the other Ulama (esp Ibad ibnul Jamat –shafai & Burhanudeen-Maliki ) became very jealous of him. These Ulama took the evidence of several people to accuse him with deviating from the true Islam & pronouncing a death sentence on him.
When he saw death approaching he wrote on a piece of paper “Oh Allah I am in the middle of enemies help me and threw it towards the sky. It is reported that the paper came back to him with a written statement that “If you are my servant then be patient” He was mercilessly killed by tying his legs on two separate camels which were made to run.
Another report of his martyrdom is that he was killed by a sword and then crucified, stoned and then burnt. Hence he has no grave site.