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Who is a Hypocrite?

One of the very dangerous vices is hypocrisy. When it appears in any individual or a group it puts the society to peril and deprives it of every kind of progress.
The word munaafiq is derived from the root nifaaq. One whose outward and inward is not the same or who is called double-faced is a hypocrite. Here it means a band which acts against logic and reason and which, for their personal interests and transient benefits, goes against the decisive majority to such an extent that if they can, they resort to sabotage. Yet, for fear of the community or lust for current gains, they make a show of friendship and unity or intimacy.
Hypocrites are not found only in Islam or other religious but they are also seen in political parties. Generally when the working or course of the ruling party endangers the interests of a band and they are unable to oppose the rulers openly they strive to find out people like them and them form a nucleus of central nucleus of hypocrisy.
Sometimes such people also instigate other aliens to create fissure in the ruling party and through hues and cries prevent it from enacting its programmers.
In the third stage it is possible that a group is, from the beginning, not on the platform of the faithful but due to lust makes a show of being like it or for securing the safety of its life and property declares itself to be belonging to the rulers group.
The above-mentioned causes motivate the creation of hypocrite groups in global parties that are based on common thoughts.
Islam is also not an exception to the aforesaid rule. After the establishment of the Islamic state and party on the basis of Piety and social justice and moral virtues planted in the hearts of the majority of the people, groups like the Tudeh party and the Mujaahideene Khalq and Khalqe Muslaman and stood up or came into being who, outwardly, made a show of respect to the principles and laws of Islam but who were in their hearts, staunch opponents of Islam and who passed the military secrets of the Islamic state to enemies and/or by spreading false rumours treated fear in the hearts of some Muslims and tried for the break up of the Islamic state through their relations with anti-Islamic states.
So, after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, under the leadership of the great leader, the Naib Imam, Imam Khomeini such groups began their work of hindrances and sabotage and instigated daily strikes in schools and factories and made plots and spread rumours. They had enacted their plans so cleverly in organisations that they were able to inflict terrible blows on the head office of he Islamic Republican Party wherein they killed seventy-two representatives of the nation. Again they conspired in the office of the Prime Minister wherein the popular leader Brother Rajai and the scholar brother Bahonar were martyred. This hypocrisy was so deep-rooted that, had there not been the steadfastness of the Imam and the awakening of the nation, they would have been able to overturn the Islamic state in Iran, in the early days of the Islamic Revolution.
After this preamble, we now invite your attention to some of the Quranic verses and narrations regarding hypocrisy and the hypocrite:
And there are some people who say: We believe in Allah and the last day; and they are not at all believers. They desire to deceive Allah and those who believe, and they deceive only themselves and they do not perceive. There is a disease in their hearts, so Allah added to their disease and they shall have a painful chastisement because they And when it is said to them, Do not make mischief in the land, they say: We are but peace-makers. Now surely they themselves are the mischief-makers, but they do not perceive. And when it is said to them: Believe as the people believe they say: Shall we believe as the fools believe? Now surely they themselves are the fools, but they do not know. And when they meet those who believe, they say: We believe; and when they are alone with their Shaitans, they say: Surely we are with you, we were only mocking. Allah shall pay them back their mockery, and He leaves them alone in their inordinacy, blindly wandering on. These are they who buy error for the right direction, so their bargain shall bring no gain, nor are they the followers of the right direction. Their parable is like the parable of one who kindled a fire but when it had illumined all around him, Allah took away their light, and left them in utter darkness — they do not see. Deaf, dumb and blind, so they will not turn back. Or like abundant rain from the cloud in which is utter darkness and thunder and lightning; they put their fingers into their ears because of the thunder peal, for fear of death, and Allah encompasses the unbelievers. The lightning almost takes away their sight; whenever it shines on them they walk in it, and when it becomes dark to them they stand still; and if Allah had pleased He would certainly have taken away their hearing and their sight; surely Allah has power over all things.
In these verses, the Holy Quran shows the signs of the hypocrites concisely yet in a clear and interesting manner:
1 – The hypocrites, for advancing their evil aims and for crushing Islam, derive benefit under the cover of Imam.
2 – The hypocrites always pose themselves as men of reform though they have always been the evildoers.
3 – They consider themselves above the real Muslims who obey the orders of they Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and they consider themselves as clever and consider the Muslims as fools whereas, in fact, they themselves are fools.
4 – They had formed a secret group and were not prepared to announce the issues they used to discuss in their secret gathering.
Announce to the hypocrites that they shall have a painful chastisement: Those who take the unbelievers for guardians rather than believers. Do they seek honour from them? Then surely all honour is for Allah. And indeed He has revealed to you in the Book that when you hear Allah’s communications disbelieved in and mocked at do not sit with them until they enter into some other discourse; surely then you would be like them; surely Allah will gather together the hypocrites and the unbelievers all in hell. Those who wait for some misfortune to befall you then If you have a victory from Allah they say: Were we not with you? And is there a chance for the unbelievers, they say: Did we not acquire the mastery over you and defend you from the believers? So Allah shall Judge between you on the day of resurrection, and Allah will by no means give the unbelievers a way against the believers. Surely the hypocrites strive to deceive Allah, and He shall requite their deceit to them, and when they stand up to prayer they stand up sluggishly; they do it only to be seen of men and do not remember Allah save a little. Wavering between that and this, belonging neither to these nor to those; and whomsoever Allah causes to err, you shall not find a way for him. O you who believe! do not take the unbelievers for friends rather than the believers; do you desire that you should give to Allah a manifest proof against yourselves?
The attributes and features of the hypocrites which we find from these verses are as follows:
1 – They adopt the way of deceit and conspiracy to attain their evil aims so much sot that they want to deceive even God while they are busy in it a kind of deceit has taken place, because, in order to get little wealth they have lost a big wealth of their own existence and this is a true example of a well known story quoted by elders wherein it is said that it was sold to a group of traders: Beware, lest an alien poor may put a cap on your head defraud you. One said: Perchance they are unaware and simpleminded people; we shall put cap on their heads. The wise old man said: I also mean the same thing. In this manner you are earning a little wealth and giving away a great capital your Faith.
2 – They are away from Allah and do not derive pleasure by remembering Him in private and hence: when they stand up for praying namaz their entire selves are in a state of indisposition and feebleness
3 – Since they have no faith in Allah and His great promises, whatever good act of noble deed they do, they do it just for showing it to others, not for God.
4 – Even if they remember Allah and describe Him it is no from the awareness of heart and mind and even if it is so, it is much less:
5 – They are wandering aimlessly without any fixed programme forming neither part of the assembly of the faithful nor are they in the line of disbelievers:
The word Muzahzab is an object name from the root word zabzab which originally means a particular noise which is created when a hanging thing is swinged due to its striking with the air waves and this word is used with regard to moving objects and wandering and wandering persons.
In verse 144 of Surah Nisa we read: O you who believe! do not take the unbelievers for friends rather than the believers. Do you wish through this deed to provide before God a clear proof to your own detriment? Because the hypocrites are to dwell in the lowest stage of Hell and they will never find a helper therefore, refrain from befriending the enemies of Allah, as it is a sign of hypocrisy.
It is clearly learnt from this verse that, from the viewpoint of Islam, hypocrisy is one of the worst kinds of disbelief and hypocrites are the people who are farthest from God and, on this ground, their place is in the lowest and the worst stage of the Hell; and it ought to be so, because, the harms inflicted by them on the Islamic society are in no way comparable with other dangers. They are those, who, taking undue advantage of their safety under the cover of verbally expressed belief, attack shelter less people in a cowardly and unrestrained manner. They knife others on the back. Doubtlessly, the position of these enemies, who are both cowards and dangerous, and who appear in the garbs of friends is far worse than that of the declared enemies who make themselves know as enemies.
In truth, hypocrisy the behaviour of a people who have no personality and who are timid and low and mean and corrupt in every way. Yet, in order to clarify that even such extraordinary people have a way toward God and for improving their position condition, the Divine verse adds: except those who repent and amend and hold fast to the Mercy of Allah and make their behaviours pure for God, will be with the Faithful and Allah will give a great reward to the Faithful people.
In another Ayat the Holy Quran describes the signs of hypocrites thus: The hypocritical men and the hypocritical women are all alike; they enjoin evil and forbid good and withhold their hands; they have forsaken Allah, so He has forsaken them; surely the hypocrites are the transgressors.
In this verse also five signs of the hypocrites are mentioned:
First and second: they encourage people to indulge in evil and prevent them from doing good = That is totally against the working of the Faithful who always, according to the command Amr bil Maaroof and Nahya anil Munkar, strive for reforming the society and for clearing it of corruption. The hypocrites continuously strive for enveloping the society by corruption and for emptying it of good so that in those circumstances and conditions, they may attain their evil goals. Yes, A plunderer seeks a bazaar in turmoil.
Third: They never spend anything, rather close their hands. They neither spend in the way of God nor help the deprived poor. Neither their relatives nor other ever benefit from their money:
It is obvious that since they do not believe in the Hereafter life after death and the spending for good they are stingy in the matter of wealth. It is likely that, for attaining their evil aims, they say also spend a lot of money or may spend much money for making a show of their generosity. But they never do so only with an honest intention of pleasing God.
Fourth: All of their words and deeds declare that they have forgotten God. Also their lifestyle shows that God also has forsaken them and deprived them of His blessings and grace and gifts that is, He has forgotten them and the signs of such forgetting become obvious throughout the lives of the hypocrite.
Fifth: that the hypocrites are lewd and licentious and live out of the circle of obedience to God god almighty, in this verse, after describing the attributes of hypocrites, says:
Allah has promised the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women and the unbelievers the fire of hell to abide there in it is enough for them; and Allah has cursed them and they shall have lasting punishment.
And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts was a disease began to say; Allah and his apostle did not promise us victory but only to deceive.
This verse and the ones after it are in connection with the war of Ahzab and is related to Bani Qurayza tribe. It is derived from Tafseer al-Mizan that those with diseased hearts are people having a little or less faith and not the hypocrites. But it can be said that: the reference is a general one and is pointed especially toward particular persons. But it fully applies to the hypocrites too. So the Holy Quran, in verse no:10 in Surah Baqarah says about the hypocrites:
It must be kept in mind that the soul of man is like his body. When a man’s body becomes ill and he does not refrain from undesirable food and does not take medicine his illness becomes serves. Similar is the case of divine spiritual illnesses. If man doest not try to remedy them, that is, if he does not do Tawbah, and if be does not revert to obedience of Divine commandments and continues to belie the Prophet and goes on sinning, his spiritual disease becomes serious as this is one of the universal laws.
The difference between a healthy and a sick heart or soul is that, if it is healthy it likes good and if it is not well it does not like good and finds it detestable and the body does not accept it. This is what is mentioned in these verses of Surah Tawbah:
And whenever a chapter is revealed, there are some of them who say: Which of you has it strengthened in faith? Then as for those who believe, it strengthens them in faith and they rejoice. And as for those in whose hearts is a disease, it adds uncleanness to their uncleanness and they die while they are unbelievers.
And also in the matter of oppressors it says:
And We reveal of the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers, and it adds only to the perdition of the unjust.
One of the vices of a hypocrite is lying. Hence they Holy Quran says: When the hypocrites come to you, they say: We bear witness that you are most surely Allah’s Apostle; and Allah knows that you are most surely His Apostle, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are surely liars.
Some Important Points
1 – Muslims should remember that the danger which has, till now, threatened the Muslim society, was the internal assault a blow inflicted from within by apparently Muslim but really Al Kafir persons.
It is narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that: I do not ear, for Islam, the known friends and foes because a friend does not assault and no co-operation is forged with a known enemy. But I fear those hypocrites who show themselves as Muslims and who assault Islam. So Samarah bin Jandab and Abu Hurairah who attributed their lies to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and verse able to harm Islam. Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) says about this group: If people recognize that such persons are hypocrites and liars they will never testify them and will never believe them but people got deceived due to their being the Ashaab companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and they tell to themselves that they are those who have seen the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and have heard this words and have accepted him and hence they never tell untruth whereas the masses are not aware of the position of this group.
And these hypocrites were apparently Muslims who, through their lying, were able to strengthen the foundations of the usurped and oppressive governments of the Umaiyads and the Abbasids.
And today too our revolutionary masses should know that all the blows which our Islamic society has suffered were inflicted by the hands of such people who made themselves appear as Muslims and who penetrated into the Islamic organizations and consequently succeeded in their evil aims like bomb blasts, blood shed, strikes, rumour mongering etc.
2 – It is the duty of Muslims that they should admonish the hypocrites and if thereafter they notice that the hypocrites still do not desist from hiding themselves under the garb of munafiqat then they should be removed from the Muslim society and they must be dealt with harshly. That is why it has been repeatedly stated in the Holy Quran, for instance:
O Prophet! Strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is the destination.
It is alike to them whether you beg forgiveness for them or do not beg forgiveness for them; Allah will never forgive them; surely Allah does not guide the transgressing people.
Ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them; even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah will not forgive them; this is because they disbelieve in Allah and His Apostle, and Allah does not guide the transgressing people.
And those who built a masjid to cause harm and for unbelief and to cause disunion among the believers and an ambush to him who made war against Allah and His Apostle before; and they will certainly swear: We did not desire aught but good; and Allah bears witness that they are most surely liars. Never stand in it; certainly a masjid founded on piety from the very first day is more deserving that you should stand in it; in it are men who love that they should be purified; and Allah loves those who purify themselves. Is he, therefore, better who lays his foundation on fear of Allah and His good pleasure, or he who lays his foundation on the edge of a cracking hollowed bank, so it broke down with him into the fire of hell; and Allah does not guide the unjust people. The building which they have built will ever continue to be a source of disquiet in their hearts, except that their hearts get cut into pieces; and Allah is Knowing, Wise.
Commentators have written: A group of hypocrites approached the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) an said: Permit us to build a mosque among the tribe of Bani Salam near Masjid Qubaa so that old sand infirm and ill and disabled may pray therein and likewise, in rainy nights, when some weak people who are unable to come to your Masjid may fulfil their Islamic duty therein. This was the time when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was setting out for the war of Tabuk.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) gave them permission.
But they added to their request whether it is possible that you Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) come there personally and pray therein.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: At present I am leaving for jihad. On return, God willing, I will come to that Masjid and pray therein.
When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) returned from the War of Tabuk, that group name back to him and said: We request you to come to our mosque and to pray therein and pray to God so that He may bless us. This happened when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had not yet reached the gate of Madinah.
In the meanwhile Divine Revelation came with the above-quoted verses, which exposed the secret of their deed. Following it, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) ordered to put that mosque to fire and to destroy its remains and to make at that place for collecting city garbage!
Apparently, if we look at the work of this group along with the offer which they had made in the beginning we become astonished. But, is it not that the construction of a mosque and that too for assisting the weak and the sick and for exigencies really a deed of religious service as well as a human aid? Yet, in reality, it is a bad deed that brought such Divine commandment. Why?
However, when we study the hidden aspect of the problem we will see how well calculated was this Divine Order. Abu Aamir was from the fugitive Christian monks who had relations with the hypocrites of Madinah. Under the show of a mosque we wanted to build a centre from where he may be able to hit deadly assaults on Islam.
3 – Many narrations also give signs of hypocrites, for example:
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: A hypocrite has three symptoms: To lie while talking, to break promise and to be dishonest when trusted.
It is reported through Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: There are three are three things. Anyone who posses as then is a hypocrite even if he fasts and prays and calls himself a Muslim: the one who breaches a trust, tells lies and breaks promise.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) also said: If the outward courtesy of body exceeds the inward courtesy of the heart, then it is, in our view, hypocrisy.
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: There are four signs of a hypocrite: 1 Hardness of heart, 2 Dryness of eye, 3 insistence on sinning and 4 greed to live long in the world.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Excessive love for status and wealth grows hypocrisy in the heart of man just as water grows vegetable.
A Warning to Hypocrites
If one does not beg forgiveness make Tawbah and dies while having this dangerous vice he becomes the target of this verse:
On the day when the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women will say to those who believe: Wait for us, that we may have light from your light; it shall be said: Turn back and seek a light. Then separation would be brought about between them, with a wall having a door in it; as for the inside of it, there shall be mercy in it, and as for the outside of it, before it there shall be punishment.
They will cry out to them: Were we not with you? They shall say: Yea! But you caused yourselves to fall into temptation, and you waited and doubted, and vain desires deceived you till the threatened punishment of Allah came, while the arch deceiver deceived you about Allah.
So today ransom shall not be accepted from you nor from those who disbelieved; your abode is the fire; it is your friend and evil is the resort.
O God! We give you the oath of your Holy self and of the high status of your Friends and of the blood of the martyrs of your path! Keep us far away from the evil of hypocrisy and selfishness and egotism and make us the possessors of good morals and attributes of your righteous slaves.
The Ominous Signs of Hypocrisy
1 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who has two faces in this world will have two tongues of fire on the Day of Judgement.
2 – The worst man in the sight of God on the Day of Judgement is the double-faced one.
3 – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: The one who talks with Muslims with two tongues and two faces will arrive on the Day of Judgement two tongues of fire.
4 – Imam Baqir (a.s.) has reportedly said: How bad is a slave who has two faces, who praises his brother in front of him and in his absence, eats him up backbites him and if he is wealthy becomes jealous of him and if he comes in trouble refrains from helping him.
In conclusion, the one who, for earning this world, talk with everybody according to his liking and, as the saying goes, eats bread at current price and moreover conceals the truth and usurps the rights of others, is, according to the opinion of great scholars, like Allamah Majlisi, is total a hypocrite. Let us pray to God the Great so that He may protect us from this wicked vice.
One of the Signs of Hypocrisy is Lying
Yes, lying is the aim of hypocrisy, because, truthfulness means harmony or likeness of the tongue and the heart. A liar does not have this harmony. Hence hypocrisy is nothing but is the contradiction between truth and falsehood.
In verse 77 of Surah Tawbah we read: So He made hypocrisy to follow as a consequence into their hearts till the day when they shall meet Him because they failed to perform towards Allah what they had promised with Him and because they told lies.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: There are four attributes. Anyone having them is a hypocrite. If he has some of the four, he becomes a hypocrite in that proportion unless he gives them up the vices are: A – lies while telling anything, B – When he gives a promise, he breaks it, C – When he makes a treaty, breaches it and D – When he indulges in enmity he resorts to oppression.
Now Look at these Narrations:
1 – Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: The Lord Almighty has kept locks for evil and wickedness and the key those locks is wine because intoxicants drive away intelligence. Then he added: Lying is worse than wine.
2 – Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.) said: All dirty things are kept in a room and the key to that room is lying.
3 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Keep distance from lying as lying directs man toward bad deeds and bad deeds lead man to Hell.
4 – Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) is reported to have said: The biggest sin in the sight of God is falsehood.
5 – The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One does not lie but because of the meanness of heart.
6 –Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: Man does not get the taste of Faith until he gives up falsehood, be it a joke or serious grave.
7 – In another Hadith they asked the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): Can a Faithful man be timid? He replied: Yes. He was asked again: Is it possible that once in a while he may be a miser? He said: Yes. Then they inquired: Can he even be a liar? He said: No.
8 –Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) said: Refrain from befriending a lair as he is like a mirage which makes the distant near for you and the near distant.
Facts that we can derive from these narrations are:
A – Falsehood is the source of all sins.
B – falsehood or lying is not compatible with Faith.
C – lying is the destroyer of peace of mind.
D – Lying comes out of the meanness of the soul.
All kinds of falsehood or lying are bad. But attributing falsehood to or lying about God and His Prophet is the worst of all. Sometimes it happens when a man makes a false claim of being a messenger of God or that he says something false about God and His Prophet.
As Abi Baseer says that he heard from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) who said: Lying nullifies fasting Abu Baseer says I asked the Imam: We are destroyed. He said: No, the falsehood which a fast null and void is that in which somebody says something false about God, His Messenger and the Masoom Imams (a.s.).
Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.) while referring to a sermon of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) says: Anyone who says something false about me intentionally will find his dwelling in Hell. Then added: Those who narrate??? had the are of four groups and fifth will not be found:
1 –Hypocrites:
The hypocrite put a mask on his face while making a statement. He neither is afraid of sinning nor he refrains from it and he willfully attributes a lie to the Messenger (a.s.). If people had known that a hypocrite is a liar they would not accept anything from him and would not testify him but since they are unaware of the fact they say: they are the companions of the Messenger (a.s.), they have seen the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and have obtained knowledge from him.
Due to this reason they get influenced by the hypocrite while Allah has already cautioned, as you should be cautioned, about the conditions of the hypocrites. He narrated to you their attributes. After the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) the hypocrites earned nearness of the misled rulers and the callers toward hell through falsehood lying and false allegations. The misguided rulers also granted them governorships and imposed them on the masses and began to devour the world through their means. Masses are mostly with the kings and the world except those whom God protests.
2 – Those who give false witness
God Almighty, with regard to the believers, says: And they who do not bear witness to what is false, and when they pass by what is vain, they pass by nobly.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: A testifier to falsehood is like one who worships idols.
3 – Those who swear falsely
It is quoted from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): One who swears falsely, while knowing that it is a lie, has, verily declared a war against God.
Again it is reported from the Imam Sadiq (a.s.): A false swearing empties a city of its residents destroys townships.
Also Imam Sadiq (a.s.) says: When a man says: God knows while he himself does not know and attributes falsehood to God this sin makes the Throne of God tremble due to anger.
Also: One who swears falsely is given a ten-day respite.
4 – Those who break Promises
In this very sense the Holy Quran says: O you who believe! Why do you may that which you do not do?
It is most hateful to Allah that you should say that which you do not do.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One who believes in Allah and Hereafter should fulfill it when he gives promise.
Now that we have studied verses and narrations regarding lying let us here plan for remedying this dangerous disease, which sprouts from hypocrisy, and we should know that a liar has to bear personal, collective economical and spiritual losses. In the words of Amirul Mo-mineen (a.s.), Always tell the truth, because, God with the true, and refrain from lying as it drives one away from Faith. One who tells truth is on the garden seat of salvation and eminence and the liar stays on the brink of precipice of degradation and destruction.
It is obvious that a liar is soon disgraced. It is narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): A liar has no character.
Isa (a.s.) is reported to have said: One who tells more lies loses his prestige and value.
Disgrace always remains in await for a liar, because, falsehood never remains hidden. It will surely come out once one day. Even if a liar is very clever and he fathoms everything all around him, his lie finally gets revealed and sometimes such a man becomes so valueless that he loses the respect of even his family members.
A tongue which does not like truthfulness, nobody in the world is prepared to buy believe it, if you want your talk to get a rise, then never let it turn toward falsehood.
Disgrace in this world life is not so important. What is more important is the disgrace in the hereafter life after death. On the Day of Judgement, a foul smell will emanate from his mouth. In the gathering of the Last Day too he will be dishonoured in front of Prophets and saints and the Faithful. With all this emphasis on being truthful and the prohibition of lying, it is permissible in certain circumstances. As the abomination of the prohibited things is sometimes inborn and sometimes accidental, and since prohibition of lying is of the second kind, it is because of this that it has been recommended when there is no ill motive and is beneficial to the society. For example, in war and jihad and in solving disputes or in promises given to family members so as to enhance sincerity and cordiality. There are narrations about it. Here is one:
It has been quoted from Imam Sadiq (a.s.): Ever lie will gave to be accounted for in the Day of Judgement except in three instances: a lie which is used as a war technique of strategy, a lie which is resorted to make peace between two quarrelling persons and a promise given to ones family.
The late Naraqi writes in Jami al-Sadat: Though the narrations have mentioned these circumstances, yet the matter must not be restricted to these only Rather whenever it becomes necessary for removal of a harm or evil or corruption a harmless lie can be resorted to. Therefore, if a man is asked about the offence of somebody, he can say: I do not know, even if it is a lie or if an oppressor asks about the property of a man or about a Faithful brother, it is permissible for him to tell a lie to protect the property and person of a brother in Faith provided his aim is right. As is mentioned, in such circumstance it lie will be considered Mabaah an admissible thing an and will not be accountable.
Question: What is Toriya?
Answer: Toriya means a word which has two implications, one apparent and another hidden or implied. It is when man intends to convey the first meaning whereas the other person takes it to be other. Permissibility of Toriya is conditional. So the intention must be good and well or when reason and religion prevents from giving out the other information.
Does a lie apply to an exaggeration or a metaphor?
Answer: If figures of speech are used and the intention is exaggeration or metaphor or a simile or a comparison there is no objection, however it is not to be very much magnified, because, the aim is to give an understanding and not a claim of a fact or an overall equality. Despite all this man must try not to say against the truth even in permissible occasions so that his tongue gets habituated to well only the truth. We must also remember that we are the followers of a leader and an Imam who was not prepared to say even a single word against facts even for getting his undeniable right when a consultative body was formed at the order of Umar, so as to head the world of Islam.
O Lord! Make all of us the true followers of that Imam (a.s.).
O Lord! Grant us full Faith so that we may not be disgraced at the time of the test.

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