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The Names of Hadrat Fatima Zahra (A.S.)

Naming newborn children is considered a principle divine rule. Allah Almighty named Adam and Eve the first day He created them; He also taught Adam all names. Man, too, has followed this rule and practiced it ever since. Naming is an essential rule for civilized people.
People's names vary according to different times, generations and languages. There may also be a relationship between the name and it’s meaning; although this is not always true. Thus, some names can be derived from entities other than lingual material.
Nevertheless, advocates of Allah's religion give names special importance. This practice has a significant meaning, for a human being is called by his name; hence a good or bad name leaves its effect on the holder. Indeed, there is special importance in good names; it is noteworthy to mention that when Imran's wife gave birth to a daughter she said:
“And I therefore call her Mariam”.
Furthermore, Allah chose the name for His prophet Yahya (A) before he was conceived. Allah Almighty says that Zakariya, Yahya's Father, said:
"So give me an heir as from Thyself. "(One that) will (truly) represent me, and represent the posterity of Jacob; and make him, O my Lord! One with whom Thou art well pleased!"
(His prayer was answered):
"O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be Yahya: On none by that name have we conferred distinction before." (19: 5?7)
It is also clear from His saying, "On none by that name have we conferred distinction before;" that Allah (Glory be to Him) assigns the names of His special worshippers, such as prophets and Imams, in place of their parents.
Let's take a look at a large group of narrations which discuss naming Fatima Zahra, plus the reason for giving her this name; then also state that her name was given to her because of certain incitements, not offhand, nor as a result of admiring of preferring such a name; rather, it is the relationship between the name and the person which was considered.
Imam Sadiq (A) said:
"Fatima has nine names near Allah (Exalted be His Name), they are: Fatima, Siddiqah (the honest), Al?Mubarakah (the blessed one), At?Tahirah (virtuous), Az?Zakiyah (the chaste), Ar?Radhiatul Mardhiah (she who is gratified and who shall be satisfied), Al?Muhaddathah (a person, other than a prophet, that the angels speak to), and Az?Zahra (the splendid)."
1. It was reported in Bihar, v. 10, [46] that Imam Abu Ja’far Al?Baqir (A) said:
"When Fatima was born, Allah (Exalted is His Name) revealed to an angel to speak the name Fatima with Muhammad's tongue. Allah then said:
“I have bestowed knowledge upon you and safeguarded you from menstruation." Then Abu Ja’far (A) added:
"By Allah, Allah (Blessed and Exalted is His Name) bestowed knowledge on her and safeguarded her from menstruation with the covenant." [47]
2. Imam Redha and Imam Jawad (A) said:
"We heard Ma'moon narrating from Rashid, from Al?Mahdi, from Al?Mansoor, from his father, from his grandfather that Ibn Abbas said to Mu’awiya:
‘Do you know why Fatima was given that name?'
He said: `No.'
Ibn Abbas said:
`Because she and her followers are protected from Hell, I heard Allah's Messenger say thus.’
3. Imam Redha, quoting his Fathers (A) said:
"The Messenger of Allah (S) said:
`O Fatima, do you know why you have been given the name Fatima?'
Ali (A) said:
`Why was she named (Fatima)?'
He replied:
`Because she and her followers (Shiites) are protected from Hell. "'
4. Imam Sadiq (A) said:
"Do you know the explanation of (the name) Fatima?
I said:
`Inform me my Master.'
He said:
`She is safeguarded from evil.'
He then added:
`Had AmirAl?Mu'mineen not married her, no man on earth from Adam on would have been suitable for her until the Day of Rising. "'
This narration was also reported by a group of Sunni scholars, among them being Ibn Shirooyah Ad?Dailami who said:
"Um Salamah said: 'The Messenger of Allah said:
`Had Allah not created Ali, there would not have been an equal to Fatima.'
Besides Ad?Dailami, Kharazmi in Al?Manaqib, Munawi in Kunuz A1?Haqaeq, and Qandouzi in Yanabea Al?Mawaddah have reported this tradition by quoting Um Salamah and Al?Abbas, the Prophet's uncle.
5. Kharghoushi and Ibn Batta reported in their books Sharaf An?Nabi and Ibaneh that Imam Sadiq (A) said:
"The Messenger of Allah (S) said to Ali:
`Do you know the reason Fatima was given that name?'
Ali said:
`Why was she given that name?'
He said:
`Because she and her followers (Shiites) are safeguarded from the fire.”
6. Imam Redha (A) said that his father quoted Amir Al?Mo'mineen (A) as saying:
"I heard Allah's Messenger say:
'Fatima was given that name because Allah has safeguarded her and her progeny from the Fire; those who meet Allah as monotheists and believers in what 1 preach. " [48]
The above mentioned traditions have also been narrated by a large group of Sunni scholars, among them are:
1. Khwarazmi in Maqtal Al?Hussain, p. 51, said:
“Ali Ibn Abu Talib said: 'The Messenger of Allah said:
`My daughter was named Fatima because Allah (Glory be to Him) safeguarded her from the Fire. ‘"
2. Tabari in Dhakhaer Al?Uqbi, Qandouzi in Yanabea Al?Mawaddah p. 194 and Safawi in Nuzhat Al?Majalis reported that Ali Ibn Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) said:
"The Messenger of Allah (S) said to Fatima:
`O Fatima, do you know why you have been named Fatima?'
Ali said:
`O Messenger of Allah, why was she named Fatima?'
He said:
`Because Allah will surely safeguard her and her progeny from the Fire on The Day of Resurrection. "
Fatima's name was dear to Ahlul?Bayt; they respected the name and those who held it. For instance, Imam Sadiq (A) inquired from one of his companions about the name to be given to his newborn daughter, the man replied:
"I named her Fatima."
Imam Sadiq then said:
“Fatima?! May the peace of Allah be upon Fatima. Now that you have given her the name Fatima, refrain from slapping or abusing her, rather honor her."
Besides this tradition, it was reported in Wasa'el v. 7, on the authority of Sukunei as:
"O Sukunei; what grieves you?
I answered:
A girl has been born to me...'
He said:
`What have you named her?'
I said:
'Fatima.'
Then he said:
`Fatima!! Oh, Oh, Oh (in admiration). He then said, `Now that you have named her
Fatima, refrain from abusing, cursing or slapping her. "
Also in Safinat Al?Bihar, Imam Abu Al?Hassan Al?Kadhim said:
"Poverty shall not enter a house inhabited by people having the names Muhammad.. and Fatima from among women."
The first of these three traditions was commented on by Imam Baqir (A); he stated:
"By Allah, He (Glory be to Him) bestowed her with knowledge and safeguarded her from menstruation with the covenant."
The covenant mentioned here refers to the corpusclent (seeds) world mentioned in the Holy Quran in the following verse:
"When thy Lord drew forth from the children of Adam from their loins? their descendants, and made them testify concerning themselves (saying): Am I not your Lord?'
They said: `yea!" (7: 172)
In summary, this means that Allah Almighty drew forth from Adam (from his loin), his descendants in the form of seeds (or corpuscles), then presented them to him and said:
"I will make a covenant with your descendants that they shall worship me without associating anything with me; I shall?in turn?guarantee their sustenance."
He then said to them: "Am I not your Lord?"
They said: "Yes, we bear witness that you are our Lord."
He (Glory be to Him) said to the angels: "Bear witness."
The angels said: "We bear witness."
It was mentioned that Allah Almighty gave Adam's descendants the ability to realize, understand, and hear His speech. He then placed them back in Adam's loin. Therefore, mankind is held in Adam until everyone shall be brought forth by Allah at the time, which has been destined by Him. So whoever adheres to Islam, holds to the covenant; and whoever disbelieves and rejects it, violates that covenant.
This account was derived from a large number of traditions and verified narrations. Imam Baqir (A) pointed out that it was decreed that Fatima would be safeguarded from menstruation in that world, which is also called the "World of Covenant."
In relation to the many traditions that spoke of the world of Covenant, we mention some of them herein as examples:
1. It was reported in Tafsir Al?Burhan that Imam Sadiq (A) said:
The Prophet was asked: "How do you excel over mankind?"
The Prophet answered: "I was the first one to bear witness to my Lord; when Allah took the oath from the Prophets and made them testify concerning themselves (our Lord Said): Am I not your Lord?'
They replied: ‘Yes. Therefore, I was the first of them to reply."
Abu Basir: "I asked Abu Abdullah?Imam Sadiq
How did they answer Him when they were corpusclens?'
He said: `He implemented in them that with which they could answer Him when He asked;
Aisha added: “He means the covenant."
2. Zurareh reported that he inquired from Imam Baqir about what is meant by:
"When thy Lord drew forth from the children of Adam?from their loins?their descendants”
He said: “(It means that He drew forth) from Adam's loins his descendants until the Day of Resurrection, so they came forth in the form of corpusclens. He then taught and acquainted them to His creation; and had He not done so, no one would have known His Lord.”
3. When Umar Ibn Al?Khattab performed pilgrimage and embraced the (Black) Stone, he said:
"I know by Allah?that you are a stone which neither harms nor benefits, and had I not seen Allah's Messenger embrace you, I would not have embraced you."
However, Imam Ali (A) said:
“Abu Hafz, do not say this, for Allah's Messenger did not embrace it (the black stone) save for wisdom he knew, and had you read the Quran and realized its interpretation, as others have, you would have understood that it can harm and bring benefits to you. It has two eyes and two lips and possesses a keen tongue that testifies for those who fulfill their obligations to it."
Umar then said: "Then show me that in Allah's book, Abu Al?Hassan."
Imam Ali (A) said: 'Allah Almighty said:
“When thy Lord drew forth from the children of Adam (from their loins) their descendants and made them testify concerning themselves (saying): Am I not your Lord? They answered: Yea! we do testify. Thus, when they affirmed their obedience to Him as their Lord and as His slaves, He make a covenant with them that they would make pilgrimage to His sacred House. He then created parchment finer than water and said to the Pen: Write down My creatures’ fulfillment of pilgrimage to my Sacred House. The pen wrote mankind's fulfillment of pilgrimage on the parchment, then it was said to the (Black) Stone: Open your mouth; it opened it and the parchment was inserted there.
He then said:
`Safeguard it and testify for My worshippers their fulfillment (of pilgrimage). The Stone then descended in obedience to Allah.’
"O Umar, do not you say when you embrace the stone? I have fulfilled my covenant, and kept my oath, so you may testify for me?'
Umar said: "Yes, by Allah."
Imam Ali (A) then said: "It is for this reason that you do so."
A large group of narrations, which include a study regarding the world of Covenant, can be found such as Al?K?fi collected by Al?Kulayni, Al?Bihar by Al Majlisi, and other collections of traditions.
Nevertheless, some scholars?may Allah forgive them??misunderstood these narrations, which leads them to doubt their authenticity despite the unambiguous meaning of the verse.
In conclusion, it was since or even prior to the events of the world of seeds (which is also called the world of Covenant) that the Messenger of Allah and his Progeny's?including Fatima's?virtue was recognized.
This fact should not be doubted for there are many narrations, which have been successively reported by scholars of both sects (Sunni and Shiite). All these narrations support this affair; the traditions that have been mentioned by the Shiite scholars are too numerous to include here. As for those, which have been reported by the Sunni scholars, Safuri Shafe'i mentioned in his book Nuzhat Al?Majlis v. 2, p. 223, that Kesae and others said:
"When Allah created Adam... (until he said) there was a brilliant girl from whom light was illuminating and on her head was a golden crown ornamented with diamonds; the like of whom Adam had never seen.
Adam asked: `My Lord who is this girl?'
Allah said: 'Fatima Bint Muhammad.'
Adam said: `My Lord, who is her husband?'
Allah said: `O Gabriel, open the gate of the ruby palace;' when Gabriel did, Adam saw a dome of camphor and inside it was a golden bed equipped by a young man as beautiful as Yusef.'
He then said: “this is her husband, Ali Ibn Abu Talib.”
Also, Asqalani in his book Lisan Al?Mizan v. 3, p. 346, writes that Imam Al?Hassan Ibn Ali Al?Askari (A) reported that his Fathers quoted Jabir Ibn Abdullah as saying: "The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'When Allah created Adam and Eve, they strutted through paradise and said: `Who are better than we?' At that moment they noticed an image of a girl like they had never seen before; from this girl came an illuminating light so bright that it almost blinded the eyes.
They said: 'O Lord, what is this?'
He answered: 'This is the image of Fatima, the mistress of your women descendants.'
Adam asked: 'What is this crown on her head?'
Allah said: 'Her husband Ali '
Adam then asked: 'What are her two earrings?'
Allah replied: 'Her (two) sons, they were ordained in My ever?existent knowledge two thousand years before I created you’
AL–SIDDIQAH (THE HONEST)
We have already mentioned that one of Fatima's names was Siddiqah. This word means a woman with scrupulous honesty or sincerity.
Siddiqah differs from the word Sadook, in that the first is scrupulous and precise in telling facts. Furthermore, several other meanings have been given to the word Siddiqah; among them are:
A. She who is a truth?teller.
B. She who never lies.
C. She whose deeds conform to her words.
D. She who never lied, because she is used to truthfulness.
E. A woman with scrupulous speech and beliefs, and whose deeds conform to her words.
F. She who believes in the commands of Allah and His Prophet's, without doubting any of them.
This last opinion is supported by the following Quranic verse: 'and those who believe in Allah and His apostles; they are the truthful..." (57: 19)
Although these various meanings have been given to "Siddiqah," it is unanimously agreed upon that the various verses and traditions, counted "Siddiqun" among the apostles and martyrs, who will enjoy special treatment. This becomes apparent when looking at the following Quranic verses:
'All who obey God and the Apostle, are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of God, ? of the Prophets. (Who teach) the Sincere (lovers of Duth), the Witnesses (who testify), and the righteous (who do good): Ah! What a beautiful fellowship!" (4: 69)
"(Also) mention in the Book (the story of) Ibrahim: He was a man of truth, a prophet." (19: 41)
'Also mention in the Book the case of Idris: He was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet." (19: 56)
"Christ the son of Mary was no more than an apostle; many were the apostles that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth." (5: 78)
When interpreting "His mother was a woman of truth", it was said that Mariam was called "Siddiqah" because she believed in the signs of the Lord, her son's position, and that which he preached to her. This point is supported by the verse:
“And she believed in the words of her Lord."
Another meaning, which is given to this verse, is that Mariam was called "Siddiqah" for her truthfulness and the greatness of her position.
After reviewing the verse, we can easily conclude that some people say they believe in Allah, the apostles, the divine books and religious rules, but show contradictory actions. This becomes clear when some people claim they believe that Allah watches them, yet they disobey and violate His rules; while knowing of Allah's prohibition of liquor usury adultery, and that He decreed some rules and assigned certain duties to them, which if they perform, He will grant them paradise; and those who violate them will be subjected to Hell. These people have not reached the level of applying their words and claims into actions.
On the other hand, "Siddiqun" are those who believe in truth and righteousness, and practice what they believe. Their number is small at any given place or time; in fact, a survey might show that in some town there is not even one Siddiqah.
Finally, it is easily recognized that Lady Fatima (A) reached this level of "Siddiqun." She was given the title Siddiqah by Allah's Apostle (S), as was mentioned in Ryad An?Nadherah v.2, p.202. and in Sharaf An Nubuwwah; he (S) said to Ali (A):
"You have been given three things which have been given to no one else, not even me, (they are):
You have been given a father?in?law like me and my father?in?law was not like me.
You have been given an honest (Siddiqah) wife like my daughter, and 1 have not been given the like of her as a wife.
And, you have been given Hassan and Hussain from your loin and 1 was not given two sons like them.
But you are from me, and 1 am from you."
Also, Mufadhdhal Ibn Amr said:
"I asked Imam Sadiq (A): Who gave major ablution to Fatima (Ghusl Mayyet)?
He answered: ‘Amir Al ?Mo'mineen (A) (Ali)’
I reacted in such a way that made it appear as if I could not believe he (A) would do so.
Thus, Imam Sadiq (A) said: It appears as if you feel uncomfortable about what I told you?
I said: May I be your sacrifice, I indeed do.
He then said: Do not be annoyed by this, for Fatima was a `Siddiqah' and no one save a `Siddiq' can give her ablution. Don't you know that no one gave ablution to Mariam save Isa (A)."

AL – MUBARAKEH (THE BLESSED ONE)
Barakah means: multiplication, felicity and abundance; as T?j Al?Arous clarifies. Also, Ragheb said: Because divine goodness springs from an ever ? continuous source in an unlimited manner, it is said that anything which noticeably multiplies or increases is Mubarak or blessed.
Allah Almighty gifted Fatima with abundant blessings, and made her the Mother of the Prophet's descendants on whom Allah has bestowed ever ? lasting benevolence.
Upon reviewing the history of Fatima's offspring, we find that when she died, she left behind two sons and two daughters, they are:
Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain, Zainab and Umme Kulthum. But when the event of Karbala occurred, Imam Hussain and his children achieved martyrdom, and Ali Ibn Al ? Hussain (Imam Zain Al?Abedeen) was the only surviving child of Imam Hussain. Also seven of Imam Hassan's children and two of Zainab's sons achieved martyrdom. Umme Kulthum had no children.
After the events of Karbala, inflictions successively befell the Prophet's descendants. Torture and massacres continued against them starting with the battle of Harra, Zaid Ibn Ali's and Fakh, and going through the agony they suffered throughout the Umayyad era. But when the Abbassides came to power, they broke the Umayyad record of eradicating and annihilating Fatima's offspring (more details about the sufferings they encountered can be found in Maqatel Al Talibeen).
The struggle continued for two centuries until Imam Al?Hassan Al?Askari died in Samera as a result of eating poison, which was placed in his food. Furthermore, Salah Ad?Din Al?Ayobi was as savage as the Abbassides in massacring the Prophet's descendants and followers. He committed mass murders and brutal crimes, which bring shivers to the spine.
Nonetheless, Allah Almighty bestowed benevolence and blessings upon Fatima Zahra's descendants. He implemented abundant multiplicity in them.
The interpretation of the verse:
"To thee have we granted Kauthar" (108:1) varies according to interpreters. The most popular viewpoint of the meaning of Kauthar is a famous fountain or domain, which will be given to the Apostle on the Day of Resurrection; the literal meaning of Kauthar is abundance or abundant benevolence.
Suyuti in Dur Al?Manthour, regarding the meaning of Kauthar, writes: "Buhkari, Ibn Jarir and Al?Hakim reported on the authority of Abu Bishr Ibn Said Ibn Jubair that Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said:
`Al?Kauthar is abundant goodness which Allah gave the Apostle.'
Abu Bishr said:
I told Ibn Jubair that some people claim that it is a river (fountain) in Paradise, he said:
`The fountain in Paradise is part of the abundant benevolence which He (Allah) gave him (S)’
Razi's interpretation of the above-mentioned verse is more appropriate. He held the view that what is meant by Kauthar is Fatima Zahra. In Majma' Al Bayan, Tabarsi writes regarding this subject:
"It was said that Kauthar means abundant benevolence, it has also been said that it means the multiplicity of a given person; and the descendants of Fatima have enormously multiplied in a way that they will exist until the Day of Resurrection."
Fakhr Razi made the following comment in his Interpretation of the Quran regarding this verse:
"In reference to the third viewpoint which advocates the meaning of descendants to "Kauthar," some scholars say:
“Since this chapter was revealed to refute the claim of an infidel who attempted to denounce the Prophet (S) for not having sons, it becomes clear that the meaning given here is that Allah gave the Prophet (S) offspring, which will be everlasting. We must keep in mind that numerous massacres have been committed against Ahlul?Bayt, yet still the world is full of them; while the Umayyads have vanished save a few who are worthless. Besides this, prominent scholars have descended from Fatima's sons, such as Al?Baqir, Al?Sadiq, Al?Kadhim, Al?Redha (A), Al Nafs Al?Zakyyah and others."
This explanation correlates to the following: An infidel denounced the Prophet when one of his children died and said Muhammad is now without offspring, therefore when he dies his name will die with him. It was because of this incident that Allah revealed this chapter to His Apostle assuring him; it is as if He (Glory be to Him) said:
"You have lost your son, but We have given you Fatima; although she is just one, Allah will make that one many."
A survey of the world's population attests to this conclusion; for Fatima's descendants (who are also the Prophet's descendants) are spread around the globe as follows: Iraq?one million, Iran?three million, Egypt?five million, Morocco?five million, Algeria, Tunis, Libya, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Sudan, the Persian Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, Yemen, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia?approximately twenty million descendants of the Prophet of Islam.
An Islamic country in which descendants of Fatima Zahra do not live is hard to find. Their number is estimated to be thirty ? five millions; however, if precise and accurate statistics are taken, their number could be much higher.
Included among the Prophet's descendants are kings, princes, ministers, scholars, writers, prominent characters, and geniuses. Some are honored by their lineage and others ignore it and give no importance to it. Some follow Ahlul?Bayt, while others violate their doctrine. I have even heard of some descendants of Fatima (A) who live in Indonesia and are enemies of Ahlul?Bayt (A)!
More amazing is the fact that some Muslims refuse to accept their lineage of Fatima and Ali; rather they claim that such a lineage is forged and unacceptable. These people ferociously fought this idea up to the point that they shed innocent blood to implement their ideas.
Hajjaj, Mansour Dawaniqi, Haroon Al?Rashid and others are known advocates of this idea.
It was mentioned in volume ten of Bihar that Amr Al?Shube said:
"One night Hajjaj summoned me to his palace; this horrified me, so I performed ablution and wrote my will; then went to meet him. When 1 entered his room, I saw a sword and a leather mat (usually used for executions). I greeted him and he replied to me and said: Do not fear anything, for I pardon you throughout the night and until tomorrow noon.' He then ordered me to sit next to him; meanwhile a tied and shackled man was brought to him;
Hajjaj said: `This old man claims that A1?Hassan and Al?Hussain are the Prophet's children; he shall prove this from the Quran or I will cut his head off.'
I said: ‘He should be freed from his chains, because if he proves his claim, he will surely go free, and if not, then a sword cannot break those chains.'
They freed the man of his shackles, but kept his hands cuffed; I was grieved when I saw that he was Sa’id Ibn Jubair and said: How can he bring proof from the Quran in this regard?
Hajjaj said: `Bring me proof from the Quran or will behead you.'
He said: `Wait.' He waited for a while when Hajjaj repeated his demand and Sa’id asked for more time to think. When Hajjaj repeated his demand for the third time, Sa’id said:
`I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed devil, in the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful.
We gave him Isaac and Jacob; all (three) We guided; and before him, We guided Noah; and among his progeny, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron; thus do We reward those who do good.' (6: 84)
Then he stopped and said to Hajjaj: `Read the following verse And Zakariya and John and Isa.'
Then Sa’id said: `How does Isa fit in here?'
Hajjaj replied: `He is one of Ibrahim's offspring.'
Sa'id said: `Isa did not have a father, yet he was Ibrahim's descendant because he was his daughter's (Maryam) son, therefore Hassan and Hussain are more worthy of being called the Prophet's children especially that they are closer to him (the Prophet) than Isa was to Maryam.'
When Hajjaj heard this, he granted him ten thousands dinars and set him free.
Shube added:
"In the morning I said to myself. `It is incumbent upon me to visit that old man and learn the meaning of the Quran, which I thought I know but really do not.' I entered the Mosque and found that old man giving everyone ten dinars; I then heard him say: All this is because of the blessings of Hassan and Hussain (A). We were grieved once but cherished a thousand times, we also pleased Allah and His Apostle. "
Another narration which shows the extent of arrogance and insistence on discrediting Ahlul?Bayt and depriving them of the honor of relationship to the Prophet (S) says:
Sheikh Majlisi reported on the authority of Ihtijaj and Tafsir Ali Ibn Ibrahim in Bihar that Abu Al?Jaroud said:
'Abu Ja’far Al?Baqir (A) said to me:
'Abu Jaroud, what do they (followers of other than Ahlul?Bayt) say about Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain (A)?'
I said: 'They deny the fact that they are sons of Allah's Apostle.'
He then said: 'So with what do you debate them?'
I said: 'With Allah's saying about Isa Ibn Maryam:
"And among his progeny David and Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron; thus, do we reward those who do good," (6: 84) and that Allah Almighty made Isa a descendant of Ibrahim.”
He said: 'Then what do they say?'
I said: 'They say: 'A daughter's son can be called a son but he is not actually a real descendant.’
He said: 'How do you argue with them?'
I said: 'We quote the following verse for them':
'Say: Come! Let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your woman.' [49]
Then he said: 'Then what do they say?'
I replied: 'They say: "It is common in Arabic for a man to call another man's children Our children while they are really others' children."'
Imam Baqir (Abu Ja’far (A)) then said:
'By Allah, Abu Al?Jaroud, I shall quote a verse from the Book of Allah which shows that Hassan and Hussain are his (S) direct children (form his loins); proof that can only be denied by infidels.'
I said: `May I be your sacrifice, what verse are you speaking of?' He answered: `When Allah said:
"Prohibited to you (for marriage) are your mothers, daughters... until (those who have been) wives of your sons proceeding from your loins. "
Ask them, Abu A1 Jaroud, was it permitted for Allah’s Messenger to marry Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain's wives (had they been divorced)?
If their response is affirmative, then they have lied and sinned; and if their answer is negative, it is because they are his children proceeding from his loins. "'
In another debate, which took place between Haroun Al?Rashid and Imam Musa Ibn Ja’far (A) mentioned by Bihar Majlisi on the authority of Oyun Akhbar Al?Redha, Haroun said to the Imam:
"Why did you permit people to trace your ancestry back to Allah's Messenger (S) and call you sons of Allah's Apostle while you are descendants of Ali? Men are traced to their fathers; Fatima was not but a vessel and her father, the Prophet your maternal grandfather!"
The Imam (A) replied: "Had the Prophet been brought back to life and asked you for your daughter's hand in marriage, would you fulfill his wish?"
Rashid answered: "Glory be to Allah! Why wouldn't I fulfill his wish? Indeed I would be honored among the Arabs, non Arabs, and Quraish to do so."
The Imam then said: "But he would not ask to marry my daughter, nor could I give her to him in marriage."
Rashid exclaimed: "Why not?"
The Imam said: "For he has begotten me and has not begotten you. "
Rashid then said: "You are right, Musa;" and added: "but why do you claim to be the Prophet's offspring while he did not beget sons? And since offspring are sons not daughters and you are Fatima's children, she did not have offspring."
Upon hearing this, the Imam apologized to Rashid and asked to be excused; he did not want to answer him in observance to the law of prudence (taqiya). Nevertheless, Rashid insisted on hearing his arguments and said: "You are obligated to bring me your arguments from the Quran, you children of Ali, and since you are their Imam of the time and chief, as I was told, I will not excuse you until you bring me proof from Allah's Book, from which you know the interpretation of every letter, as has been written in this verse:
`Nothing have We left unattended from the Book.'
Furthermore, you dispensed with the opinions of other scholars and `qiyas' (inference)."
The Imam then said: 'am I permitted to give you the answer?"
Rashid said: "Indeed you are."
The Imam then said: "I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed devil. In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful:
And among his progeny, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron; Thus do We reward those who do good;
“And Zakariya and John, and Jesus (Isa). "
The Imam continued, "Who is Isa's Father?"
The Imam then said: "Therefore, he is considered among the Prophet’s offspring through Maryam; likewise, we are the offspring of the Holy Prophet (S) through our Mother, Fatima (A)..."
These were some of the verses that Ahlul?Bayt (A) used as proof of their lineage to Allah's Apostle through Fatima Zahra.
There are a great number of narrations, which declare the same thing; among them are:
1. Al?Khateeb Al?Baghdadi v.1, p.316, in T?rikh Baghdad reported that Ibn Abbas said:
"I was in the company of my father, A1?Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib, sitting in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (S) when Ali Ibn Abu Talib entered and greeted us. The Prophet(S) returned his Salam, stood up and while smiling, embraced him and kissed his forehead. The Prophet then asked him to sit near to him."
Al?Abass asked: "Messenger of Allah, do you love him?"
The Prophet replied: "Uncle of Allah's Messenger! By Allah, Allah loves him more than I do. Surely Allah made every Prophet’s progeny proceed from him, and made my progeny proceed from this one."
2. Also, Kharazmi in Man?qib p.229, narrates the following:
Allah’s Apostle declared: "Surely Allah made every Prophet's progeny proceed from his own loins, and made my progeny proceed from Ali's loins."
This narration was reported by the following writers:
Muhib Ad?Din?Tabari in Dhakhaer Al?Uqbi, Hamueeni in Faraed As?Semtain, Dhahabi in Mizan Al?Etedal, Ibn Hijr in Sawaiq Al?Muhriqa p.74, Mirza Hindi in Muntakhab Kanz Al?Umal, Zarqani in Sharh Mawahib Ladonyyah, and Qandouzi in Yanabi' Al?Mawaddah p.138.
Nisaee also mentioned in Khasaes Amir Al?Mo'mineen on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Usama Ibn Zaid, that his Father said:
“Allah's Messenger said: ‘As for you Ali, you are my son?in?law and the father of my offspring; you are from me and I am from you.'”
The same narrator reported that Usama said:
"I went to visit the Prophet of Allah one night; he (S) came out carrying something that I didn't recognize under his cloak. When I finished my work with him I said. `What do you have under your cloak?' When he opened his cloak, I saw Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain on his lap. The Prophet then said:
`These are my children and my daughter’s sons; O Allah, you surely know that I love them, therefore love them. "
Despite the large number of traditions, which declare that Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain are the Prophet of Allah's children, some ignorant writers try to deny this fact. These writers quote the Quranic verse:
"Muhammad is not the Father of any of your men,"
to prove that he (S) was not anyone's Father. These writers use this verse even though it is an uncontested fact that it was revealed to prove that Zaid, the Prophet's adopted son, is not related to the Prophet (S). The Apostle gave him (Zaid) in marriage to his cousin Zainab; but when Zaid divorced her, he (S) married her in obedience to Allah's command, and to prove that he(S) was not Zaid's Father, which would make Zainab prohibited to him
"Then when Zaid had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary formalities, We joined her in marriage to thee: In order that (in the future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons, when the later have dissolved with necessary formalities (their marriage) with them. And Allah's command must be fulfilled." (32: 39)
Thus, prohibiting marriage with the previous wives of a son depends on proving their actual lineage to the father; if such a lineage cannot be proved, then marrying the previous wives is not prohibited. It is for this reason that Allah Almighty said:
"Of any of your men."
If this was not the case, then what about Ibrahim, Al?Qasim, Al?Taeeb and Al?Mutahhar who were all his (S) sons.
Furthermore, it has already been verified that the Prophet (S) said to Imam Hassan (A):
"This son of mine is a Master."
He also said:
“Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain, these two sons of mine, are Imams whether they rise or forebear."
and:
"Every daughter's children are called to their Father, save Fatima's children; for I am their Father."
In another interpretation of "of any of your children," some scholars say: "What He meant by "Men", was the mature ones; and none of his children were mature at that time."
In conclusion, whatever has been said about the Apostle's sons, can be said to include Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain. They were the Prophet of Allah's sons.

AT?TAHERAH (THE VIRTUOUS)
As we have already mentioned, one of Fatima Zahra's (A) names was "At Taherah" (the virtuous or pure). This meaning is related to the verse:
"And Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you, ye member of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless." (33: 33)
The above-mentioned verse is of great importance because of its subtle meaning and significance.
This verse is considered the main source of virtues granted to Ahlul?Bayt (A); around it various debates and many writings took place. It might be more appropriate to say that this verse was the field of debates, contradicting viewpoints and inconsistent opinions. This is especially true when it comes to who was meant by "the Family," or Ahlul?Bayt.
Nevertheless, it is indisputable that this verse, known as "the verse of purification" concerns Fatima At?Taherah (A) and both Shiite and Sunni scholars agree on this, except a very small number. This established fact has been reached in light of the traditions, which unanimously state that the said verse includes Ali, Fatima, Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain (A). Yet some hold the viewpoint that the verse includes the Prophet's wives?because of the word "Family" and the sequence of the surrounding verses that include a speech to them; however, he (S) prohibited even his wife, Umme Salama, from joining them under the cloak prior to the revelation of this verse.
Although the number of narrators who report that the "verse of purification" was revealed regarding Ali, Fatima, Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain (A) reach several hundreds, it will be useful to include narrations and sources which are reported by prominent Sunni scholars about this subject. I would like to point out that this list should be satisfying for any clear conscience.
1. Baghdadi in his history book Tareekh Baghdad, v. 10, mentioned that Abu Sa'id Al?Khudare remarked regarding the verse:
'And Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the Family and to make you pure and spotless,"
that the Messenger of Allah gathered Ali, Fatima, Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain under a cloak and said:
"These are my Ahlul?Bayt (i.e., Family), O Allah; remove all abominations from them and make them pure and spotless "
Umme Salama, who was standing near the door, said:
“Am I not one of them, O Messenger of Allah?"
He said: "You are (up to a) good ending."
2. Zamakhshari in Al?Kashaf, v.1, p. 193 narrated on the account of Aisha, that Allah's Messenger came out wearing an embroidered, ornamented cloak of woven black hair, when Al?Hassan Ibn Ali came to him and went under it; then Al?Hussain followed him, then Fatima, then Ali. At that moment (S) quoted the verse:
“And Allah only wished to remove all abominations from you, ye Members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless."
3. Razi in his interpretation of the Quran v. 2, p. 700, (printed in Istanbul), writes:
“When he (the Prophet) came out wearing the black cloak, and A1 Hassan came under it and Al?Hussain, and Fatima and Ali the Prophet said: 'And Allah only wishes……”
4. Ibn Al?Athir Al?Jazari reported in his book Usd Al?Ghaba Fi Maarefat As?Sahabah v. 2, p. 12, that Omar Ibn Abu Salamah, the Prophet's stepson, said:
"When the verse And Allah only wishes...' was revealed to the Prophet (S) he had gathered Fatima, Hassan and Hussain under his cloak, while Ali was behind him, and said:
`This is my family, therefore, remove all abomination from them, and make them pure and spotless.'
Umme Salama said: Am I one of them, Messenger of Allah?' He said: 'You will be in good condition."
5. Sebt Ibn Al?Jawzi reported in Tazkerah Al?Aemah, p.244, that Wathelah Ibn Asqa' said:
"I went to ask Fatima (A) about Ali; she told me to go to the Messenger of Allah (S) and ask him, so I went and sat down to wait for him; I then saw the Prophet coming in the company of Ali, Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain. He held their hands until they entered the room. He then sat Al?Hassan on his right leg and Al?Hussain on his left leg and ordered Ali and Fatima to sit near him. The Prophet (S) covered them with his cloak (or garment) and read: And Allah only wishes… than he (S)) supplicated to Allah and said:
“O Allah, truly these are my Ahlul?Bayt (Family)."
6. Imam Wahedi reported in his book Asb?b An?Nozul that Umme Salama, the Prophet's wife, narrated that Allah's Messenger (S) was present in her house when Fatima brought him an earthenware pot filled with wheat cooked with milk. He (S) said: "Call in your husband and two sons for me." Thus, Ali, Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain came and joined him in eating the food. Meanwhile, he (S) sat on a bench, covered with a Khairban cloak.
Umme Salama added: "I was in my room performing prayers when the Arch?Angel Gabriel revealed:
“O Allah, these are my Family and Kin; therefore, remove all abomination from them and make them pure and spotless.”
At hearing that, I looked in the house and said: “Am I one of them, O Apostle of Allah?'
Moreover, Tirmadhi reported in his "Sahih" that Allah's Messenger since the time this verse was revealed and for six months thereafter, stood by Fatima's house (door) and said:
"(Time for) prayers Ahlul?Bayt; Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you and make you pure and spotless."
7. Ibn Sabagh Al?Maliki in his book Al?Fosoul Al?Muhemah p.7, narrated a tradition similar to the one already mentioned by Wahidi; but he added: Some poets said the following in this regard:
Surely Muhammad and his successor and
Their two sons, and his virtuous and pure daughter;
are the people of the cloak who in adhering to them, I long for
peace and success on the Last Day.
8. Abu Bakr Suyuti narrated this tradition on the authority of Umme Salama, Aisha, Abu Sa'id Al?Khudari, Zeid Ibn Arqam, Ibn Abbas, Dahak Ibn Muzahim, Abu Al?Hamra, Omar Ibn Salama and others in his books: Al?Dur Al?Manthour v. 5, p. 198, Al?Khasaes Al?Kubra v. 2, p. 264, and Al?Itqan v. 2, p. 200.
They all reported that the Prophet (S) gathered Fatima, Ali, Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain, when the verse 'And Allah only wishes to remove... " and covered them with a cloak.
He then said: "By Allah, these are my Ahlul?Bayt, therefore remove all abomination from them pure and spotless."
9. Tabari in Dhakhaer Al?Uqbi p. 21, declared that this verse was revealed in regard to the purified five (the Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Hassan, Hussain), relying on Omar Ibn Abu Salama's narration.
He also reported that Umme Salama said:
“Allah's Messenger covered Fatima, Ali, Al?Hassan and Al?Hussain, including himself with a garment and read this verse:
“And Allah only wished to remove all abomination from you, ye Members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless." (33: 33)
She then added: "So I came to join them when the Prophet (S) said: 'Stay where you are, you will have a good conclusion."
In another narration, she was quoted as saying:
“Allah's Messenger said to Fatima: 'Bring your bright cloak; and put his hands on them and said:
'O Allah, these are the progeny of Muhammad, thus bless and praise them for surely you are praiseworthy and Exalted."'
Umme Salama added:
"I then lifted the cloak to join them, but he pulled it away and said: You are alright. "
10. Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al?Ghoutroubi reported that this verse was revealed in regard to Ahlul?Bayt (A) in his book Al?Jame' Li Ahkam Al?Quran v.14, p.182.
11. Ibn Al?Arabi in his book Ahkam Al?Quran v. 2, p. 166.
12. Ibn Abd Al?Bir Al?Ondolosi in his book Al?Esti'ab v. 2, p. 460.
13. Al?Bihaqi in his book As Sunan Al?Kubra v., p. 149.
14. Al?Hakim Al?Nishaburi in his book Al?Mustadrak Al? Sahihain v.2, p.416.
He narrated a tradition on the authority of Umme Salama similar to what has already been mentioned and...
He (S) said: "O Allah, this is my family (Ahlul?Bayt)."
Um Salama then said:
"Messenger of Allah, am I not from Ablul?Bayt?"
The Prophet answered:
"You are alright, but these are my Ahlul?Bayt..."
15. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in Musnad v. 1, p. 331.
16. Nisaee in Khasa'es p. 4.
17. Muhammad Ibn Jarir At Tabari in his interpretation of the Quran, v. 22, p. 5.
18. A1?Kharazmi in Kitab Al?Manaqib p. 35.
19. Al?Haithami in Majma' Al?Zawaed v. 9, p. 166.
20. Ibn Hijr Al?Haithami in Sawaiq Al?Muhriqa p. 85.
It is necessary to further elaborate on this subject, since the verse of purification declares, beyond doubt, that Fatima (A) is pure. Nevertheless, it may be beneficial to explain the meaning of the word "Rijs" or abomination mentioned in the verse.
"Rijs" means that Allah purified her from the monthly menstruation in addition to all abomination and depravities. "Rijs" is all that is deemed impure by human nature, conforms with evil doings, deserves punishment, detracts from one's good reputation, brings about sins, rejected by nature or mars any of the knightly virtues.
Ibn Al?Arabi also said in Al?Futouhat Al?Makkiah, Chapter 29, that Rijs is "anything which detracts from one's character."
The definition that Al?Arabi gave for the word Rijs, is the definition for the word "infallible" which the Shiites believe is an inseparable character of all Prophets, Imams, and Lady Fatima Zahra (A). It is indeed an excellent virtue and a great honor that Allah has bestowed upon some of his servants.
It is worthy to mention that infallibility is an inseparable trait of those who propagate divine laws; yet, because infallibility is a prerequisite for prophets and Imams in their roles of propagating divine rules, it does not mean that others, who also propagate, are safeguarded from sins.
Imam Ali (A) proved Fatima's infallibility using the verse of purification in his argument with Abu Bakr.
The Imam (A) said: “Abu Bakr, do you read Allah's book?"
He answered: “yes"
Imam Ali (A) then said: "Then tell me about whom was the following verse revealed?
‘And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye Members of the Family, and make you pure and spotless.'
“Was it not revealed in regard to us, Ahlul?Bayt?"
Abu Bakr said: "Yes, it was revealed regarding you"
He (A) said: "If some men testify that Fatima, the Messenger's daughter, committed an abomination what would you do?"
He answered: "I would administer the legal punishment to her, just like any other Muslim woman!'
He (A) then said: "If you did so, you would be an infidel in the eyes of Allah."
Abu Bakr said: "Why?"
Imam (A) replied: "Because you would have rejected Allah's testimony of her purity and virtue (infallibility), and surpassed people's testimony over it..." [50]
A manifestation of this purity, is safeguarding the person from impurity upon death, regardless of the fact that any human being?no matter how pious and obedient to Allah he is?becomes intensely impure upon passing away, making it obligatory to perform ablution (Ghusl) when touching his body. The dead person, himself, only becomes pure after being washed by others.
Contrarily, the infallibles are purified before and after death. Al?Hassan Ibn Ubaid said in Al?Wasa'el:
I wrote to Imam Sadiq (A) and asked him:
"Did the Commander of the Faithful perform ablution (Ghusl) after abluting the Messenger of Allah (S) upon his death?"
His answer was:
"The Prophet was pure and safeguarded all impurities; yet the Commander of the Faithful (A) did so and this became a customary practice (Sunnah)."

AZ-ZAKEAH (THE CHASTE)
The word "Tazkiah" has been mentioned several times and in different forms in the Holy Quran. It means the attestation of someone's honorable record, or to purify one's self. For instance, the following verses spoke of "Tazkiah":
"Truly he succeeds that purifies it," (91: 9)
"Hast thou slain an innocent person," (18: 74)
"(To announce) to thee the gift of a holy son." (19: 7]
and
"That is (the course making for) most virtue and purity amongst you." (2: 232)
The meaning of the first verse is to purify one's self from evil characteristics which develop from corrupt nutrition, excessive speech, anger, envy, greed, self and material worship, conceit and vanity. This type of purification is performed by abandoning such traits and adhering to the noble characteristics which contradict the above mentioned ones.
The second verse means: Have you killed someone who, I attest to his honorable record, for he has not committed a crime or an action, which necessitates punishing.
The third verse speaks of granting a prophet a virtuous son made pure from all sins, and whose nations conform to goodness. Lady Fatima Zahra (A) is Zakiyah in all the above-mentioned meanings. This is understood from the verse of purification, which we have already discussed, and concluded that She was pure of all abominations or "Rijs."
As for the fourth verse, you can refer to the study in regard to her name "Al?Mubarakah", for here we have explained the purification meant in this verse.

AR?RADHIAH (THE SATISFIED OR GRATIFIED ONE)
Accepting what Allah ordains for one's self, is considered an excellent degree of belief in Allah?Glory be to Him. Throughout her difficult life, Lady Fatima Zahra (A) was delighted with whatever Allah Almighty ordained for her. In fact, this book specializes in discussing the inflictions and disasters, which befell Fatima from the day she was born until she was martyred at a young age. During the difficult stages of her life, Fatima was content with the fear, oppression, deprivation, poverty, sorrows and pains, which Allah had predestined for her.
Therefore, Fatima is worthy of being included with those mentioned in the verse:
"To the righteous soul will be said: O (thou) soul, In (complete) rest and satisfaction! Come back to thy Lord.??well pleased (thyself) and well pleasing unto Him!" (79: 27-28)
Because she is satisfied with Allah's rewards and grants to her, and is satisfied with Allah's will in this world, He has become well pleased with her.

AL?MARDHIYAH (SHE WHO WELL?PLEASES ALLAH)
"Mardhiyoun" have an excellent rank, and lofty position near Almighty Allah.
Just a few of Allah's worshippers achieve this rank, which is attained by righteousness and sincerity. Fatima Zahra (A) was one of those who was able to reach this lofty position. She achieved this rank through her good deeds that pleased Allah and made Him well?satisfied with her.
AL?MUHADDATHAH (SHE WHO WAS INSPIRED DIVINELY BY ALLAH)
First of all, it should be explained that angels speak, appear, and can be heard by others than prophets.
It is written in the Holy Quran:
1. "Behold! the angels said: 'O Mary! God hath chosen thee and purified thee?chosen thee above the women of all nations. O Mary! Worship thy Lord devoutly: prostrate thyself, and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down." (3: 42?43)
This verse clearly states that angels spoke to Mary by praising her and conveyed to her Allah's commands. It is evident that she heard their speech and realized their intention, for if not, it would be useless to speak to her. [51]
It is even mentioned that the Arch?angel Gabriel, himself, spoke to her.
2. "Relate in the Book (the story of) Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East. She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them; then We sent to her Our angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects. She said: 'I seek refuge from thee to (God) Most Gracious; (come not near) if thou dost fear God.' He said: 'Nay, I am only a messenger from thy Lord, (to announce) to thee the gift of a holy son.' She said: 'How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me, and I am not unchaste?'
He said: 'So (it will be): Thy Lord saith, "That is Easy for Me: and (We wish) to appoint him as a Sign unto men and a Mercy from Us'; it is a matter (so) decreed. " (19: 16?21)
The interpreters of the Holy Quran have unanimously agreed that the angel mentioned in the second verse was Gabriel. He “appeared before her as a man in all respects”. Then a dialogue was held between the two of them.
3. 'And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed; but We gave her glad tidings of Isaac, and after him, of Jacob. She said: Alas for me! Shall I bear a child, seeing I am an old woman, and my husband here is an old man? That would indeed be a wonderful thing!' They said: 'Dost thou wonder at God's decree? The grace of God and His blessings on you, O ye people of the house! For He is indeed worthy of all praise, full of all glory!" (11: 71?73)
These verses speak of the angels visit to Ibrahim (A), bringing him the good news of a son. Ibrahim's wife, Sara, who was serving the guests thinking that were men, spoke to the angels and they replied to her. This matter is clear from the verses.
4. "So We sent this inspiration (revelation) to the mother of Moses: 'Suckle (thy child), but when thou hast fears about him, cast him into the river. " (28: 7)
Some interpreters claim that Musa's mother was inspired to act in such a manner; while others say that she was spoken to (by the angels) in order to follow the Divine Commands.
Al?Manawi said in Al?Jame'Al?Saghir v. 2, p. 270, on the authority of Qurtubi:
"(Muhaddathoon) means those who are inspired or whose expectations are accurate and directed by Divine power."
It can also mean those who utter true and accurate words, those who are spoken to by angels, or those whose opinions and viewpoints always conform to righteousness as if they were inspired by the Kingdom of Heaven. Hence, this position is a generous miracle bestowed upon a selected group of Allah's pious worshippers, and an exalted position granted to Allah's chosen ones.
Thereupon, it becomes readily easy to distinguish that Fatima Zahra (A) was spoken to by angels. Because the Mistress of all women, and the daughter of the best of all Prophets and Messengers is not any less significant than Maryam Bint Imran, Sarah, Ibrahim's wife, or Musa's mother. Of course, this does not mean that any of these ladies?including Lady Fatima?was a prophet.
Furthermore, Sheikh Saduq narrated in Ilal Ash Sharaea' that Zaid Ibn Ali said:
"I heard Abu Abdullah (Imam Sadiq (A)) say:
“Fatima was called "Muhaddathah" because the angels descended from Heaven and called her as they called Maryam Bint Imran and said: "O Fatima! Allah hath chosen thee above the women of all nations.""
It has been narrated in v. 10 of A?Bihar that Imam Sadiq (A) said to Abu Basir:
"... We also possess Fatima's book Mushaf, and had they known about the book of Fatima!!! It is three times the size of your Quran; and by Allah, it has not a letter of your Quran; rather it was dictated and revealed to her by Allah ....” [52]
This narration needs elaborate research and explanation, for the Imam (A) compared the size of Fatima's book to the size of the most familiar book to all Muslims?the Holy Quran. Thus, if the Quran was printed in average?sized letters on standard paper, and let us suppose that it would fill five hundreds of such pages; then Fatima's book would need fifteen hundred had it been printed according to the same standards. This is what the Imam (A) meant when he said: "It is three times the size of your Quran."
This, however, does not mean in any way that the Holy Quran is deficient or that Fatima's book completes it, nor does it mean that another divine book was revealed to her. In fact anyone who makes such a claim is either ignorant or an infidel.
The word "Mushaf' does not mean "Quran"; rather it means volume, book, or a collection of articles in one notebook.
When a group of Imam Sadiq's (A) companions questioned him about Fatima's book, he was quiet for a long time then explained: "Surely you search for what you need and that you need naught”.
Actually, Fatima lived seventy?five days after the Prophet's death; when she was intensely depressed, Gabriel would visit and condole her on the Prophet's death. He would cheer her up by mentioning the good situation her father was enjoying, and tell her what would come to pass after her death. Imam Ali (A) wrote what Gabriel said, and this is Fatima's book.
In addition, Hussain Ibn Abu Al?Ala reported that Imam Sadiq (A) said:
"...Fatima's book, I don't claim that it is Quran, rather it contains what makes people need us and makes us in need of no one. It even mentions (the legal punishment for) a lashing, half a lashing, one fourth of a lashing, and the indemnity for a scratch mark." [53]
There remains a need for an explanation of what is meant by "It was revealed to her."
This explanation can be derived from the Quranic verses that revelation is not confined to prophets; but rather Allah, the Exalted, reveals to some chosen people as mentioned in the following verses:
A. "So Zakariya came out to his people from his chamber; told them by signs to celebrate God's praises in the morning and in the evening." (19: 11)
B. "So He completed them as seven firmaments in two days, and He assigned to each Heaven its duty and command." (41: 12)
C. 'And behold! 1 inspired the Disciples to have faith in Me and Mine Apostle." (5: 114)
D. "Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): '1 am with you; give firmness to the Believers." (8: 12)
E. "And thy Lord taught the bee to build its cells in hills." (16: 68)
F. "So we sent this inspiration to the mother of Moses: 'Suckle (thy child)." (28: 7)
G. "And indeed We conferred a favor on thee another time (before)" (20: 38)
Moreover, these verses state that revelation is not confined to mankind, but it also includes other creatures such as: the Heavens, the Disciples, the angels, the bees, and Musa's mother.
Therefore, there can be no doubt that Allah, the Exalted, sent revelations to the Mistress of Women and daughter of the Master of Prophets, as he revealed to Musa's mother or Maryam Bint Imran.
In conclusion, Fatima's book is enormous, and includes detailed information about the legal punishments and the Islamic penal code, whether major or minor.
It was also declared that her book lists the names of kings who ruled and will rule on Earth until the Day of Resurrection. All this was according to the will of Allah the Knowing, the Omniscient. The book also contains descriptions of all-important events that will take place throughout history.
Fatima's book was not a Quran, as is clearly stated in the traditions of Ahlul?Bayt, in spite of the claims of the enemies of the Shiite who argue that the Shiites believe in another divine book called Fatima's book, with the intention of undermining their authentic faith.
[51] Majma' Al?Bayan.
[52] Bihar: v.5.
[53] Bihar: v.6.

AZ-ZAHRA (THE SPLENDID ONE)
As it was reported in v. 10 of Bihar Al?Anwar, Ibn Abbas narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
"Surely my daughter Fatima is: The Mistress of all women from the beginning to the end. She is part of me, and the light of my eyes, She is the f lower of my heart, and is my soul, (Fatima) is a human huri, who whenever she stands in prayers in the presence of Her Lord (Exalted is His Name), her light illuminates the skies for the angels, like stars shine to people on Earth."
This narration clarifies the reason for which Fatima (A) was given the name Zahra. There are other narrations, which mention that she had a bright and splendid face.
Lady Fatima (A) had other titles and everyone of them reflected a virtue of noble trait which she enjoyed. Among those titles were: Al?Batoul, Al?Adhra (The Virgin), and
Al?Hania (The Affectionate one to her children).
Fatima's favorite title was "Umme Abiha" meaning her father's mother.

AL?BATOUL (THE CHASTE AND PURE ONE)
Allah, the Exalted, created His creatures and implemented in them certain laws and habits. He also subjected these creatures to laws and habits. For instance, a law that rules fire is incendiary; while plants require certain spans of time and specific environments to grow and produce; likewise, animals require specific conditions that vary according to their sizes, types and colors, to grow.
Generally speaking, humans are subjected to assigned universal laws and physiological, psychological and spiritual peculiarities; yet, certain people who have been chosen by Allah and on account of His far?reaching wisdom, have been excluded from these laws. In other words, Allah subjected special laws to the chosen ones. Fire, for example, turns everything in its way to ashes; yet Allah said to it:
"O fire! Be thou cool, and (a means of) safety for Ibrahim."
When Yunis was "cast forth on the naked shore in a state of sickness," after the whale swallowed him, Allah caused a "spreading plant" to grow quickly and cover Yunis's sick body.
Procreation, too, cannot take place without impregnation and the implementation of sperm in the woman's womb, wherein the sperm is made into a clot that grows to be a fetus covered with bones that becomes an unborn child. This process takes at least six to nine months; but his natural process that Allah implemented in mankind was invalidated in the case of Maryam (A) who gave birth to Isa (A) without any of these steps. It has been said that she carried him six to nine hours in her womb before giving birth to him under a palm tree in a secluded location.
Likewise, all miracles, which occurred through other prophets, took place in environments that did not conform to natural laws. The examples of such events are tremendous. The Holy Quran narrated many stories about prophets' and Imams' challenges to the laws of nature. Among these stories are Adam's descension from Paradise to Earth, the gushing forth of the fountains of earth in the story of Noah, Sara's pregnancy with Ishaq at an old age, the turning of Musa's stick into a snake, healing the blind and the lepers and raising of the dead by Isa, and Ascension into the Heavens by Allah's last Apostle (S)
Now that the above is understood, the following conclusion can be derived:
Women's monthly menstruation, which starts at maturity and continues until the fifties or sixties, is nothing but the discharge of spoiled blood and tissues which were to hold the fetus had it been conceived.
Allah, the Almighty, says:
"They ask thee concerning women's menstruation. Say: They are a discomfort and a pollution."
This indicates that the discharged blood is a harmful substance, which would harm women if it stayed in their bodies. It is even noticeable that women's psychological and physiological states, including their facial appearance and everyday conduct change at this time of the month. By this, we conclude that the bleeding which results from monthly menstruation differs from the normal kind of bleeding, which any human being?including women?might suffer.
It is unquestionable that monthly menstruation causes women to feel nervous, shy and dejected despite the fact that this occurrence is an involuntary natural course. Yet women suffer this course, which is unmentionable to anyone especially to men. For this reason, women are not obligated to perform prayers or fast during menstruation. They are also forbidden from staying in Mosques or to enter the Sacred Mosque in Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina. In addition, reciting the chapters of Qalam, Najm, Alif Lam Mim Tanzil, and Ha Mim as Sajdah are not to be read during women's monthly periods.
These laws, which have just been mentioned, are also valid during confinement in childbed.
Nevertheless, Allah, The Exalted, relieved Fatima Zahra (A) from such pollution, as He removed from her all abomination and purified her a total purification. This fact is authenticated by various traditions among which are the following:
1. Qanduzi reported in Yanabi' Al?Mawaddah p.260. that the Prophet (S) said: "She was safeguarded from menstruation and childbed (bleeding)."
2. Muhammad Salih Al?Kashfi Al?Hanafi reported in Al?Manaqib that the Prophet (S) said: "Fatima was called Al?Batoul because she was safeguarded and relieved from that which women encounter every month (menstruation)."
3. A1?Amr?Tasri narrates in Arjah Al?Matalib that the Prophet (S) was asked about the meaning of Batoul?someone said to him: "Messenger of Allah, we have heard you say that Maryam is Batoul and Fatima, too, is Batoul!!"
The Prophet replied: "Batoul is she who never see blood, meaning that she never discharges menstrual blood; because menstruation is resented if it occurs in Prophet's daughters."
The above-mentioned narration was authenticated by Al?Hakim.
4. A1?Hafez Abu Bakr Ash?Shafe'i narrates in Tarikh Baghdad v.13, p.331, on the account of Ibn Abbass that the Prophet said: "My daughter is a human huri, she never menstruates, nor does she encounter any menses."
Nisaee also narrates this tradition.
5. Ibn Asaker mentioned in At?Tarikh Al?Kabir v.1, p.391, on the account of Anas Ibn Malik that Umme Salim said:
"Fatima (may Allah be pleased with her) has never menstruated nor discharged childbed blood."
6. Al?Hafez Al?Suyuti said:
'Among Fatima's particularities is that she did not menstruate, and when she gave birth to a child, she would immediately become purified from childbed confinement so as not to miss her prayers."
7. Rafae mentioned in At?Tadween that Umme Salama said:
"Fatima never discharged blood during her childbed confinement; nor does she menstruate."
8. Tabari narrates in Dhakhaer Al?Uqbi that Asma Bint Umais said:
"When Fatima gave birth to Al?Hassan, she did not bleed; she also does not bleed during periods of menstruation. (When I informed the Prophet of this) he said: `Do you not know that my daughter is pure and chaste; she does not discharge blood as a result of childbirth or menstruation."'
Safari narrates this tradition in Nuzhat Al?Majalis p.227.
9. It was mentioned in v.10 of Al?Bihar that Abu Basir quoted Imam Sadiq (A) as saying:
'Allah, the Exalted, forbade Ali (A) from marrying women while Fatima was still alive."
Abu Basir exclaimed: "Why was that?”
The Imam replied: "Because she was pure and does not menstruate."
Sheikh Majlisi commented on this narration by the following:
"This narration means either. First: Because Fatima did not menstruate, Ali (A) had no reason to marry another woman. So Allah forbade him to marry other women in observance of her sanctity. Or, Second: Her eminence disallowed him from marrying another woman; where as this particularity of hers is part of this eminence."
Fatima's exaltation from encountering menstrual or childbed blood, confirms to the verse of purification which has already been discussed.

AL ADHRA (THE VIRGIN OR THE CHASTE)
This is one of the names given to Fatima. This name declares that she was always a virgin, in the meaning that she was chaste.
Many traditions have already been mentioned, which attest to the fact that she was conceived of heavenly food, and that Fatima was a human huri. There is not exaggeration in this expression, rather, stating that Fatima was always virgin, is nothing but the absolute truth. Besides the narrations that verify this fact, the Holy Quran states:
"We have created (the huri) of special creation; and made them virgin pure (and undefiled)." (56: 35-36)
This clarifies that huris are always virgins. Majma Al?Bayan explains this verse as follows: "(What is meant by virgin pure) is that whenever their husbands come near them (have sexual intercourse with them), they find them virgins."
Imam Sadiq (A) was asked: "How can a huri always be a virgin (no matter how many times her husband comes near her)?"
The Imam (A) answered: "Because (huris) are created from pure goodness where no blight can alter them, nor does decrepitude inflict them... menstruation does not pollute them..."

Source:
Fatima (A.S.) The Gracious
Abu Muhammad Ordoni


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