Hadrat Fatima (A.S.) after Holy Prophet's (S.A.W.) Heavenly Departure
Hadrat Fatimah (A.S.) was mournful after Prophet's (S.A.W.)death. Not only had she lost her father, but also the best creature and seal of the prophets. The one who had high moral virtues and was said to have good humour by Allah (SWT) and the one by whom revelation ended. Moreover, his successor's right was usurped and Islam was getting out of its correct way. Fatimah (A.S.) never hid her sorrow. Sometimes she went to Prophet's (S.A.W.)shrine and mourned there and sometimes to the shrines of martyrs of battle of Uhud martyrs and Hamzah (A.S.), Prophet's (S.A.W.)uncle. Even when women of Medina asked the reason of her sorrow, she clearly noticed the death of Prophet (S.A.W.)and usurpation of his successor's right.
It hadn't passed much long from Prophet's (S.A.W.)death that his recommendation and conveying Allah's (SWT) command on Ghadir, introducing Ali (A.S.) as Muslim's ruler was forgotten. They gathered in a placed named Saqifah and chose one as their ruler and began to get people swear allegiance. Therefore some of the Muslim gathered in Fatimah's (A.S.) house showing their objection to usurpation of governorship and ignoring Allah's (SWT) command appointing Ali (A.S.) as Muslim's ruler and Master. When Abubakr - who was only chosen by the people gathered in Saqifah - got aware of this meeting, he sent Umar to Fatimah's (A.S.) house in order to bring Imam Ali (A.S.) and the others to the mosque for swearing allegiance by force. So, Umar and some others went there carrying some fire. When he arrived there, Fatimah (A.S.) came behind the door and asked the reason for his coming. Umar answered to take Imam Ali (A.S.) and the others to mosque for swearing allegiance. Fatimah (A.S.) prohibited them not to do this and reproached them. Therefore some of the people following Umar dispersed. At this time Umar threatened to put the house with all the people inside in fire knowing that Fatimah (A.S.) was inside. Then, some of the objectors exited the house and Umar fought them and broke some of their swords. But still Imam Ali (A.S.), Fatimah (A.S.) and their children were inside. Then Umar ordered some firewood and put the door in fire and entered the house by force and inspected the house with his followers and then carried Imam Ali (A.S.) by dragging, reluctantly, by force to the mosque. During these happenings, Fatimah (A.S.) was injured a lot and experienced great hardship but she didn't calm down and went to the mosque because of her duty to defend her Imam of time and addressed Umar and Abubakr and the others and cautioned them of Allah's (SWT) anger and punishment, but they continued what they were doing.
Fatima (A.S.) was also oppressed on Fadak after the Prophet's (S.A.W.)death. Fadak is a village 165 kilometres from Medina, which has productive soil and a spring and lots of date palms. Fadak belonged to Jewish and they granted it to the Prophet (S.A.W.)without any wars. So it was of "Anfal", which belongs to Allah (SWT) and Prophet (S.A.W.)as the Holy Quran says. After the verse "Give the near kin their rights …" came down the Prophet (S.A.W.)granted Fadak to Fatima (A.S.) as Allah (SWT) had ordered. Imam Ali and Fatimah (PBUT) had some agents in Fadak who worked there and sent the income for Fatimah (A.S.) after harvest. She gave the agents' salary first and divided the remaining among the poor, although her living was as simple as possible. They sometimes granted their daily food and slept hungry, but considered the poor first and this was sincerely for Allah (SWT) (as mentioned in the beginning of chapter 76). After the death of the Prophet (PBUH&HP), Abubakr imputed a narrative to the Prophet (S.A.W.)saying that prophets bequeath nothing, and claimed that Prophet's inheritance belonged to all Muslims. Fatima (A.S.) defended her right in two ways. First she introduced some people witnessing that Prophet (S.A.W.)had granted Fadak to her when He was alive, and so Fadak was not an inheritance. Then, she made a resplendent speech containing deep meanings about Monotheism, Prophecy and Imamah, in Prophet's mosque. She proved invalidity of Abubakr's claim in this extremely eloquent and clear speech. She asked Abubakr: "Why do you contradict the Holy Quran?" and then mentioned some Quran verses naming Solayman (A.S.) as Dawood's (A.S.) heir or saying that Zakaria (A.S.) asked Allah for a heir of himself and Yaghoob's family. Therefore, assuming that Prophet (S.A.W.)hadn't granted Fadak to Fatimah (A.S.) when he was alive, it belonged to Fatima (A.S.) after His death and the claim that prophets bequeath nothing and imputing it to the Prophet (S.A.W.)is against the truth according to her proof. Since it is impossible that the Prophet (S.A.W.)talks in contravention with Allah's (SWT) sayings. Allah (SWT) has insisted on this fact in the holy Quran many times. However, Fadak wasn't returned to its real owner and was usurped. We should notice that Fatimah's (A.S.) speech and her proof was so clear that nobody was doubtful and many of the denier had accepted it inwardly. The reason is that Umar, the second caliph, returned Fadak to Imam Ali (A.S.) and Fatimah's children after Islamic conquest was expanded and the government didn't need Fadak's income. But it was again usurped when Uthman became the caliph.
Fatimah's (A.S.) illness and visiting her
Finally, Fatimah (A.S.) became sick as she was injured terribly in the attack to her home. Sometimes she got up with pains and did the housework, or sometimes went to Prophet's (S.A.W.)shrine or to Hamzah's (A.S.) and shrines of other martyrs of the battle of Uhud with her children and told out her grievances there. On one of these days the emigrants' (Muhajir) and helpers' (Ansar) wives, who were informed of her illness, visited Fatimah (A.S.). In this visit Fatimah (A.S.) expressed her dissatisfaction with usurping caliphate and commentated the people who kept quiet about ignoring their divine orders and Prophet's (S.A.W.)command about Imam Ali (A.S.) and cautioned them of the result of this happenings and Islam's deviation from its right path and mentioned the blessing which could have been given to them as a result of accomplishment of their religious orders and obeying Prophet's (S.A.W.)real successor.
It was in these days that Umar and Abubakr went to visit Fatimah (A.S.). Although Fatimah (A.S.) rejected them and didn't let them in at first, they finally came to her bed. Then, Fatimah (A.S.) reminded them Prophet's (S.A.W.)statement:" Anyone who makes Fatimah angry has made me angry and one who pleases her has pleased me." They confirmed that Prophet (S.A.W.)had said such a thing. Then, she called Allah (SWT) and angels to witness that:"You (Abubakr and Umar) had made me angry and never pleased me and I would certainly complain to the Prophet of you."
One day, when she still sick, she called Imam Ali (A.S.) and wanted him to be the executer of her will. She commanded by will to wash her body at night, shroud her at night, bury her at night and nobody of the people who had oppressed her shouldn't be present at the burying and saying prayer.
It was third of Jamadi al-Thani, year eleven after Hijrah. Fatimah (A.S.) asked some water and washed her body and performed ablution with it. Then she wore a new cloth and lied in bed and put her hand under her cheek and said: "I will pass away now." And then she was martyred as a result of hard blows and injuries. At that time, she was only 18 (according to common words) and she had been alive only 95 days after Prophet's (A.S.) death (according to common words).
She passed away being angry with Abubakr and Umar as most of the Sunni reliable books and Shiite greatest books mention. She did not talk to them at the end of her life and naturally Abubakr's regret about attacking Fatimah's (A.S.) home when he was dying was useless.
Performing her ablutions and burying her
When people of Medina realized Fatimah's (A.S.) martyrdom, they gathered in front of her house and waited for the burying ceremony. But it was announced that the ceremony was delayed. At night, when all people were asleep, Imam Ali (A.S.) started to wash Fatimah's (A.S.) body and shroud her, in absence of the people, who had oppressed her greatly, according to her will. When ablutions was finished, he told Imam Hassan (A.S.) and Imam Hussain (A.S.) - who were only two little children at that time - to call some of Prophet's (S.A.W.)real companions whom Fatimah (A.S.) was satisfied with, to participate in the burying ceremony. (They were not more than 7 as it has been narrated). After they arrived; he said prayers and then buried her while his children were sad and were secretly crying for losing their mother. When the burying ceremony ended, he turned to Prophet's (S.A.W.)shrine and said:
"Regards to you, O the messenger of Allah! From me and your daughter, who has reposed besides you, and has joined you within a little time. O Prophet ! I have lost my patience in separation from your beloved and I have lost my self-control. We are from Allah and will return to him. Your daughter will inform you how she was oppressed by your community. Ask her what has happened, because it hasn't passed a lot and you haven't been forgotten yet."
Today, after passing many years, still her shrine is hidden and nobody knows where it is located. Muslims, and specially Shiites, wait for Imam Mahdi's (A.S.) reappearance. He is the Saviour and is the eleventh child of Fatimah's (A.S.) progeny. She will show us his mother's shrine and will eradicate oppression in the world.