Ayatullah al-Uzma Boroujerdi, Who preached the Unity of the World of Islam
As the development or the defeat of the nations of the world is related to the rise and fall of the dignitaries and the influential figures upon the process of history is an indispensable issue, Ayatollah Sayyed Hussayn Boroujerdi is one of the personalities that a number of the pages of the history of islam and Iran have been allocated to him, thus we review some patterns of his life.
1-The scientific and social life
Ayatollah Brojerdi in one of the days of the end of year 1292 (AH-Lunar) was born. His father was the late Seyyed Ali Tabatabaiee. During his childhood and adolescent, in addition to the Holy Quran, he learned Jame-al-moghadam-at, Sioti, Logic and Golestan of Saadi and after a period of time he entered into the Theological Seminary of Isfahan who there learned the various sciences including the Arabic grammar and syntax as well.
Ayatollah Borojerdi in 1320 AH entered into the theological seminary of the holy city of Najaf in Iraq and benefited from the teachings of the great ulama such as Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Khorasani. After a long time of acquiring of grace and knowledge from ulama (scholars) by the emphasize of the ulama in the 14th of the month of Moharam 1364 AH he intered to the city of Qum.
Ayatollah Sayyed Abulhassan Esfahani and Ayatollah Haj Agha Hussayn Qummi within three months demised and Ayatollah Borojerdi was called as the high (great) Islamic authority. After some years of teaching and discussion as well as teaching of jurisprudence and the principles and the other lessons of seminary in the year 1961 (1380 AH) in the city of Qum passed away.
2-Method of Ijtihad (Capability for issuing Fatwa according to Islamic shariah) of Ayatollah Borojerdi
Such as his predecessor ulama (scholars) like sheikh Mofid, Seyyed Morteza, Sheikh Tousi, Sheikh Tabarsi as well as Allameh Bahr-al-ulum he had a comprehensiveness in the Islamic sciences. In the jurisprudence he used to pursue the method of inference in addition he used to delve and research upon the sayings and narrations of the precursors in connection to jurisprudence either Shia or Sunni.
He supposed awareness with regard to revelation of the Quran’s verse and also the tradition [The manner of life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)] as indispensable in inference of the canonical commandments. As a whole one can say that the method of the late Ayatollah Borojerdi in the jurisprudence is relying upon a number of essential points such as follows:
Importance of the opinions of the precursors
Importance of the narrations and Fatwas of the Sunnis
Relying upon the initial proofs and narrations
Scrutinizing upon the problems
He didn’t pay heed on the science of fundamentals (Usul) as much as jurisprudence but however, one of his students under the name of Baha-al-Din Hojati has collected his principled views during his teaching and has published them in the shape of a book called Sharhe Kefayat-al-Usul. In addition to jurisprudence and principles, Ayatollah Borojerdi had a specific skill in the sciences such as ilm ul-hadith (Science of hadith), ilm ul-rijal (Science of dignitaries) literature of Arab, history, philosophy and wisdom and used to teach them in a high level.
3-The moral and social ethos
He had high sincerity in practice and when there happened his acts to be mentioned he used to say the sincerity in practice.
He used to say make your act pure because the inspector of the act (the God) is highly clear-sighted. His effort and patient was proverbial among the individuals and groups (Gnostics and laymen). It has been narrated that he had told: “When I feel exhausted from the daily activities I resort to the scientific studying and I redress my exhaustion”. In encountering with his students and the students of the theological seminary Ayatollah Borojerdi had a lot of liberality and owing to it in his encountering with the point of views of the others he used to take into consideration the equity. The other ethos of this dignitary was the attempts such as maintaining the pillar of Islam, campaigning against vulgarism, refraining from wrath. It is hopped that God, the Almighty place him in his heaven in the vicinity of his grandfather the infallible Imam Hasan-al-Mujtaba (AS).
4-Ayatollah Borojerdi and the unity of the world of Islam
In a time when in one hand the colonialists were making plots to plunder the Islamic nations and on the other hand the faction among the various Islamic schools of thought or sects was increased he had been known as an asylum for the Muslims of the World particularly the Shias. Ayatollah Brojerdi along with the dignitaries such as martyr Muhammad Baquer Sadr, Sheikh Mohammad Shaltoot, Sheikh Abdul Majid Salim and Mohammad Abdoh used to prevent the faction among the Muslims.
He believed in that in the Holy Quran, the Sunnah (The manner of life of Holy Prophet of Islam), sirat of Ahlul-Bayt (AS) [the conduct of the family of Holy Prophet of Islam] and the policy of the predecessor ulama (Scholars) there could be found a lot of cases that there has been emphasized upon the role of the proximity of Islamic schools of thought and preventing faction, hence we also should follow the same approach.
His purpose with respect to the Islamic unity was emphasizing upon the common denominators as the essential principles of Islam which is the yardstick of the Islamic fraternity and brotherhood as well as the scale of Islamic unity. Ayatollah Brojerdi has summarized the dimensions of Taghrib (Proximity) and its aspects in four cases as follows:
The cultural unity
The political unity
The economic unity
The religious unity
The ways of achieving to the unity from the point of view of him are, the relationship among the Islamic ulama (scholars), the resuscitation of the Islamic personality of the Muslims, the existence of a common enemy for the entire Muslims, the mutual respect of the Islamic schools of thought to one another, benefiting from the other origins and making known Shia to the other Islamic schools of thought with the purpose of obliterating the existed hesitations.
5-Society and politics
The life of Ayatollah Borojerdi has been covered with a lot of vague points which the main reasons go back to his reluctance to the reputation, the preference of the others to himself and attention to the expediency of the theological seminary.
Ayatollah Borojerdi and the late Imam Khomeini (the great founder of I.R of Iran) had very intimate relations with one another and the plentiful bitter incidents could not impact upon the said intimate relationships. The both dignitaries attempted to prevent any pretext which the opportunists could use it and by the cooperation which existed between them they strove to make the sapling of the theological seminary strong and stable.
Whenever Ayatollah Brojerdi recognized a movement against the interests of Islam such as the predecessor ulama (Scholars) or precursors he dealt with it decisively and he didn’t fear of any groups.
His campaigns and political activities could be divided into two sections as follows:
a-Before undertaking the leadership of the Muslims he had a profound role in the liberalization of the thoughts of Ayatollah Hajj Agha Hussayn Qumi and owing to his political campaigns before migrating to Qum he was arrested and was kept under surveillance in Tehran in a military base.
b-After undertaking the leadership of the Muslims among the political and social activities which were carried out by him there could be indicated the following activities such as opposition to the bill of land reform, opposition with the marriage of the ousted king with a foreign wife, opposition with the alteration of the Persian handwriting, establishment of the religious elementary and high schools, including the religious teachings in the elementary school curriculum.
6-Ayatollah Borojerdi’s compilations
The compilations of that dignitary consists about 140 works which the entire compilations of him except the catechism written by him are in Arabic Language which they could be categorized in four main fields as follows: rijal (dignitaries) hadith (tradition), jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence.
His rijal and hadith books are divided in two general kinds:
Tajrid-al-asanid (the documens)
Tabaghat-al-Rawat (the narrators)
Ayatollah Brojerdi had written plentiful of margins in the works of the precursors also he had a lot of margins in the principles of Jurisprudence.
A number of the books written by him are as follows:
Hashiah Ala Kefaieh-al-Ossol, Al-Mahdi-fi-koteb-Ahlus-Sunnah, Athar-ul-Manzoomah, Aniss-al-Moghaledin, Majmah-al-Foroo, Manasek-al-Hajj, Jameh Ahadis Shia, Mostadrak Fehrest Montakhab-al-Din, Tajrid Asanid-al-Amani, Tajrid Asanid-al-estebsar and…