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The Ahlul Bayt and the Recordation of Hadīth

By: Sayyid Ali Al-Shahristani
It has been uninterruptedly narrated that the Ahl al-Bayt allowed the recordation of the Hadīth. Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib recorded the seventy-cubit book of al-Jāmi`ah, which included the dictations of the Holy Prophet and has been reported in the narrations of the Holy Imams.[1024] In a book entitled The Book of `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib as reported from the Messenger of Allah; A Muslim Jurisprudential Documentative Thesis, Dr. Rif`at Fawziy `Abd al-Muttalib has collected all the narrations of that al-Jāmi`ah that are dispersed in the jurisprudential reference books.[1025]
This Sahīfah (i.e. book) was kept by the Imams—the descendants of Imam `Alī. They handed it over in heritage from one to another and preserved it to the greatest extent. In this respect, Imam al-Hasan ibn `Alī is reported to have said,
“Verily, the (true) knowledge is with us, and we are its people. The entire knowledge is elaborately collected with us. Indeed, we have all the things that shall take place up to the Resurrection Day, including matters that are as minute as the retaliation of scratching, collected in a book dictated by the Messenger of Allah with the handwriting of `Alī.”[1026]
When he was asked about his father’s opinion about the right of option, Imam al-Hasan ordered a box to be brought to him. He then opened it and took out a yellowish book that comprised the opinions of Imam `Alī about that matter.[1027]
This book was kept by Imam al-Husayn, then Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn, then Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir, then Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq... etc.[1028]
It is thus obvious that the descendants of Imam `Alī cared about this book so incomparably that in spite of all the horrible circumstances that surrounded him, Imam al-Husayn was not distracted by anything from depositing that book to his elder daughter, Fātimah, and ordering her to give it to his son, Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn. This is because this book has been one of the treasures of the Holy Prophet’s Household and his deposit with them. Moreover, this book was so precious in the view of Lady Fātimah al-Zahrā', the daughter of the Holy Prophet, that when she once missed it, she said to Fiddah her bondmaid, “Woe to you! Look for that book because it is as precious as al-Hasan and Husayn in my view.”[1029]
This great interest in the book was neither aimless nor originated from personal desire. In point of fact, to equalize this Sahīfah to al-Hasan and al-Husayn, the one and only delight of the Holy Prophet in this world, is a matter that requires thorough consideration. On the face of it, the knowledge that is comprised by that Sahīfah is equivalent to the knowledge carried by al-Hasan and al-Husayn from the Holy Prophet and, similarly, that Sahīfah can supply the Muslims with the same amount of knowledge that can be given to them by Imam al-Hasan and Imam al-Husayn.
On the other side, this ever-increasing attention to the books in general and to the Sahīfah of Imam `Alī in particular cannot be found with the adversary school of Ijtihād and Opinionism. Abū-Bakr is reported to have set fire to the books in which he had written down the instructions of the Holy Prophet; and `Umar ibn al-Khattāb is reported to have set fire to the books in which the people had recorded the Hadīth; and `Uthmān ibn `Affān is reported to have set fire to the copies of the Holy Qur'ān; and Mu`āwiyah is reported to have ordered the publics not to narrate the heritage of the Holy Prophet except the Hadīths that were widespread during the reign of `Umar ibn al-Khattāb. The same thing is applicable to the other rulers.
Nevertheless, the Ahl al-Bayt continued recording the heritage of the Holy Prophet and preserved these records since the beginning of the Islamic legislation and the divine revelation up to a recent time.
It has been narrated that the Holy Prophet ordered Imam `Alī to write down, saying, “Write down what I will dictate.”
Imam `Alī asked, “Do you anticipate that I may forget?”
The Holy Prophet answered, “No, I do not. But I want you to write down so that your partners will benefit from it.”
“Who are my partners?” asked Imam `Alī.
The Holy Prophet answered, “They are the Imams who will come after you.”[1030]
This narration confirms that the Holy Prophet wanted to preserve, with his Household and others, the divine legislation that he conveyed by means of writing down so that these records would be maintained as scientific heritage from which all the Muslim generations would benefit. Hence, as the Ahl al-Bayt used the Sahīfah of Imam `Alī, looked in it, and asked the others to witness its existence, they intended to give proof on the authenticity of their reportings from the Holy Prophet and on the fact that whatever they said had never been personal views or baseless suggestions; rather they had been originated by the Holy Prophet.
It has been narrated on the authority of Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq that whenever Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn studied the Sahīfah of `Alī, he would say, “Who can do all these?”[1031]
It has been also narrated on the authority of Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir that his father, Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn, once asked him, “Get me these papers comprising the acts of worship of `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib.”
When he did so, his father read a few lines of these papers and then left them with tedium, saying, “Who can stand the worship of `Alī!”[1032]
These two narrations make us ask whether the Sahīfah of `Alī comprises explications of the religious laws and duties only or includes other fields of knowledge. According to the abovementioned texts, the book of Imam `Alī comprises the major and supererogatory acts of worship as it embraces all the fundaments and principles of Islam as a perfect, cognate unit in addition to all matters required by the Muslims. As Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-`Ābidīn (the best of the worshippers) who is well-known of his unparalleled worship[1033] studied the recommended, supererogatory, and preferable acts of worship mentioned in the Sahīfah of `Alī, he said, “Who can do all these?”
While the Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt and their adherents continued ceaselessly recording the Holy Prophet’s heritage and worked for preserving these records, the other School of Opinionism and Ijtihād set fire to and erased such records and prohibited the reporting and recordation of the Hadīth. This great incongruity undoubtedly proves the most authenticity and most accuracy of the proofs of the Ahl al-Bayt and the trend of the thorough compliance with the sacred texts, unlike the other trend of Opinionism and Ijtihād, which carries a confused heritage that is influenced by various factors and personal opinions beginning with the enactment of the personal opinions and interpretations disregarding the sacred texts, passing by the ratification of analogy and other innovative and invented principles, and ending up with endless personal opinions and trends.
To have a deeper look at the narrations of the Sahīfah (book) that were held by Imam Muhammad ibn `Alī al-Bāqir and Imam Ja`far ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq opens our eyes on the fact that these holy Imams had increasingly concentrated on and cared for that Sahīfah. It has been narrated that `Adhāfir al-Sayrafiy said that he, accompanied by al-Hakam ibn `Utaybah, visited Abū-Ja`far (i.e. Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir) and asked him many questions. Although the Imam honored them considerably, they disagreed about a certain question. Settling the dispute, Abū-Ja`far asked his son to bring him the Book of `Alī. Having been kept in a drawer, it was a handsome book through which Abū-Ja`far began to skim until he reached at the question involved. Referring to the book, Abū-Ja`far said, “This is the handwriting of (Imam) `Alī and the dictation of the Messenger of Allah.”
He then turned his face towards al-Hakam and said,
“Wherever Salamah, Abu’l-Miqdām, and you go, you shall never find any people carrying the most authentic knowledge other than the people to whom (Archangel) Gabriel used to ascend (from the heavens).”[1034]
According to another narration, al-Hakam ibn `Utaybah, once, asked Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir about the parts of the blood money for the teeth. Answering him, Imam al-Bāqir said,
“Thus have we found it (i.e. the question) in the Book of `Alī.”[1035]
It has been also narrated that Zurārah ibn A`yun once asked Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir about the share of grandfathers from inheritances... Zurārah said that Imam al-Bāqir then asked his son, Ja`far,[1036] to recite the Sahīfah of the shares of inheritances before me. He therefore brought out a book that was as huge as a camel’s thigh and threw its edge before me. As Zurārah looked in it, it was obvious that it must have been written in an ancient age. The next morning, Imam al-Bāqir asked Zurārah whether he had read the chapter of the shares of inheritances in that book. He then added,
“By Allah I swear, what you have seen is verily the very truth. What you have seen was the dictation of the Messenger of Allah and the handwriting of `Alī. My father told me on the authority of his father that Amīr al-Mu'minīn told him of such.”[1037]
It has been also narrated on the authority of Abū-Ayyūb al-Khazzāz that Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq said that it has been written down in the Book of `Alī that he who has relatives... etc.[1038]
It has been also narrated on the authority of Sulaymān ibn Khālid that Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq said that it has been written down in the Book of `Alī that one of the Prophets complained to Almighty Allah about... etc.[1039]

The Book Of `Alī Again
As has been previously said, the Book of Imam `Alī was so comprehensive that its contents cannot be dedicated to questions of the religious laws of inheritance and judicature since the Holy Imams have referred to this book during discussing all the life affairs as well as the various fields of the Muslim jurisprudence, such as the following questions:
Cats’ leftover;[1040] performing the ritual ablution as a part of the bathing of the major ritual impurity;[1041] the rulings of the funerals, the best time of offering the Dhuhr and `Asr Prayers, and the Tashahhud in the prayers;[1042] the ruling regarding what to do with a dead Muhrim;[1043] performing the prayer while putting a garb made of the hair of an animal the meet of which is forbidden to eat;[1044]the Tashahhud in the prayers;[1045] the fact that Almighty Allah rewards those who very much offer prayers and observe fasting;[1046] the decency of the imām of congregational prayers;[1047] the etiquettes of supplication (Du`ā');[1048] the forbiddance from defraying the Zakāt;[1049] some questions about Enjoining the Right (al-Amr bi’l-Ma`rūf), the outbreak of adultery, and rupture of family ties;[1050] the observance of fasting when the new moon is, personally, seen;[1051] the Muhrim’s putting on pallium;[1052] the Muhrim’s hunting;[1053] doubt in the times of the ritual Circumambulation (Tawāff);[1054] granting security to those who voluntarily join the Muslim community;[1055] the properties of one’s son;[1056] the meaning of ‘thing’ in a will;[1057] a number of questions appertained to matrimony;[1058] the oaths;[1059] eating the meat of falcons and hawks;[1060] some questions appertained to game and legal slaughtering of animals;[1061] the parts to be cut from the fat tails of sheep;[1062] the forbiddingness from eating the catfish, the eel, the fish that die inside the water and then float on its surface,[1063] the pipefish,[1064] the spleen, the wastes of the sea,[1065] the hagfish,[1066] and the meat of domestic donkeys;[1067] rulings appertained to the lands;[1068] laws and statutory shares of inheritance;[1069] judicature;[1070] doctrinal provisions (Hudūd);[1071] blood money (Diyah);[1072] rulings of adultery;[1073] the major sins;[1074] devouring the wealth of orphans;[1075] the punishments for acts of disobedience (to Almighty Allah);[1076] painstakingness in acts of worship;[1077] divine tests for the faithful believers;[1078] the likeness of the worldly life;[1079] having a good opinion about Almighty Allah;[1080] respect for the neighbor;[1081] well-manneredness;[1082] the violators of the Sabbath;[1083] the encouragement on seeking knowledge;[1084] the blood money for the damaged teeth;[1085] and many other issues that are derived from the primary religious questions and fields of knowledge.
Although I have not been very accurate in the inventory of the narrations in the Imāmiyyah Shī`ite reference books of Hadīth, the aforesaid topics have been no more than various examples on the subjects comprised by the Book of `Alī. My purpose beyond this has been only to demonstrate the difference between the two schools—Sunnite and Shī`ite—in jurisprudence and to prove the fact that the Muslims, after they had disagreed about the political leadership, disagreed about jurisprudence. It is worth mentioning that the School of Thorough Compliance with the Sacred Texts adhered to the Book of `Alī in order to prove its genuineness and derivation from the Holy Prophet and the Divine Revelation. Consequently, those who issued the decision of prohibiting the reporting and recording of the Hadīth blacked out this book and, as a result, some people received the rulings mentioned therein very astonishingly because they had never heard of them before.
All these narrations prove that the “Book of `Alī” has been so comprehensive that it comprises all the worldly and religious sciences that the Holy Prophet conveyed from Almighty Allah. One of the abovementioned narrations has confirmed that the “Book of `Alī” comprises the recounting of the previous Prophets and the ancient nations that Imam `Alī took directly from the tongue of the Holy Prophet. Moreover, the narratives of the ancient beliefs and peoples have reached us from the Book of `Alī... etc.

Imam `Alī Ibn Abī-Tālib
Besides the writing down of the famous Sahīfah from the Holy Prophet, Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib, according to reference books of history, recorded other books the materials of which were derived from the knowledge of the Holy Prophet. Sharīf al-Murtadā (died in AH 436) has ascribed the book of al-Muhkam wa’l-Mutashābah fī’l-Qur'ān (The Decisive and Allegorical Verses in the Qur'ān) to Imam `Alī.[1086] Al-Ash`ariy al-Qummiy (died in AH 301) has ascribed the book of Nāsikh al-Qur'ān wa-Mansūkhuh (The Repealing and the Repealed Verses of the Qur'ān) to Imam `Alī.[1087] al-Hāfidh ibn `Uqdah al-Kūfiy (died in AH 333) has confirmed that Imam `Alī wrote in about sixty items of the knowledge of the Holy Qur'ān.[1088]
Patterning the pioneer of the Islamic recording, Imam `Alī’s descendants and disciples wrote many books in all fields of religious knowledge. It has been narrated that al-Hārith al-A`war al-Hamadāniy[1089] and Abū-Rāfī`[1090] each reported from Imam `Alī an entire book. Rabī`ah ibn Sumay` has narrated the rulings of the Zakāt that Imam `Alī wrote down with his handwriting when he appointed him as the Zakāt collector.[1091] Muhammad ibn Qays al-Bujaliy has narrated the suits in which Imam `Alī issued judgments. He then presented these narrations before Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir, who attested them.[1092] Maytham ibn Yahyā al-Tammār wrote down a famous book, which was circulating up to the seventh century (of Hijrah). Directly from this book, al-Tabariy quoted many paragraphs.[1093] Asbagh ibn Nubātah al-Mujāshi`iy has reported from Imam `Alī the section of the suits in which he issued judgments. These reports have been published in a book entitled Aqdiyat al-Imām `Alī (The Judgments of Imam `Alī) and `Ajā’ib Ahkām Amīr al-Mu'minīn (The Amazing Verdicts of Amīr al-Mu'minīn). Sulaym ibn Qays has also written down a book from whom Abān ibn `Ayyāsh narrated.
In addition, many other Sahābah and Tābi`ūn wrote down many books whose materials were quoted or reported from Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib. In this respect, al-Suyūtiy, in his book of al-Ashbāh wa’l-Nadhā'ir, has written down on the authority of Ibn `Asākir that some of the Grammarians used to refer to the thesis of Abu’l-Aswad al-Du'aliy that he had received from Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib.[1094]
It has been also narrated that Imam `Alī wrote an epistle to Mālik al-Ashtar when he appointed him as the governor of Egypt. This epistle has been published with the famous book of Nahj al-Balāghah and in an independent book. Master scholars have written down many commentaries and explanations of this famous epistle that comprises the significant and unparalleled concepts of Imam `Alī in the fields of policy, management, unity, and rights of the leaders and the subjects.[1095]
It has been narrated on the authority of al-A`mash, on the authority of Ibrāhīm, that his father once said, “One day, (Imam) `Alī delivered a sermon in which he said,
Verily, liar is he who claims that we (i.e. the Ahl al-Bayt) hold anything from which we read except the Book of Almighty Allah (i.e. the Holy Qur'ān) and this Sahīfah.
The Sahīfah was a book hanged to his sword comprising some laws of the blood money for breaking the teeth of camels as well as details of the blood money for some wounds.[1096]
It has been also narrated that Tarīq said that he once heard Imam `Alī saying from the minbar,
“We have no book to recite before you except the Book of Almighty Allah and this Sahīfah.”[1097]
These two narrations and their likes reveal significant features about the Sahīfah of Imam `Alī and the recordation of the Hadīth. Accordingly, a part of the Muslims found it strange that Imam `Alī kept a book, or a number of books, comprising the knowledge of Islam. Of course, such astonishment was the result of their accumulative ignorance with the recordation of the religious knowledge in general and in its benefits; with the reporting of the Hadīth and with its good results; with the divine revelation; and with the true interpretations of the sacred texts... etc. Moreover, these Muslims accused Imam `Alī of having held a book “besides the Book of Almighty Allah” or another “Qur'ān.” Unfortunately, some of the modern Muslim scholars and writers who lack any knowledge with the minute details of the recording and the records that were present in the first age of Islam have falsely claimed that Imam `Alī held a book of the Holy Qur'ān different from the existent one.
Through the aforementioned texts, Imam `Alī wanted to explain the matter for the Muslims; he had nothing other than the Holy Qur'ān and a book (Sahīfah) in which he had written down the dictations of the Holy Prophet. This Sahīfah is a comprehensive exegesis and interpretation of the Holy Qur'ān and the divine revelations with all of their dimensions and purports. Thus, the Sahīfah comprises nothing further than these two basic sources of the Islamic legislation.
Once again, Imam `Alī’s words in the aforesaid narrations stood for refuting a spurious argument or a false accusation of the existence of a book matching or opposing the Holy Qur'ān; therefore, the narrator has mentioned in particular the laws of the blood money for breaking the teeth of camels as well as details of the blood money for some wounds, because these laws had been known for them since the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. The Sahīfah had not comprised materials that they had never heard of; rather it comprised the details of such materials. Furthermore, the narrations have mentioned the Sahīfah in particular; and this does not mean that Imam `Alī did not write down or hold other books; rather it has been proven that the Ahl al-Bayt kept other books. Later on in this book, details in this respect will be presented.
To put it briefly, by his saying, “and this Sahīfah” Imam `Alī intended to declare that all his sayings are originated from the Holy Prophet.
If truth be told, the Sahīfah of Imam `Alī was the head of all items of knowledge and the loftiest book in the view of the Ahl al-Bayt; therefore, Imam `Alī and his descendants concentrated on it so confirmatively that Ibn Sīrīn wished had he seen or obtained that book, saying,
“Had I obtained that Book (i.e. the Sahīfah), I would have certainly obtained the knowledge entirely.”[1098]
Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib was the foremost caller to the recordation of the religious knowledge in general and the heritage of the Holy Prophet in particular. He immeasurably confirmed and supported this process. In this regard, it has been narrated on the authority of al-Hārith that Imam `Alī once declared, “Who will purchase knowledge from me with one dirham!” I thus went to him and bought some papers with one dirham.[1099]
In addition, too many are the narrations that demonstrated Imam `Alī’s having encouraged and declared the legality of recording the religious knowledge. For instance, he is reported to have said,
“Write down the knowledge, Write down the knowledge!”[1100]
“Handwriting is a signal; therefore, the clearer the better.”[1101]
To his clerk `Ubaydullāh ibn Abī-Rāfi`, Imam `Alī once said,
“Prepare your ink-pot, extend the edges of your pen, expand the distance between the lines, and reduce the distance between the letters (of one word).”[1102]
He is also reported to have said,
“Lengthen and fatten up the tip of your pen, sharpen it, make me hear the drone of the ‘n’, roll the ‘h’, stuff the ‘s’, crisscross the ‘`’, rend the ‘k’, intensify the ‘f’, well-arrange the ‘l’, lighten the ‘b’, ‘t’, and ‘th’, stand up the ‘z’ and raise its tail, and always put your pen behind your ear so as to remember it.”[1103]
These excellent instructions in the Arabic calligraphy are considered among the important pillars of the process of recording. Up to the present time, these instructions have been applied by the calligraphists in order to show their skillfulness in bettering the Arabic handwriting.
The Ahl al-Bayt cared for the recordation of the religious knowledge very much; they therefore guided their disciples in particular and the clerks in general to the minutest details of writing. Additionally, the above-mentioned narrations prove false all the claims that Imam `Alī warned against the compilation of books on religious knowledge and the keeping of such records. They also confirm our discussions about the role of the ruling authorities in the fabrication and forgery against the Holy Prophet and the Ahl al-Bayt.
For more clarification, let us cite the following narration that was reported by Ibrāhīm ibn Muhammad al-Thaqafiy (died in AH 283) in the book of al-Ghārāt:
Having quoted Imam `Alī’s epistle to Muhammad ibn Abī-Bakr and the people of Egypt -regarding religious affairs-, the writer narrated on the authority of `Abdullāh ibn Muhammad ibn `Uthmān on the authority of `Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Abī-Sayf on the authority of the companions of Muhammad ibn Abī-Bakr that when the epistle of Imam `Alī reached him, he used to read it carefully, learn from it, and apply it to his affairs and judgments. When Muhammad ibn Abī-Bakr was attacked and murdered, `Amr ibn al-`Ās seized all of the epistles and books that he had kept and sent them to Mu`āwiyah ibn Abī-Sufyān. As he read this very epistle of Imam `Alī, he liked it very much. Al-Walīd ibn `Aqabah, who accompanied Mu`āwiyah, suggested to him to set all these books and epistles to fire.
“Shut up, son of Abī-Ma`īt! Your opinions are always worthless!” shouted Mu`āwiyah.
Al-Walīd answered, “It is you who lacks good opinion! Is it reasonable that all the people know that you keep the words of Abū-Turāb (i.e. Imam `Alī), learn from them, and judge according to them? If such, why do you then fight against him?”
Mu`āwiyah said, “Woe to you! Do you want me to burn such knowledge? By Allah I swear that I have never heard of or seen any item of knowledge more comprehensive, more sagacious, and clearer than this one.”
Al-Walīd asked, “If you do admire his knowledge in such a wonderful manner, what for then are you fighting against him?”
Mu`āwiyah answered, “Unless Abū-Turāb killed `Uthmān, we would accept and adopt his judgments.”
Mu`āwiyah then paused for a while, gazed at the attendants, and said, “We will not say that these epistles were from `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib; rather we will declare that these were Abū-Bakr’s epistles that he had sent to his son Muhammad. We thus can accept and adopt them.”[1104]
Abū-Ishāq (i.e. Ibrāhīm ibn Muhammad al-Thaqafiy, the author of al-Ghārāt, narrated on the authority of Bakr ibn Bakr on the authority of Qays ibn al-Rabī` on the authority of Maysarah ibn Habīb on the authority of `Amr ibn Murrah on the authority of `Abdullāh ibn Salamah that Imam `Alī, having led a congregational prayer, expressed great sorrow -in a form of a poetic verse- and when he was asked about the reason, he said, “When I appointed Muhammad ibn Abī-Bakr as the governor of Egypt, he told me about his lack of knowledge concerning the religious laws. I therefore wrote to him an epistle comprising these laws, but he was then killed and that book was taken.”[1105]
This narration demonstrates the scope of Imam `Alī’s anticipation that Mu`āwiyah ibn Abī-Sufyān would distort the Holy Sunnah.

Fātimah Al-Zahrā'; Daughter Of The Holy Prophet
Both Sunnite and Shī`ite narrators have confirmed that Lady Fātimah al-Zahrā' had a book that she had received from her father. As for the Sunnite reference books of Hadīth, al-Kharā'itiy has recorded on the authority of Mujāhid that when Ubayy ibn Ka`b visited Fātimah, the daughter of Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), she showed him a kurbah (a part of the trunk of date-palm trees) on which it was written that one who has believed in Almighty Allah and in the Hereafter must be kind to his neighbor.[1106]
It has been narrated on the authority of al-Qāsim ibn al-Fudayl that Muhammad ibn `Alī narrated that `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Azīz, the Umayyad ruler, once sent him a missive in which he ordered him to copy the will of (Lady) Fātimah. One of the paragraphs of that will was the claim that she put a curtain before her, and when the Messenger of Allah saw that curtain, he returned while he had intended to visit her... etc.[1107]
As for the Shī`ite reference books of Hadīth, Ibn Bābawayh al-Qummiy has recorded that Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq said,
“As I was reading in the Book of Fātimah, I found that all the kings (i.e. rulers) that would rule on this earth are written in that book by their fathers’ and their names.”[1108]
It has been also recorded in al-Kāfī that Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq answered a question depending upon the contents of the Book of Fātimah.[1109]
Because the Book of Fātimah has been well-known as al-Mushaf,[1110] the enemies have used this point to malign the disciples of the Ahl al-Bayt School although the word Mushaf was used in the first age of Islam to denote any book and it has been never dedicated to referring to the Holy Qur'ān alone. To support this fact, Shaykh Tāhir al-Jazā'iriy has written down that as soon as the Holy Prophet departed life, the Sahābah hurried to compile all that which he had written in his will in one book that they named al-Mushaf.[1111]

Imam Al-Hasan Ibn `Alī Al-Mujtabā
Imam al-Hasan kept his father’s Sahīfah from which he learnt the knowledge of the Holy Prophet. It has been narrated that `Abd al-Rahmān ibn Abī-Laylā asked Imam al-Hasan about Imam `Alī’s verdict about the right of option. Imam al-Hasan ordered a box to be brought to him. He then opened it and took out a yellowish book that comprised the opinions of Imam `Alī about that matter.[1112]
This narration reveals two facts the first of which is that the Sahābah had disagreed about the ruling of the right of option; therefore, `Abd al-Rahmān ibn Abī-Laylā asked Imam al-Hasan about Imam `Alī’s opinion in the question. Secondly, it was commonly known that Imam `Alī’s religious rulings (i.e. jurisprudence) was the most genuine; therefore, `Abd al-Rahmān ibn Abī-Laylā asked for these rulings from Imam al-Hasan since he believed that the Book of `Alī had been with him.
More than once, Imam al-Hasan ibn `Alī concentrated on the significance of spreading the genuine knowledge and the necessity of the responsibility that the Ahl al-Bayt and their descendants should undertake in preserving the genuine Islamic legislation by means of reporting and recording the Hadīth. In this regard, it has been narrated on the authority of Shurahbīl ibn Sa`d that Imam al-Hasan, once, summoned his sons and nephews and said to them,
“My sons and nephews: As you are now the infants among this people, you will soon be the adults of others. You should thus learn the (religious) knowledge. Any of you who cannot report it must write it down and keep it in his house.”[1113]
Thus, Imam al-Hasan instructed his sons and nephews to learn the religious knowledge since infancy so that they will benefit by it and teach it to others. Of course, this instruction was resulted from the fact that the genuine knowledge was on the edge of loss and in the danger of falling in abyss. One can now imagine what the fate of the Islamic legislation be if these records would not be preserved for the next generations. Although records and reference books are existent and easily obtainable in the present time, disagreements and waste of the actual religious rulings are in full swing; what would be our manner if recordation of the religious knowledge was not practiced at all?
It has been narrated on the authority of Abū-`Amr ibn al-`Alā’ that Imam al-Hasan answered those who asked him his opinion about an eighty year old man who was still writing down the Hadīth, “This man is making good living.”[1114]

Imam Al-Husayn Ibn `Alī, The Martyr
The Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt and their adherents believe indisputably that the Book of Imam `Alī moved to Imam al-Husayn after the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan. According to the book of Basā'ir al-Darajāt, when Imam al-Husayn had to encounter the enemy, he summoned his elder daughter, Fātimah, and gave her a folded book.[1115] According to another narration, when Imam `Alī advanced to Iraq (for fighting), he trusted the books that he had kept to Ummu-Salamah, the Holy Prophet’s widow. These books were kept by Imam al-Hasan after the demise of Imam `Alī. After the demise of Imam al-Hasan, these books were kept by Imam al-Husayn and then by Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn... etc.[1116]These books were different from the book that the Holy Prophet had trusted to Ummu-Salamah and asked her not to hand it over to his successor provided that the successor himself would ask her for it. Ummu-Salamah maintained that book, and when the publics elected and swore allegiance to Imam `Alī as their leader, he came and asked her about the book, and she gave it to him.[1117]
It has also been narrated on the authority of Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Imam `Alī’s son, came to Imam al-Husayn and asked him something from their father’s heritage.
“Your father left nothing more than seven hundred dirhams that remained from his gifts. However, the people came to me asking, and I have to answer them,” answered Imam al-Husayn.
Muhammad then said, “Well, give me from the knowledge of my father.”
Hence, Imam al-Husayn brought a book that is four fingers longer or shorter than one span (of the hand). That book was filled up with knowledge.[1118]
To sum it up, the book that the Holy Prophet had trusted with Ummu-Salamah was different from the one that he had dictated to Imam `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib. The earlier one comprised materials needed by the ruler for managing the governmental affairs, while the latter comprised the religious laws, the history of the ancient nations, and so on.
Owing to the incomparable significance of that book, Imam al-Husayn, having encountered the worst circumstances, exerted all efforts for conveying the knowledge of that book to his successor. It is thus undeniable that Ummu-Salamah was one of the foremost Muslim women who preserved the recordation of the religious knowledge and realized the menace of preventing it. For that reason, this righteous lady was highly respected by the Holy Imams of the Ahl a-Bayt who trusted with her the records of the genuine legislation of the Holy Prophet.
Having been one of the supporters and heralds of the necessity of reporting and recording the Hadīth, Imam al-Husayn said in a sermon that he had delivered at Minā,
“You have seen, realized, and witnessed what this tyrant is doing to us and to our adherents. I therefore want to carry out a matter; and if you believe it as true, then you should carry it out. Listen to my words and write down my sayings; and when you go back to your districts and tribes, call those whom you trust and believe to our right that you know, for I fear lest this matter will be wiped out and thus the right would vanish.”[1119]
It has been also narrated on the authority of `Abdullāh ibn Sinān that he once asked Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq what should be done to a Muhrim (entering into Ihrām: putting the pilgrimage uniform) who departs life. The Imam answered that when `Abd al-Rahmān ibn `Alī died at al-Abwā' (while having been Muhrim), Imam al-Husayn who was accompanied by `Abdullāh ibn `Abbās and `Abdullāh ibn Ja`far did the same procedures that are done to the other dead people and then covered his face without letting any scent touch his body. He then commented, “I found this way written down in the Book of `Alī.”[1120]
It has been also narrated that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah wrote down a reference book of Hadīth.[1121]This indicates that all the sons of Imam `Alī wrote books on the religious knowledge and concerned themselves with the recording out of their care for preserving the Holy Sunnah and documenting all that which they reported from the Holy Prophet.
[1024] Sayyid Muhsin al-Amīn: A`yān al-Shī`ah 1:330.
[1025] This book (Sahīfat `Alī ibn Abī-Tālib `An Rasūlillāh; Dirāsatun Tawthīqiyyatun Fiqhiyyah) was published in AH 1406 in Aleppo, Dār al-Salām Publications.
[1026] Al-Tabrisiy: al-Ihtijāj 155; al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 44:100.
[1027] Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-`Ilal 1: 104 (Ankara University Press).
[1028] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 165/12.
[1029] Al-Tabarāniy: al-Mu`jam al-Kabīr 413 H. 22; al-Tūsiy: al-Ghaybah 118.
[1030] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 167.
[1031] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Rawdat al-Kāfī 8:136 H. 172.
[1032] Shaykh al-Mufīd: al-Irshād 2:142; Ibn Shahrāshūb: Manāqib Āli Abī-Tālib 4:149; Shaykh al-Tabrisiy: I`lām al-Warā bi-A`lām al-Hudā 245; al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 46:74 H. 65.
[1033] Imam `Alī ibn al-Husayn is also called ‘Dhu’l-Thafanāt’, because his knees were callous due to his very frequent and long prostrations for Almighty Allah. He is also called ‘al-Sajjād’, which means the one who very frequently prostrates himself for Almighty Allah.
[1034] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 360 No. 966.
[1035] Al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:329 H. 1.
[1036] Al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:77 H. 1.
[1037] Al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:94 H. 3.
[1038] Al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:77 H. 1.
[1039] Al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:414 H. 3 and 4.
[1040] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 1:227 H. 665/38, 9:86 H. 364/9; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 3:9 H. 4.
[1041] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 1:339 H. 398.
[1042] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 2:23 H. 64/15; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: al-Istibsār 1:261 H. 27; `Allāmah al-Hilliy: Muntahā al-Matlab 1:207; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 4:144 H. 4754/14, 147 H. 4766/26.
[1043] About this topic, there are four narrations; the first is reported on the authority of `Abdullāh ibn Sinān (see Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 5: 383 H. 13337/250), the second is reported on the authority of Ibn Maryam (see Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Furū` (Secondary Subjects) al-Kāfī 4:368 H. 3), the third and the fourth are reported on the authority of `Abd al-Rahmān ibn Abū-`Abdullāh (Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 1:329 H. 963/136; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Furū` al-Kāfī 3:175 H. 6; and Shaykh al-Tusjiy: al-Istibsār 1:472 H. 1826/7).
[1044] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Furū` al-Kāfī 3:397 H. 1; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 2:209 H. 818/26; al-Istibsār 1:383 H. 1; Ibn Abī-Jumhūr al-Ihsā'iy, in `Awāli al-La’āli 3:74 H. 34.
[1045] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 165 H. 14.
[1046] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 185 H. 11; al-Hurr al-'Āmiliy: Wasāi’l al-Shī’ah 4:103 H. 4630/4, 10:407 H. 13714/42.
[1047] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 3:28 H. 96/8.
[1048] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 2:484 H. 2, 485 H. 7; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 7:80 H. 8784/3.
[1049] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Furū` al-Kāfī 3:505 H. 17; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 7:80 H. 11431/12.
[1050] Shaykh al-Sadūq: `Ilal al-Sharā'i` 2:584 H. 26; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: al-Amāliy 1:131.
[1051] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 4:158 H. 441/13; al-Istibsār 2:64 H. 208/10; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 10:255 H. 13349/11.
[1052] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Furū` al-Kāfī 4:340 H. 7; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 2:217 H. 21; Shaykh al-Sadūq: `Ilal al-Sharā'i` 2:408 H. 1.
[1053] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 5:344 H. 1190/103, 1191/104, 355 H. 1233/146; al-Istibsār 2:203 H. 3; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Furū` al-Kāfī 4:389 H. 5, 4:390 H. 9; Ibn Abī-Jumhūr al-Ihsā'iy, in `Awāli al-La’āli 3:173 H. 86, 88.
[1054] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 5:152 H. 502/27; al-Istibsār 2:240 H. 835/5; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 13:366 H. 17966/10, 367 H. 17972/16.
[1055] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Furū` al-Kāfī 5:31 H.5.
[1056] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 6:343 H. 961/82.
[1057] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:40 H. 1; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 4:151 H. 1; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:211 H. 836/3; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Ma`ānī al-Akhbār 217 H. 1.
[1058] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 3:263 H. 37, 286 H.6; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 5:135 H. 5, 452 H. 1; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 7:432 H. 1723/34, 481 H. 1932/140; al-Istibsār 3:48 H. 158/1.
[1059] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 2:347 H. 4; Furū` al-Kāfī 7:436 H. 9; Shaykh al-Sadūq: al-Khisāl 1:124 H. 119; Thawāb al-A`māl 270 H. 8.
[1060] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 6:202 H. 1, 207 H. 1; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:22 H. 88/88; al-`Ayyāshiy: Tafsīr 1:294 H. 28, 295 H. 30.
[1061] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 6:232 H. 1, 3; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 3:210 H. 61; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:57 H. 237/237; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 24:23 H. 29891/6, H. 29892/7, 65 H. 30010/44, 136 H. 30175/21.
[1062] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 6:254 H. 1; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 3:209 H. 57.
[1063] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:5 H. 12/12; al-Istibsār 4:590 H. 5; Ibn Abī-Jumhūr al-Ihsā'iy: `Awāli al-La’āli 3:464 H. 9.
[1064] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 6:219 H. 1; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:2 H. 1/1.
[1065] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9: 9 H. 18/18; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 24: 134 H. 30170/16.
[1066] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:4 H. 9/9, 10/10; al-Istibsār 4:58 H. 201/2, 59 H. 3.
[1067] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:40 H. 169/169.
[1068] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 1:407 H. 1; Furū` al-Kāfī 5:279 H. 5; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 7:152 H. 674/23; al-Istibsār 3:108 H. 383/5; al-`Ayyāshiy: Tafsīr 2:25 H. 66; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 25:414 H. 32246/2; al-Mīrzā al-Nūriy: Mustadrak al-Wasā’il wa-Mustanbat al-Masā’il 17:112 H. 1.
[1069] See, for instance, the narration of Abū-Ayyūb al-Khazzāz recorded by Shaykh al-Kulayniy in al-Kāfī 7:77 H. 1, Shaykh al-Tūsiy in Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:269 H. 976/3; the narration of Abu’l-Rabī` recorded in Shaykh al-Sadūq’s Man-lā-Yahduruhu’l-Faqīh 4:306 H. 13; the narration of al-Qāsim ibn Sulaymān recorded in Shaykh al-Tūsiy’s Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 9:308 H. 1103/24; the narration of `Abd al-Rahmān ibn al-Hajjāj recorded in Shaykh al-Kulayniy’s Furū` al-Kāfī 7:136 H. 1 and Shaykh al-Sadūq’s Man-lā-Yahduruhu’l-Faqīh 4:225 H. All these narrations were reported from Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq. Ibn Abī-Jumhūr al-Ihsā’iy, in `Awāli al-La’āli 2:152 H. 424; and al-Qādī al-Nu`mān al-Maghribiy, in Da`ā'im al-Islām 2:381 H. 1361; and Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār, in Basā'ir al-Darajāt 185—all these have reported that Imam Muhammad al-Bāqir ordered the Book of `Alī to be brought to him, and thus Ja`far (i.e. Imam al-Sādiq) brought it.
[1070] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:414 H. 3, 415 H. 7; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 6:228 H. 550/1, 551/2 on the authority of Abū-Basīr and Muhammad ibn Muslim and Zurārah. See also Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 163 H. 7.
[1071] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 4:53 H. 14; Al-Barqiy: al-Mahāsin 1:273 H. 377; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 10:146 H. 579/10; Ibn Abī-Jumhūr al-Ihsā'iy: `Awāli al-La’āli 3:549; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:200 H. 12, 214 H. 4, 216 H. 11; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 10:55 H. 203, 90 H. 348/5, 345/2, 108 H. 421/38.
[1072] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:316 H. 1, 329 H. 1; Usūl al-Kāfī 1:238 H. 1; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 10:251 H. 996/29, 70 H. 21063/8, 277 H.9, 254 H. 1005/38; al-Istibsār 4:266 H. 1004/8, H. 72, 630 H. 55; Shaykh al-Sadūq: al-Khisāl 2:539 H. 9; Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 171 H. 3.
[1073] Al-Barqiy: al-Mahāsin 1: 107 H. 93; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 5:541 H. 4.
[1074] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 2:278 H. 8; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 15:321 H. 20631/4.
[1075] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Thawāb al-A`māl 277 H. 1; al-`Ayyāshiy: Tafsīr 1:223 H. 39; al-Mīrzā al-Nūriy: Mustadrak al-Wasā’il wa-Mustanbat al-Masā’il 13:190 H. 3; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 1: 91 H. 215/18.
[1076] Shaykh al-Sadūq: Thawāb al-A`māl 298 H. 2; al-Amāliy 253 H. 2.
[1077] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Rawdah Min al-Kāfī 8:129 H. 100, 163 H. 172; Ibn Shahrāshūb, in Manāqib Āli Abī-Tālib 2:125; al-Hurr al-`Āmiliy: Wasā'il al-Shī`ah 1:91 H. 215/18.
[1078] Muhammad ibn Hammam al-Iskāfiy: Kitāb al-Tamhīs 44 H. 55; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 2:259 H. 29; Shaykh al-Sadūq: `Ilal al-Sharā'i` 1:44 H. 1.
[1079] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 2:136 H. 22; Warrām ibn Abī-Firās: Tanbīh al-Khawātir wa-Nuzhat al-Nawādhir 2:194.
[1080] Shaykh al-Mufīd: al-Ikhtisās 227; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 2:71 H. 2.
[1081] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 2:666 H. 2.
[1082] Al-Qummiy: Tafsīr 1:36; al-`Ayyāshiy: Tafsīr 1:26 H. 2; al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 11:103 H. 10.
[1083] Al-Qummiy: Tafsīr 1:244; al-`Ayyāshiy: Tafsīr 2:33 H. 93; al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 14:52 H. 5.
[1084] Shaykh al-Kulyniy: Usūl al-Kāfī 1:41 H. 1; Al-Himyariy al-Qummiy: Qurb al-Isnād 44; al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 1:106 H. 2, 2:76 H. 14, 227 H. 5; al-Arbaliy: Kashf al-Ghummah 2:346.
[1085] The Holy Imam has explained this question to al-Hakam ibn `Uyaynah. See Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 7:329 H. 1; Shaykh al-Sadūq: Man-lā-Yahduruhul-Faqīh 4:104 H. 12; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 10:254 H. 1005/38; al-Istibsār 4:288 H. 1089/1; Shaykh al-Mufīd: al-Ikhtisās 254.
[1086] Sharīf al-Murtadā: al-Dharī`ah 2:154-155.
[1087] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 177 No. 467; Sharīf al-Murtadā: al-Dharī`ah 4:276, 8:24; al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 1:15, 32, 84: 382, 92: 40, 66.
[1088] Sayyid Muhsin al-Amīn: A`yān al-Shī`ah 1:321; al-Majlisiy: Bihār al-Anwār 3:93.
[1089] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 7 No. 2; Shaykh al-Tūsiy: al-Fihrist 62 No. 119.
[1090] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 6 No. 1; Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr: Ta’sīs al-Shī’ah li-‘Ulūm al-Islām 280; al-Khatīb al-Baghdādiy: Tārīkh Baghdad 8:449.
[1091] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 7&8 No. 3; al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī (Kitāb al-Zakāt).
[1092] Al-Najāshiy: al-Rijāl 333 No. 881; Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr: Ta’sīs al-Shī’ah li-‘Ulūm al-Islām 284.
[1093] Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr: Ta’sīs al-Shī’ah li-‘Ulūm al-Islām 283.
[1094] Al-Suyūtiy: al-Ashbāh wa’l-Nadhā'ir 1:12-14; al-Qaftiy: Anbā’ al-Ruwāt 1:39; al-Dhahbiy: Siyar A’lām al-Nubalā’ 4:84.
[1095] This epistle has been published by Ansariyan Publications under the title of ‘The Epistle; Imam `Alī’s Famous Epistle to Mālik al-Ashtar’.
[1096] Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādiy: Taqyīd al-`Ilm 88; Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: Jāmi`u Bayān al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 1:71; Ibn Sa`d: al-Tabaqāt al-Kubrā 6:168; Sahīh al-Bukhāriy 1:40.
[1097] Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādiy: Taqyīd al-`Ilm 89.
[1098] `Abd al-Halīm al-Jundiy: al-Imām Ja`far al-Sādiq 199.
[1099] Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādiy: Taqyīd al-`Ilm 90, Tārīkh Baghdād 8:357.
[1100] Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādiy: Taqyīd al-`Ilm 89-90.
[1101] Al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Ummāl 10:312 H. 29562.
[1102] Al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Ummāl 10:312 H. 29563. A similar narration is recorded in Ibn Abi’l-Hadīd’s Sharh Nahj al-Balāghah.
[1103] Al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Ummāl 10:313 H. 29564. Of course, this narration demonstrates the best way of handwriting the Arabic letters mentioned therein.
[1104] This narration is also recorded in Sharh Nahj al-Balāghah and Bihār al-Anwār with a little difference in expressions.
[1105] Muhammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Thaqafiy: al-Ghārāt 1:251-254.
[1106] Al-Kharā'itiy: Makārim al-Akhlāq 43 No. 317.
[1107] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 6:283; al-Tabarāniy: al-Mu`jam al-Kabīr 5:127; al-Kharā'itiy: Makārim al-Akhlāq 37.
[1108] Ibn Bābawayh al-Qummiy: al-Imāmah wa’l-Tabsirah min’al-Hayrah 180 H. 34.
[1109] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Kāfī 3:507 H. 2.
[1110] In the present time, the word ‘Mushaf’ is mainly used to refer to the Holy Qur'ān.
[1111] Shaykh Tāhir al-Jazā'iriy: Ma`rifat al-Naskh 31, 145; Tawjīh al-Nadhar 6.
[1112] Mustafā al-A`dhamiy: Dirāsātun fi’l-Hadīth al-Nubawiy 107 as reported from Abū-Hātam: al-Ilal 1:104.
[1113] Ibn Sa`d: al-Tabaqāt al-Kubra 64 :98 (Biography of Imam al-Hasan); Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: Jāmi`u Bayān al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 1:82; al-Ya`qūbiy: al-Tārīkh 2:227; al-Khatīb al-Baghdādiy: al-Kifāyah fī `Ilm al-Dirāyah; al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Ummāl 5:229; Ibn ‘Asākir: Tārīkh Madīnat Dimashq (Biography of Imam al-Hasan).
[1114] Abū-Bakr al-Khatīb: Sharaf Ashāb al-Hadīth 69 No. 146.
[1115] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 148/9, 163/3, 164/6.
[1116] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 162/1, 167/21.
[1117] Ibn Shahrāshūb: Manāqib Āli Abī-Tālib 2:37; Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 163/4, 168/23.
[1118] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saffār: Basā'ir al-Darajāt 160/29.
[1119] Kitāb Sulaym ibn Qays 165.
[1120] Shaykh al-Tūsiy: Tahdhīb al-Ahkām 5:383 (Kitāb al-Hajj)
[1121] Asad Haydar: al-Imām al-Sādiq wa’l-Madhāhib al-Arba`ah 1:550 as quoted from Mustafā `Abd al-Razzāq: Tamhīd(un) Li-Tārīkh al-Falsafah al-Islāmiyyah.

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