What is Narrated from Sayyid Abd al-Azim al-Hasani Regarding Monotheism
By Ayatullah Jafar Subhani
‘Abdullah bin Musa al-Ruyani narrates from Sayyid ‘Abd al-’Azim from Ibrahim bin Abi Mahmud who said: ‘I asked al-Ridha’ (‘a), “What is your opinion about the tradition which people narrate that:
Åä Çááå íäÒá Åáì ÇáÓãÇÁ ÇáÏäíÇ
‘Allah descends to the lower heaven?”
“May Allah curse those who displace statements from their correct positions. By Allah! The Prophet (s) never said that. Rather what he said was:
Åä Çááå ÚÒ æÌá íäÒá ãáßÇ Åáì ÇáÓãÇÁ ÇáÏäíÇ áíáÉ ÇáÌãÚÉ ÝíäÇÏí åá ãä ÓÇÆá ÝÃÚØíå ¿
‘Allah, Glorified and Exalted, sends an angel to the lower heaven on Thursday night who calls out, “is there anyone who seeks so that I may grant him?” In this manner, the Imam corrected and explained this prophetic tradition.
And it is narrated through the same chain that Imam al-Ridha’ (‘a) said regarding the (Qur ‘anic) verse:
æÌæå íæãÆÐ äÇÖÑÉ ¡ Çáì ÑÈåÇ äÇÙÑÉ
On that day (i.e. the Day of Judgement) faces will be radiant, looking towards their Lord. 
The Imam said: (It means)
ãÔÑÞÉ ¡ ãäÊÙÑÉ ËæÇÈ ÑÈåÇ ÚÒ æ Ìá
“Faces (on that day) will be radiant, expectantly looking forward to the rewards of the Lord Mighty and Glorified.”
What is Narrated from him Regarding The Justice Of God
‘Ali bin al-Husayn al-Baghdadi narrates from Ahmad bin Abi ‘Abdillah al-Barqi from ‘Abd al-Azim al-Hasani from ‘Ali bin Muhammad al-Naqi (‘a) from his father Muhammad bin ‘Ali al-Hadi (‘a), from his father ‘Ali bin Musa al-Ridha’ (‘a), who said: ‘One day as Abu Hanifa (d 150 AH/767 AD) was leaving from a meeting with Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) (d 148 AH/765 AD), he met Musa bin Ja’far (‘a) and asked him: “O young man, who is responsible for evil acts?”
He (Musa) replied: “There are only three possibilities regarding this issue.
Either the evil acts ensue from Allah and not from the human being, in which case it would not behove the Munificent (i.e. Allah) to punish His servant for what he was not responsible.
Or that both God and the human being are equally responsible for the evil acts, however then it would not behove a stronger partner to punish the weaker partner.
The third possibility would be that the evil acts ensue solely from the human being and he alone is responsible for it, in which case if Allah was to punish him then that would be due to the human being’s fault and if Allah were to forgive him then that would be due to His (Allah’s) magnanimity and generosity.”
‘Abdullah bin Musa narrates from ‘Abd al-Azim al-Hasani, from Ibrahim bin Abi Mahmud who said that Imam al-Ridha’ (‘a) said: ‘Eight things never occur save by means of the destiny and decree of Allah. They are: sleep and wakefulness, strength and weakness, health and sickness, life and death. May Allah confirm us with steadfastness and place us among the friends of Muhammad and his progeny, and may the blessings of Allah be upon our Master and His (i.e. Allah’s) Prophet, Muhammad and his progeny all together.’
What is Narrated from him Regarding The Great Sins
Sayyid ‘Abd al-Azim al-Hasani narrates from the ninth Imam Abu Ja’far (‘a), who narrates from his father al-Ridha’ (‘a) that he said: ‘I heard my father Musa bin Ja’far (‘a) say that: ‘Amr bin ‘Ubayd al-Basri visited Abu ‘Abdillah al-Sadiq (‘a). After he had greeted him, he sat down and recited the following verse of the Qur’an “And those who shun the great sins and indecencies…” He then remained silent. So Abu ‘Abdillah al-Sadiq (‘a) said ‘Why did you become quiet?’ He replied ‘I would like to know the great sins from the Book of God, the Exalted’. Al-Sadiq (‘a) replied ‘yes indeed’.
The Imam began to speak: ‘the greatest sin is to associate something with Allah. Allah, Glorified and Exalted says “Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him…” And He also says “Surely whoever associates (others) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden to him the garden, and his abode is the fire; and there shall be no helpers for the unjust.”
After that is the sin of hopelessness and despair from the mercy of Allah, for Allah says, “Surely none despairs of Allah’s mercy except the unbelieving people.”
Next in evil consequence is the sin of feeling secure from the punishment and stratagem of Allah, for Allah says “But none feels secure from Allah’s plan except the people who shall perish”.
Thereafter is the sin of being ungrateful and disobedient to the parents. This is because Allah has described the one who is disobedient to his parents as insolent, oppressive and wretched. Allah reports the following words of Jesus in the Qur’an: “And He has made me dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me insolent, unblessed.”
Then comes the sin of murdering a believer, which Allah has prohibited, except that it be in the cause of justice, for Allah says “And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell; he shall abide in it for eternity…”
Thereafter is the sin of slandering chaste, believing women for Allah, Glorified and Exalted says: ‘Those who slander honourable but unwary believing women are rejected by God, in this life and in the next.’
Then is the sin of usurping the property of orphans, for Allah the Glorified says: ‘Those who consume the property of orphans unjustly are actually swallowing fire into their own bellies: they will burn in the blazing fire.’
Deserting the battlefield is also a great sin, for Allah, the Glorified, says: ‘Believers, when you meet the disbelievers in battle, never turn your backs on them: if anyone does so on such a day – unless manoeuvring to fight or to join a fighting group – he incurs the wrath of God and Hell will be his home, a wretched destination.’
Then is the sin of consuming interest. This is because Allah, the Most High says: ‘But those who take usury will rise up on the Day of Judgment like someone tormented by Satan’s touch.’ And Allah says: ‘You who believe, beware of God: give up any outstanding dues from usury, if you are true believers. If you do not, then be warned of war from God and His Messenger.’
Then comes the sin of indulging in magic as Allah, the Mighty the Majestic says: ‘They (the disbelievers) taught people witchcraft ... they learned what harmed them, not what benefited them, knowing full well that whoever gained this knowledge would lose any share in the hereafter.’
Thereafter there is the sin of committing adultery, for Allah, the Mighty the Majestic says: ‘... nor commit adultery, for whoever does this will face the penalties; their torment will be doubled on the Day of Judgment and they will remain in torment, disgraced, except those who repent, believe, and do good deeds ...’
Perjury or swearing falsely is also a great sin, for Allah, the Mighty the Majestic says: ‘But those who sell out God’s covenant and their own oaths for a small price will have no share in the life to come.’
Next is the sin of fraud and untrustworthiness. Allah, the Most High says: ‘Anyone who fraudulently takes something will carry it with him on the day of Judgment.’
Then is the sin of prohibiting the payment of the obligatory zakat. Allah, the Mighty the Majestic says: ‘On the day when it (their wealth) is heated up in hell’s fire and used to brand their foreheads, sides and backs, they will be told, “this is what you hoarded up for yourselves! Now feel the pain of what you hoarded!”
Thereafter is the crime of false testimony and withholding evidence. This is because Allah, the Mighty the Majestic, says: ‘Do not conceal evidence: anyone who does so has a sinful heart, and God is fully aware of everything you do.’
Then is the sin of drinking intoxicants, because Allah, the Mighty the Majestic has equated it to the worshipping of idols.
Abandoning the ritual prayers purposely or anything that has been made obligatory by Allah is also a great sin, for the Prophet of God (saw) said: ‘Whoever purposely abandons the ritual prayer has been released from the protection and security of Allah, the Mighty, the Majestic and that of the Messenger of Allah (saw)’.
Violating promises and cutting off ties of kinship are also great sins, for Allah the Mighty the Majestic says: ‘But there will be rejection for those who break their confirmed agreements made in God’s name, who break apart what God has commanded to be joined ...theirs is the dreadful home.’
(Here it seems the meeting came to an end for it is reported that): The Imam (Musa bin Ja’far) said: ‘Amr bin ‘Ubayd left whilst he was shrieking and crying and saying “Indeed anyone who says anything on the basis of his conjecture is destroyed as also one who contends with you (all) in (divine) favours and knowledge”.